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研究生:吳昆叡
研究生(外文):Wu, Kun Rui
論文名稱:陽極氧化鋁用於背表面鈍化之太陽能電池研究
論文名稱(外文):Study of Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells with Anodic Aluminum Oxide for Rear Surface Passivation
指導教授:王立康
指導教授(外文):Wang,Li Karn
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:光電工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:95
中文關鍵詞:氧化鋁陽極氧化法
外文關鍵詞:aluminum oxideanodization
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表面鈍化用於增強太陽能電池的性能是必要的過程,在所有的鈍化材料中,氧化鋁(Al2O3)已證實為優質的鈍化層,基於其高密度的固定負電荷。本研究使用陽極氧化法所形成的氧化鋁,製備出局部背面接觸(PERC)的矽晶太陽能電池,並以鋁漿直接燒穿方式取代傳統的雷射開孔。
首先,藉由尋找最佳化的陽極氧化時間、熱退火溫度、熱退火時段等參數,使氧化鋁層在矽表面上表現完美的場效鈍化能力,為了探討氧化鋁退火前與退火後的材料特性,由C-V測量來分析其負電荷密度,利用XPS與TEM來量測其元素的組成與薄膜的型態。
最後,歸因於Al2O3鈍化太陽能電池背面的良好特性,與圖案的鋁漿背接觸做整合,此局部背面接觸的太陽能電池,其最佳的填充因子F.F.為73.1%、轉換效率為16.13%,與參考片電池相比其效率提升0.21%。
Surface passivation is the essential process for enhancing the performance of silicon solar cells. Among all the passivation materials, aluminum oxide (Al2O3) has proved to be a high quality passivationmaterial due to its high density of negative fixed charges. In this study, we form the Al2O3 film by anodization and apply this passivation layer onto the rear side of PERC solar cell. Moreover, the aluminum back contact are formed by making aluminum electrode penetrate the Al2O3 layer at high temperature instead of the conventional laser ablation process.
By finding the optimum anodization time period, thermal annealing temperature and annealing time, Al2O3 layer shows a perfect field-effect passivation on the silicon surface. In order to investigate the material characteristics of Al2O3 before and after annealing, the negative charge density is analyzed by C-V measurement. Then, the elemental composition and the film thickness are measured by XPS and TEM, respectively.
Finally, we integrate the Al2O3 rear passivation effect with a patterned aluminum paste back contact in fabricating a PERC multi-crystalline silicon solar cell. The PERC solar cell shows a fill facor of 73.1% and a conversion efficiency of 16.13%, which gives an efficiency improvement of 0.21% absolute in comparison with the reference cell.
致謝………………………………………………………………….……Ⅰ
摘要……………………………………………………………….……...Ⅱ
Abstract…………………………………………………………....……Ⅲ
目錄……………………………………………………………..………Ⅳ
圖目錄………………………………………………………….………Ⅷ
表目錄………………………………………………………….…...……V
第一章 序論……………………………………………………….…….1
1-1 研究背景…………………………………………………….……1
1-2 太陽能電池的發展……………………………………….………2
1-3 太陽能電池的效率損失來源…………………………….………3
1-4 太陽能電池的效率改善………………………………….………6
1-5 研究動機…………………………………………………….……6
1-6 研究目的………………………………………………….………7
1-7 論文架構………………………………………………….………8
第二章 基本原理……………………………………………….……….9
2-1 陽極氧化鋁原理………………………………………….………9
2-1-1 陽極氧化鋁的簡介………………………………………….9
2-1-2 陽極氧化鋁的形成原理[23,24]……………………………11
VI
2-1-3 陽極氧化鋁的化學方程式………………………………...13
2-1-4 陽極氧化鋁的孔洞形成成因……………………………...14
2-1-5 陽極氧化鋁的場效鈍化原理……………………………...15
2-2 基礎半導體物理………………………………………………..17
2-2-1 半導體的材料簡介[32]……………………………………17
2-2-2 半導體的晶體結構….……………………………………..18
2-2-3 半導體的能帶結構………………………………………...19
2-2-4 本質半導體與外質半導體………………………………...21
2-2-5 半導體的p-n接面………………………………………....25
2-2-6 少數載子的複合…………………………………………...27
2-2-7 背表面場(Back Surface Field,BSF)……………………….30
2-3 太陽能電池的基本原理………………………………………..31
2-3-1 太陽光譜的基本特性……………………………………...31
2-3-2 太陽能電池的工作原理…………………………………...32
2-3-3 太陽能電池的等效電路…………………………………...33
2-3-4 太陽能電池的電性參數…………………………………...36
2-3-5 電壓-電容(CV)分析氧化層固定電荷原理……………….40
第三章 實驗方法與規劃……………………………………………...45
3-1 實驗架構………………………………………………………..45
VII
3-2 太陽能電池的製程步驟………………………………………..45
3-3 實驗基本流程介紹……………………………………………..46
3-3-1 RCA Clean……………………………………………….….46
3-3-2 表面粗糙化(Surface Texturization)………………………..47
3-3-3 磷擴散(Phosphorous Diffusion)…………………………...48
3-3-4 背面蒸鍍鋁(E-gun Al)……………………………………..49
3-3-5 陽極氧化鋁處理(Anodic Aluminium Oxide)……………...50
3-3-6 熱退火(Anneal)…………………………………………….51
3-3-7 抗反射層(Anti-Reflection Coating)………………………..51
3-3-8 網印電極(Screen printing)………………………………....53
3-3-9 電極共燒結(Co-firing)………………………………….….55
3-3-10 二次背面蒸鍍鋁(E-gun Al)………………………….…...55
3-4 太陽能電池的結構圖……………………………………..…….56
3-5 電壓-電容量測(C-V Measure)……………………………….....57
3-6 少數載子的生命週期量測…………………………….………..58
第四章 實驗量測與討論……………………………………………....59
4-1 少數載子生命週期之量測………………………………….…..59
4-2 氧化層之固定電荷量測…………………………………….…..65
4-3 X光光子能譜儀(X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy)量測….....69
VIII
4-4 穿透式電子顯微鏡下觀測………………………………….….73
4-5 反射率(Reflection)量測………………………………………...78
4-6 元件轉換效率量測……………………………………………81
4-7 掃描式電子顯微鏡下觀測……………………………………..83
第五章 結論……………………………………………………………87
第六章 參考文獻………………………………………………………90
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