跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.210.151.5) 您好!臺灣時間:2024/07/13 10:06
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:黃郁婷
研究生(外文):Huang, Yu-Ting
論文名稱:臺灣面對運動禁藥管制國際建制之遵從策略與意涵
論文名稱(外文):Managing compliance with the anti-doping regime: Taiwan’s strategies and the implications behind
指導教授:湯添進湯添進引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tan, Tien-Chin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:運動休閒與餐旅管理研究所
學門:民生學門
學類:運動休閒及休閒管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:216
中文關鍵詞:遵從理論運動禁藥國際建制世界反運動禁藥機構
外文關鍵詞:Compliance TheoryDopingInternational RegimeWorld Anti-doping Agency
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:339
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:30
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
隨著世界反運動禁藥機構於1999年的誕生,運動禁藥管制國際建制 (以下簡稱藥管國際建制) 逐漸形成,且影響力持續擴張。臺灣面對此等國際現勢所抱持的態度,因而是本研究欲深入探究的問題。爰此,本研究目的係分析臺灣面對藥管國際建制所採取的遵從策略,以及策略背後的意涵。研究方法係以質性研究內容分析法為基礎,採遵從理論為分析架構,透過相關文件與文獻的爬梳,輔以對國家奧會、國家藥管組織、政府部門、國家運動協會及專家學者進行的半結構式訪談,蒐集資料並進一步分析。研究發現,臺灣面對藥管國際建制之策略與意涵:就「監控」、「對《世界反運動禁藥規範》的認證」、「水平關聯」與「嵌套」而言,係為有限能力、高度意願之「低代價遵從」。就「能力建構」、「國家關注」與「制度規格」而言,係為有能力且有意願之「低代價遵從」。至於「藥檢實驗室的WADA認證」,目前策略係有意願但缺乏能力的「策略性不遵從」。整體而言,臺灣配合國際作法,將資源集中於滿足藥管國際建制「硬性」規範的要求,以保障在國際運動領域之參與權;至於「軟性」規範,則在經費限制與現實條件允許之下,盡力配合國際要求,透過參與國際活動與國際接軌,藉以提升國家正向能見度,作為在國際舞臺上為國家正名之籌碼。綜上所述,本研究歸納臺灣對藥管國際建制的遵從策略與意涵,係為在有限能力之下,尋求最大發揮空間,進一步期望突破國際政治限制。
With the birth of the World Anti-doping Agency (WADA) in 1999, the international regime of anti-doping has been formed up, and is now expanding its power worldwide. Facing this trend, Taiwan’s attitude toward the growing anti-doping regime remains a topic worth investigating. This study aims at analysing the strategies of Taiwan’s managing compliance with the anti-doping regime, and further digs into the implications behind. Based on qualitative content analysis, and with the analytical framework formed up by the adoption of Compliance Theory (Haas & Bilder, 2003; Houlihan, 2008), this study reviews relevant literatures and documents, along with undergoing semi-structured interviews with officials from both government and Taiwan’s national anti-doping organization, representatives from targeted national sports associations, either leading sports or globally suspected ones, and scholars and professionals, and finally gathers the data collected to come to a conclusion. The strategies and implications of Taiwan’s managing compliance with the anti-doping regime are as follows: As for “monitoring”, “verification of compliance with the World Anti-doping Code”, “horizontal linkage” and “nesting”, Taiwan complies with the anti-doping regime by limited capacity but high level of willingness, which can be categorized as “compliance with low cost”; as for “capacity building”, “national concern” and “institutional profile”, Taiwan complies with the anti-doping regime by average capacity and willingness, which can also be categorized as “compliance with low cost”; but as for “verification of the operation of WADA accredited laboratory”, with average level of willingness but lack of capacity, Taiwan’s response so far is “non-compliance out of choice”. In conclusion, Taiwan follows the world trend, having every possible resource centralized on the “compulsory” regulations and rules of the anti-doping regime, so as to assure Taiwan’s right to take part in the international sports field. As for “voluntary” regulations, Taiwan tries its best to reach the additional responsibilities that the world anti-doping regime hopes its affiliates to take. Under limited and tough conditions, economically and politically, Taiwan makes its best to follow the international rules and take part in international activities, so as to interact with the world, as well as gaining exposure for Taiwan to win positive impressions at the global stage, with which Taiwan could possibly rectify its name as a country. Above all, the strategies and implications of Taiwan’s compliance with the world anti-doping regime, as a whole, is striving to reach the maximum possibilities under limited national capacity, in hope that Taiwan could further breakthrough the political challenges Taiwan has been going through at global stage.
第壹章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究目的 5
第三節 研究問題 5
第四節 研究範圍 5
第五節 研究限制 6
第六節 研究重要性 8
第七節 名詞釋義 8

