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研究生:劉俊葳
研究生(外文):Liu, Chun Wei
論文名稱:次微米光柵之設計、製造與應用
論文名稱(外文):The design, manufacture and application of sub-micron grating
指導教授:林士傑林士傑引用關係
指導教授(外文):Lin, Shin-Chieh
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:動力機械工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:英文
論文頁數:138
中文關鍵詞:鑽石車削滾壓製程次微米光柵液晶顯示器背光模組導光棒折射率
外文關鍵詞:Diamond turningRoll-to-roll embossing processSub-micron gratingLCDsBacklight unitLight barRefractive index
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本研究探討次微米光柵之設計、製造與應用。在光柵設計中,基於嚴格耦合波理論,我們探討光由從光密介質經次波長光柵到光疏介質的一級穿透與反射效率及光柵週期和結構幾何形狀之間的關係,由模擬可知次微米光柵之繞射效率取決於光柵幾何形狀而繞射角度在於光柵週期之精確性。 此外,為了提高次微米光柵光學膜片的生產速度、大面積化與量產性,本研究採用超精密加工刻劃製作模仁並利用滾壓技術成形光柵。 在超精密加工中,我們將光柵之形貌設計、光柵週期和切削速度等參數來觀測其加工結果,並以光學檢測方式探討光柵繞射效率與繞射角度之關係影響。
在光柵應用中,液晶顯示器背光模組和折射率量測將應用於次微米光柵膜片上。 液晶顯示器背光模組所面臨到的問題是需要改善光使用率、光輝度值和整體均勻性,藉由導光棒上之優化結構可控制出光角度、消除暗帶和熱點現象。 目的為使入射紅、綠、藍三原色光源經次微米光柵後可在出光面產生均勻且垂直出射的高輝度的白光。 另一應用為設計一組分色背光模組以取代彩色濾光片,模組包含導光棒、次微米光柵、V形槽導光板與柱狀透鏡。 當準直LED入射光源耦合至導光棒後,經過特定入射角度將次微米光柵分光後,其繞射光線以適當的角度導入柱狀透鏡,以便將色彩對映到適切的像素並在顯示器液晶層中。 最後之應用為設計出一成本低廉、精度高,折射率值量測範圍廣,又可快速量測的折射率量測儀器,以符合市場需求。 此系統利用次微米光柵的繞射現象,並結合司乃耳定律來進行量測。 研究內容包含光學系統的模擬與設計和光學量測驗證,並探討折射率量測精度、誤差分析、可量測折射率範圍。

The sub-micron gratings have been designed, fabricated, and tested. In the grating design, based on the rigorous coupling wave analysis (RCWA), we analyze the relationship between the first order transmission/reflection efficiency and the period of the grating for various shapes as rays pass through the sub-micron gratings. The results show that the diffraction efficiency and diffraction angle strongly depends on the value of the period and its profile. In the grating fabrication, the diamond turning of high-precision imprinting molds and roll-to-roll UV embossing process have the properties of continuous production, high productivity, less manufacturing time, versatility of substrates, and higher imprinting speeds. The diamond turning experiments are conducted to examine the effects of shape design, grating period and cutting speed on machinability of the mold, and the gratings patterned on the light bar are then discussed about the diffraction efficiency and diffraction angle by the optical measurement.
In the grating application, the sub-micron gratings are applied for the Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) backlight and the refractive index measuring approach. One problem facing current LCD backlight unit is needed to improve the low efficiency, light illuminance and uniformity by optimizing the structures on the light bar to control the diffraction directions and eliminate the dark region or hot spots in this viewing direction. The first stage is to turn the Red/Green/Blue incident rays into uniformly and normally output white light with high illuminance from the surface of a light guide. The next stage is designed to replace conventional dye color filters for color LCDs. The light bar generates color rays by transmitting them from side-lit color light-emitting diodes (LEDs) through the sub-micron grating. These angular color rays are then redirected using a V-grooved light guide, and converged using a lens array to map to corresponding sub-pixel positions to efficiently display color images. The final application presents the design and simulation results of a high-precision low-cost refractometer that demonstrates the main advantage of a wide measurement range. The proposed design is based on the diffractive properties of sub-micron gratings and Snell’s Law. The precision and uncertainty factors of the proposed system were tested and analyzed, revealing that the proposed refractometer demonstrates a wide measurement range with high measurement accuracy.

CHAPTER ONE 1
INTRODUCTION 1
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 11
2.1 MOLD FABRICATION FOR MICRON STRUCTURES 11
2.2 VARIOUS APPROACHES TO PRODUCE MICRO STRUCTURES 19
2.3 THE USE OF THE SUB-MICRON GRATING FOR BACKLIGHT ILLUMINANCE AND UNIFORMITY 25
2.4 THE USE OF THE SUB-MICRON GRATING FOR THE COLOR-SEPARATION 29
2.5 THE APPLICATIONS OF MEASUREMENT OF REFRACTIVE INDEX 36
CHAPTER THREE OBJECTIVES AND PROPOSED PROCESS 42
3.1 DESIGN PROCESS METHOD FOR PROPOSED MODULE 43
3.2 PROPOSED MANUFACTURING PROCESS FOR DESIGNED MODULE 46
CHAPTER FOUR FABIRCATION OF SUB-MICRON GRATING 53
4.1. OPTICAL PERFORMANCE OF SUB-MICRON GRATING 54
4.2. EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP, DESIGN, RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 57
CHAPTER FIVE BACKLIGHT MODULE 68
5-1 DESIGN OF MODULE TO REDUCE COUPLING LENGTH 68
5-2 DESIGN OF MODULE FOR COLOR-SEPARATION 90
CHAPTER SIX REFRACTIVE INDEX MEASURING DEVICE 112
6-1 DESIGN AND SIMULATIONS 112
6-2 THE GRATING DESIGN 119
6-3 TEST RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 121
CHAPTER SEVEN CONCLUSIONS 124
. 132
REFERENCES 133


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