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研究生:李信成
研究生(外文):Lee, Hsin-Cheng
論文名稱:透過超材料實現相位偵測法下的超⾼靈敏度折射係數感測器及直接檢測細胞內影像
論文名稱(外文):Realizing ultra-sensitive refractive index sensor under phase interrogation and label-free, coupler-free and intracellular bio-image by plasmonic metamaterials
指導教授:嚴⼤任
指導教授(外文):Yen, Ta-Jen
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:材料科學工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:材料工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:104
語文別:英文
論文頁數:73
中文關鍵詞:電漿超材料生物感測器生物影像
外文關鍵詞:PlasmonicsMetamaterialsBio-sensorsBio-image
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超材料是⼀種具有特殊且不易在⾃然界得到的性質的次波⾧結構。由於光學超材料在
在⽣物感測、⽣物影像具有可能性的應⽤,研究學者投⼊⼤量的⼯作在此。在光學區
域,以⾦屬構成的超材料中,電漿⼦效應扮演⼀個重要的⾓⾊。⽽此論⽂的主題是在
利⽤超材料及電漿⼦的特性,來實現超⾼靈敏度的⽣物感測器及細胞內影像。
⾸先,我們設計⼀個以X 形結構為主的感測器,其在近紅外頻段具有四極電漿⼦共振;
並結合了我們設計的共光路相位計算⽅式,⽽達到⾼折射係數解析的結果。相較於波
⾧偵測法,透過相位偵測法的量測⽅式,我們感測器的解析度可以達到接近兩個數量
級的進步。事實上有兩個⽅式可以優化以相位偵測法為量測⽅式的感測器:⼀個是打
破電漿⼦結構的對稱性,讓s 波及p 波之間的相位對⽐達到最⼤;另⼀個是利⽤具有
較⾼共振模態的電漿⼦結構,因為其可以提供較好的品質因⼦的共振模式。但是因為
越⾼的模態,其光學截⾯越⼩,會影響到激發效率,所以我們的折衷辦法是取四極共
振作為我們的設計條件。⽤相位偵測法的量測結果,可以得到1.15×10-6 RIU 的解析度,
相較於控制組的量測結果(9.90×10-5 RIU)好,也⽐⽬前此研究領域的電漿⼦感測器
的結果要好。
其次,我們以隙環共振結構達成了以電漿⼦所建⽴的細胞影像。相較於表⾯電漿⼦顯
微鏡,隙環共振結構顯微鏡因為其有免標記、免耦合器、可調頻以及較深的感測距離
的特性,後著有較⾼的競爭⼒。我們的實驗結果顯⽰可以利⽤⼈類間葉幹細胞內部的
折射率分布圖,且同時可以得到待測細胞官能基的資訊。因此,我們預期此隙環共振
器顯微影像可以實現更簡單的光學組態與更佳的偵測深度來作全細胞影像的應⽤。
Metamaterials, artificially structured composite materials with subwavelength unit cells, exhibit exotic properties not easily obtainable or unavailable in nature. Motivated by the promising applications of metamaterials at optical wavelengths in areas such as sensing and bio-image, researchers have devoted considerable efforts to advancing the science and engineering of optical metamaterials. In the optical regime, plasmonic effects can play an important role when metals serve as one of the components in a metamaterial assembly. The objective of this dissertation is to demonstrate the ultra-sensitive refractive index sensor and enhanced intracellular bio-image from the interplay between metamaterials and plasmonics.
In the dissertation, we design an X-shaped plasmonic sensor (XPS) that supports plasmonic resonances of quadrupole modes at near-infrared region, combining with our common-path optical system and phase-contrast algorithm to boost the sensing resolution of refractive-index plasmonic sensors. The measured sensing resolution shows two orders greater than that of the conventional plasmonic refractive-index sensors. In fact, there exist two critical demands to optimize the sensitivity of a plasmonic sensor in phase-interrogation measurements. One is to break the symmetry of the plasmonic structure, such that the corresponding resonant wavelengths for s-polarized and p-polarized modes become different, elevating the phase contrast between the s-polarized and p-polarized modes. The other is to employ high-order resonance modes that allow better sensing capability due to their greater quality factors. The phase change of a resonance mode with a high quality factor is sharper than a resonance mode with a low quality factor, which helps to increase the sensitivities for phase interrogation. Therefore, high-order modes are certainly more sensitive, but their scattering cross section is typically too weak to provide a detectable signal level or a stable signal-to-noise ratio. We meet these two criteria to show an ultra-sensitive refractive index sensor benefitted by the designed X-shaped plasmonic metamaterial and custom-built phase-interrogation system. The experimental measurement shows that the sensing resolution of the XPS reaches 1.15×10-6 RIU, not only two orders of magnitude greater than the result of the controlled extinction measurement (i.e., 9.90×10-5 RIU), but also superior than current reported plasmonic sensors.
In addition, we also develop a compact plasmonic bio-images based on split-ring resonators (SRRs). Owning advantages such as label-free, coupler-free, tunable spectrum range (from MIR to VIS) and longer detection length, the SRR microscopy (SRRM) is a strong competitor compared to the surface plasmon resonance microscopy (SPRM) for observing bio-target. Our experimental results have successfully demonstrated its capability of constructing the refractive index distribution images of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and meanwhile, obtaining the information of functional groups from the target cells. Therefore, we expect that the SRR microscopy (SRRM) delivers much simple optical configuration and better penetration depth for truly whole-cell imaging applications.
Chapter 1 Introduction & Literature Review 1
1.1 Summary 1
1.2 Introduction to Metamaterials 2
1.3 Surface plasmons and Plamonics 8
1.3.1 Surface plasmons at semi-infinite metal surface 8
1.3.2 Surface plasmons at metal thin film surface 12
1.4 Surface plasmon resonance sensor 16
1.4.1 Excitation of surface plasmons 16
1.4.2 Total internal reflection configuration 16
1.4.3 Grating configuration 18
1.5 Interrogations of Kretschmann-Raether SPR system 20
1.5.1 Angle interrogation 20
1.5.2 Wavelength interrogation 23
1.5.3 Phase interrogation 26
1.5.4 Considerations on sensing resolution 28
Chapter 2 Experimental Methods 30
2.1 Simulation 30
2.2 Fabrication of plasmonic metamaterials 31
2.3 Phase interrogation measurement 32
2.3.1 Algorithm of phase interrogation method 32
2.3.2 Optical setup of phase interrogation method 33
Chapter 3 Demonstration of an ultra-sensitive refractive index sensor under phase interrogation by plasmonic metamaterials 39
3.1 Research motivation 39
3.2 Design of plasmonic metamaterials 40
3.3 Fabrication of X-shaped plasmonic metamaterials 41
3.4 Results and discussion 42
3.5 Conclusions 44
Chapter 4 Label-free, coupler-free, scalable and intracellular bio-image by plasmonic metamaterials 49
4.1 Research motivation 49
4.2 Experimental details 51
4.3 Results and discussion 53
4.4 Conclusions 57
Chapter 5 Conclusions 61
Chapter 6 Future Work 63
References 64
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