第貳章 文獻回顧與理論探討 10
第一節 運動禁藥 (doping) 之探源 10
第二節 國際運動禁藥管制之發展脈絡 18
第三節 運動禁藥管制國際建制之概述 30
第四節 遵從理論與本研究分析框架 38
第五節 運動禁藥管制國際建制促進遵從的七種方式 57
第六節 臺灣運動禁藥管制之概況 71

第參章 研究方法 76
第一節 研究架構 76
第二節 研究流程 77
第三節 研究對象 78
第四節 研究工具 80
第五節 資料處理程序 87

第肆章 臺灣面對運動禁藥管制國際建制之遵從策略 89
第一節 面對「監控」之遵從策略 89
第二節 面對「認證」之遵從策略 96
第三節 面對「水平連結」之遵從策略 113
第四節 面對「嵌套」之遵從策略 119
第五節 面對「能力建構」之遵從策略 124
第六節 面對「國家關注」之遵從策略 140
第七節 面對「制度規格」之遵從策略 170

第伍章 臺灣面對運動禁藥管制國際建制之策略與意涵 171
第一節 面對「監控」之策略與意涵 171
第二節 面對「認證」之策略與意涵 173
第三節 面對「水平連結」之策略與意涵 175
第四節 面對「嵌套」之策略與意涵 177
第五節 面對「能力建構」之策略與意涵 178
第六節 面對「國家關注」之策略與意涵 181
第七節 面對「制度規格」之策略與意涵 184
第八節 本章總結 184

