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研究生:秦晴
研究生(外文):Ching Chin
論文名稱:以柔方能克剛? 幽默反駁對化解負面競選廣告效果之探討
論文名稱(外文):A soft answer turned away wrath: effects of humorous rebuttal to negative political advertising
指導教授:周軒逸周軒逸引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsuan-Yi Chou
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:行銷傳播管理研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:行銷與流通學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:250
中文關鍵詞:候選人性別負面形象攻擊反駁式競選廣告性別刻板印象政治幽默
外文關鍵詞:negative image advertisingrebuttal advertisingcandidate genderpolitical humorgender stereotype
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以打擊對手為主的負面競選廣告在台灣選舉裡發生頻仍,幾乎成為根深蒂固的競選陋習之一。儘管遭到抹黑的候選人多半以嚴詞否認或是極力澄清的方式加以反駁,但最終仍可能不敵流言蜚語,或是淪為「狗咬狗」、互揭瘡疤的難看局面;這不僅令惡質選舉的情形更雪上加霜,也使民主投票的精神和價值蒙塵。對此,本研究針對以形象抹黑為主的負面競選廣告提出反制的幽默策略,並將其應用至競選廣告,期盼能在藉由溫和的語言力量保護候選人形象之餘,也能達到化干戈為玉帛的效果。具體而言,本研究旨在比較不同類型反駁廣告的效果,並考量回應方候選人性別和所遭受負面攻擊類型之干擾效果。

本研究採2(負面攻擊類型:愚弄法vs. 連結法)x4(反駁式廣告類型:傳統反駁─正面回應vs. 傳統反駁─負面回應vs. 幽默反駁─自嘲式vs. 幽默反駁─嘲他式)x2(回應方候選人性別:男vs.女)的實驗設計檢驗研究主張。研究發現:(一)候選人採用幽默反駁能產生較佳的廣告態度和回應者反應,但使用傳統反駁較能降低攻擊者的形象和態度、(二)男性(vs.女性)候選人會強化幽默反駁(vs.傳統反駁)對廣告態度和回應者反應的正向影響,但唯有女性候選人採用傳統反駁才能有效降低攻擊者反應、(三)在傳統反駁子策略上,女性(vs.男性)候選人會強化正面回應(vs.負面回應)對廣告態度和回應者反應的正向影響、(四)在幽默反駁子策略,則男性候選人使用自我解嘲或幽默諷刺的效果相當,女性候選人則較適合使用自我解嘲、(五)被以愚弄法(vs.連結法)攻擊時,會強化回應者使用幽默反駁(vs.傳統反駁)、弱化使用正面回應(vs.負面回應)對於廣告態度和回應者反應的正向影響,但被連結法攻擊時,使用傳統反駁才能傷害攻擊者。

本研究對於反駁式競選廣告、政治幽默和性別刻板印象等相關研究除具有理論貢獻外,亦可提供競選團隊運用反制負面形象廣告的實務建議。
In recent years, negative campaigning has been found in most Taiwan’s elections, which almost became one of the corrupt customs that are deeply ingrained in electoral culture. Although candidates who are defamed usually sternly deny that or strongly rebut to rumors by clarifying the facts, they still may be overwhelmed by the malicious attacks, even eventually went into mudsling. It doesn’t only encourage low quality elections, but also bring dishonor to the spirit and value of democracy. This study proposes strategies of humorous rebuttal and applies it to advertising as a countermeasure to negative image advertising with an aim to protect the images of candidates and bury the hatchet by the power of witty utterance. Specifically, the purpose of this study is to compare the advertising effects among different types of rebuttal advertising and examine the moderation of the gender of responding candidate and different types of negative advertising.

A 2 (types of negative advertising: mocking attack vs. linking attack)x 4 (types of rebuttal advertising: traditional rebuttal-positive response vs. traditional rebuttal -negative response vs. humorous rebuttal- self-deprecation vs. humorous rebuttal- other-deprecation) x 2 (responding candidate gender: male vs. female) between-subjects design experiment was conducted to test seven hypotheses and one research question. The results indicate that (1) using humorous rebuttal leads to better advertising attitudes and better voters’ responses toward the responding candidates, while using traditional rebuttal can undermine opponents’ images and voters’ attitudes toward the opponents more effectively; (2) male (vs. female) candidates can strengthen the positive effectiveness of humorous rebuttal (vs. traditional rebuttal) on advertising attitudes and responses toward the responding candidates, while by using traditional rebuttal, only female candidates can effectively injury opponents’ images and make voters have poor responses to them; (3) in terms of sub-strategies of traditional rebuttal, female (vs. male) candidates can strengthen the positive effectiveness of positive (vs. negative) response on advertising attitudes and voters’ responses toward the responding candidates; (4) in terms of sub-strategies of humor rebuttal, the effectiveness of humorous self-deprecation and other-deprecation advertising used by male candidates are near the same, but it is more proper for female candidates to use self-deprecation other than other-deprecation advertisements; and (5) mocking attack (vs. linking attack) will strengthen the positive effectiveness of humorous rebuttal (vs. traditional rebuttal) used by candidates and weaken the positive effectiveness of positive (vs. negative ) response on advertising attitudes and voters’ responses toward the responding candidates, while in the case of linking attack, opponents’ image and voters’ attitudes toward them can only be injured by using traditional rebuttal.

This research can not only make theoretical contribution to the rebuttal advertising, political humors and gender stereotypes, but also offer practical suggestions for campaign teams about how to rebut negative political advertising.
論文審定書 i
摘要 ii
Abstract iii
圖次 vii
表次 viii
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究問題與目的 7
第三節 研究流程 8
第二章 文獻探討 9
第一節 選舉與幽默反駁 9
第二節 負面競選廣告 18
第三節 反駁式競選廣告 27
第四節 政治與性別刻板印象 34
第三章 研究架構與假說推論 45
第一節 研究架構 45
第二節 假說推論 45
第四章 研究方法 55
第一節 樣本與實驗設計 55
第二節 實驗情境、刺激和前測 56
第三節 實驗程序 68
第四節 變數衡量 69
第五章 研究分析結果 73
第一節 研究樣本基本敘述統計分析 73
第二節 變數的平均值、標準差及量表信度分析 75
第三節 操弄性檢驗與控制變數之檢定 76
第四節 假說驗證 85
第五節 討論 148
第六章 結論與建議 162
第一節 主要研究發現 162
第二節 理論意涵 167
第三節 實務建議 171
第四節 研究限制和未來的研究方向 175
參考文獻 180
附錄一 前測一、二、三問卷 196
附錄二 實驗問卷 221
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