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研究生:梁書云
研究生(外文):Liang, Shu Yun
論文名稱:論漢語複雜句之核可
論文名稱(外文):Licensing Mandarin Complex Sentences
指導教授:林宗宏林宗宏引用關係
指導教授(外文):Lin, T.-H. Jonah
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:語言學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:語言學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:英文
論文頁數:113
中文關鍵詞:讓步條件句讓步句因果句核可成分還是仍然關係性選擇
外文關鍵詞:concessive-conditional clauseconcessive clausereason clauselicensing elementjiucaiyehaishi/rengranrelationalityalternatives
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本篇論文探討三種主要的漢語複雜句結構,包含讓步條件句,讓步句,以及因果句。首先,本文主張漢語複雜句的核可成分(licensing element)在後,也就是居後子句中的成分,決定其句型意涵。我們並以此與英語相對應句型做簡單的比較。我們歸納出主要的核可成分及其與句型間的語意互動方式;Lin (2012)認為「就」及「才」在語意上的關係性(relationality)為核可漢語條件句之成分;此研究中,我們進一步主張「就」及「才」同樣能核可因果句。由「即使/雖然」引介的讓步及讓步條件句,則以「也」、「還是」、以及「仍然」為核可成分;此組核可成分的出現,表示其居前子句含有選擇集合(a set of alternatives),並從集合中選擇最極端的選項,表達出讓步語意。另外,本文依循Lin (2012)對條件句做的分類,發現讓步條件句也可分為兩類:事件性讓步條件句(concessive event-conditionals)以及前提性讓步條件句(concessive premise-conditionals),而後者更能以非直陳 (non-indicative)的語態,核可其句型語意。另外,我們也討論了漢語的連接性讓步條件句(conjunctive concessive-conditionals),此句型同樣需要「也」、「還是」、以及「仍然」之核可。
在句法結構的部分,本文採取Comrie (2008)的測試,驗證居前子句實為一附加句(adjunct),而居後子句則為主要句。針對讓步條件句的分類,我們採用Lin (2012)對條件句做的測試,驗證居前子句分別嫁接在不同的位置。

關鍵詞:讓步條件句、讓步句、因果句、核可成分、就、才、也、還是、仍然、關係性、選擇

This thesis investigates certain types of complex sentences in Mandarin Chinese. They are jishi/jiusuan concessive conditionals, suiran/jinguan concessives, and yinwei reason constructions. They correspond to sentences introduced by even if, although, and because in English respectively.
First, we propose that Mandarin complex sentence constructions are actually licensed by elements in the consequence clauses, which is different from the phenomenon in English. Each licensing element, depending on its property, restricts the type of its antecedent clause. Jiu ‘then ’and cai ‘only if’, due to their relationality, suffice to form ruguo conditionals and yinwei constructions. Ye ‘also’ and haishi/rengran ‘still’ license concessives introduced by elements like jishi/jiusuan ‘even if’ or suiran/jinguan ‘even though/although’. These licensing elements in the second clause assert an extreme case from a set of alternatives. We also find jishi/jiusuan concessive conditionals can be divided into concessive event-conditionals and concessive premise-conditionals. Our analysis shows that apart from ye/haishi/rengran, non-indicative mood in a consequent clause license concessive premise-conditionals. Moreover, ye/haishi/rengran are also the crucial elements in conjunctive concessive-conditionals.
For each construction, we adopt the tests from Comrie (2008) to investigate the syntactic properties of the antecedent clauses and consequent clauses. The tests in Lin (2012) are also adopted to show different adjuction positions of concessive event-conditionals and concessive premise-conditionals.

Keywords: concessive-conditional clause, concessive clause, reason clause, licensing element, jiu, cai, ye, haishi/rengran, relationality, alternatives

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCITON 1

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 7
1.The conditional construction 8
2.The reason construction 10
3. The concessives and the concessive-conditionals 14
4. Lin (2006,2012): Mandarin conditionals 20
5. Proposal 33

CHAPTER 3 MANDARIN CONCESSIVE CONDITIONALS 35
1.Introduction 35
2.Jishi and jiusuan concessive-conditionals 37
2.1 Structures 44
2.2 Ye ‘also’/haishi ‘still’/rengran ‘still’
concessive-conditionals 49
2.3 Concessive premise-conditionals 52
3. Conjunctive concessive-conditionals 61
4. Summary 67

CHAPTER 4 MANDARIN CONCESSIVE CONSTRUCTIONS 68
1. Introduction: Suiran/jinguan concessives 68
2. Structures 73
3. Haishi/rengran/ye concessives 77
4. Suiran/jinguan…danshi/raner concessives 84
5. Summary 90

CHAPTER 5 REASON CONSTRUCTIONS 92
1. Introduction 92
2. Jiu/cai reason constructions 94
3. Structure 102
4. Summary 107

CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION 108
REFERENCES 101






REFERNECES

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Lin, T.-H. Jonah. 2006. Syntactic structures of complex sentences in Mandarin Chinese. Nanzan Linguistics3: 63-97
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Yang, Ching-Yu. To appear. On the Syntax-Semantics Interface of Focus Particles: the Additive Particle 還hai ‘HAI’ in Mandarin Chinese



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