第陸章 結論與建議 201
第一節 結論 201
第二節 建議 203

第柒章 反思 206

參考文獻 209

中華奧林匹克委員會運動禁藥管制組 (2016)。我國辦理運動禁藥管制作業情形。取自中華奧林匹克委員會,運動禁藥管制組網址http://www.antidoping.org.tw/wwwantidoping/1/contents.asp?class_no1=1&file=D713071801581.htm&sid1=0
王元鴻 (2006,7月27日)。藥檢未過,2舉重國手除名。自由時報。http://sports.ltn.com.tw/news/paper/83732。
王順正 (1999,9月24日)。運動的處方。運動生理週訊,25。http://www.epsport.idv.tw/sportscience/scwangshow.asp?repno=25&page=1
李明錚 (2009)。上海合作組織之研究:國際建制理論視角下的新型區域安全制度 (碩士論文)。取自華藝線上圖書館網址http://www.airitilibrary.com/Publication/alDetailedMesh1?DocID=U0001-1708200914500200
袁易 (2004)。中國與導彈建制:國際規範之挑戰與遵循。問題與研究,43 (3),97-133。
張詠晴 (2016,3月8日)。震撼彈:莎拉波娃服禁藥,就因為沒看電郵。天下雜誌。http://www.cw.com.tw/article/article.action?id=5074971。
教育部體育署 (2013)。組織圖。取自教育部,體育署網址http://www.sa.gov.tw/wSite/ct?xItem=3118&ctNode=276&mp=11
陳志祥 (2007,3月12日)。杜哈亞運棒球的一段秘辛…郭泓志藥檢未過,金牌戰缺席。中國時報。http://www.chinatimes.com/newspapers/2601。
陳俊宏 (2011)。臺灣落實兩大人權公約的初步檢視:以「種子講師培訓計畫」為焦點。臺灣人權學刊,1 (1),31-67。
陳筱琳 (2012,10月23日)。阿姆斯壯 環法賽7冠遭撤銷。自由時報。http://sports.ltn.com.tw/news/paper/624708。
黃邱倫 (2015,11月22日)。被驗出運動禁藥,楊璟翊舉重世錦賽失格。中國時報。http://www.chinatimes.com/realtimenews/20151122002652-260403。
黃貞貞 (2016,3月9日)。莎拉波娃坦承用禁藥,英媒:不值同情。中央通訊社。http://www.cna.com.tw/news/firstnews/201603090015-1.aspx。
黃郁婷、湯添進 (2015)。世界運動禁藥管制機構 (WADA) 之權力探源。中華體育季刊,29 (2),161-170。
黃瓊儀 (2005)。淺論運動禁藥管制。取自中華奧林匹克委員會,運動禁藥管制組網址http://www.antidoping.org.tw/wwwantidoping/1/contents.asp?class_no1=1&file=D509072049141.htm&sid1=0
黃顯祐、李一中 (2000,9月7日)。官民不同調,鬧出大醜聞。聯合報。http://www.oocities.org/colosseum/sideline/3519/news/200009/20000907_scandal_lift_1.htm。
廖盈婷 (2007,3月12日)。藥檢未過?郭泓志亞運金牌戰缺席。TVBS新聞。http://www2.tvbstv.com/entry/331794。
廖綉玉 (2016,6月18日)。官方包庇禁藥「爛到骨子裡」,俄國田徑選手確定無緣里約奧運。風傳媒。http://www.storm.mg/article/131510。
劉肇宇 (2016,7月26日)。國內史上第5人,許玉芳奧運前夕遭除名。聯合新聞網。http://rio2016.udn.com/rio2016/story/9978/1851286。
黎建忠 (2016,7月26日)。誤食利尿劑,藥檢不過,許玉芳奧運除名。蘋果日報。http://www.appledaily.com.tw/appledaily/article/sports/20160726/37323006/。
黎建忠、龍柏安 (2016,8月11日)。林子琦奧運禁賽,教練心痛「對不起國家」。蘋果日報。http://www.appledaily.com.tw/appledaily/article/headline/20160811/37343414/。
賴金鑫 (1987)。管制運動員使用禁藥的歷史。健康世界,135,62-64。
戴遐齡 (2012)。最有力量的國際舞臺-體壇大哉論。English Career,36,9-11。
藍弋丰 (2016,3月25日)。莎拉波娃禁藥事件擴大,冷戰時代老藥銷量暴增。科技新報。http://technews.tw/2016/03/25/meldonium-tests-reignite-doping-scandal-in-russian-athletics/。
蘇志榮 (2000)。運動禁藥禁令理由的道德正當性反省 (碩士論文)。取自華藝線上圖書館網址http://www.airitilibrary.com/Publication/alDetailedMesh1?DocID=U0021-2603200719102560
Aggarwal, V. (1998). Institutional designs for a complex world: Bargaining, linkages, and nesting. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Alkoby, A. (2008). Theories of compliance with international law and the challenge of cultural difference. Journal of International Law and International Relations, 4 (1), 151-198.
Brown, J., & Tait, G. (1973). Anabolic steroids - the views of users. Track Techniques, 54, 13-16.
Brunnée, J., Doelle, M., & Rajamani, L. (2012). Promoting compliance in an evolving climate regime. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Brunnée, J., Doelle, M., & Rajamani, L. (2012). Promoting compliance in an evolving climate regime. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Burgstaller, M. (2005). Theories of compliance with international law. Boston, MA: Martinus Nijhoff.
Butcher, R., & Schneider, A. (2003). Community sport, community choice: The ethical challenges of community sport. Essays on current issues in community sport in Canada (pp. 45-58). Ottawa, Canada: The Sport We Want Symposium.
Cardesa-Salzmann, A. (2012). Constitutionalising secondary rules in global environmental regimes: Non-compliance procedures and the enforcement of multilateral environmental agreements. Journal of Environmental Law, 24 (1), 103-132.
Casey, J. T., & Scholtz, J. T. (1991). Beyond deterrence: Behavioral decision theory and tax compliance. Law & Society Review, 25 (4), 821-843.
Chayes, A., & Chayes, A. H. (1993). On compliance. International Organization, 47 (2), 175-205.
Checkel, J. T. (2001). Why comply? Social learning and european identity change. International Organization, 55 (3), 553-588.
De Rose, E. H. (2015). Doping and Sports. In W. R. Frontera, S. A. Herring, L. J. Micheli, & J. K. Silver (Eds.), Clinical Sports Medicine: Medical Management and Rehabilitation (pp. 37-50). Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier.
DiMaggio, P. J., & Powell, W. W. (1983). The iron cage revisited: institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organizational fields. American Sociological Review, 48 (2), 147-160.
Dirix, A., & Sturbois, X. (1998). The first thirty years of the International Olympic Committee Medical Commission, 1967-1997. Lausanne, CH: IOC.
Downs, G. W. (1998). Enforcement and the evolution of cooperation. Michigan Journal of International Law, 19, 319-341.
Finley, M., & Plecket, H. (1976). The Olympic Games: The first thousand years. London: Chatto & Windus.
Fiorelli, P., & Tracey, A. (2007). Why comply? Organizational guidelines offer a safer harbor in the storm. Journal of Corporation Law, 32 (3), 467-490.
Franck, T. (1988). Legitimacy in the international system. American Journal of International Law, 82 (4), 705-759.
Garko, M. G. (1990). Perspectives on and conceptualizations of compliance and compliance-gaining. Communication Quarterly, 38 (2), 138-157.
Giulianotti, R., & Robertson, R. (2007). Sport and globalization: trannational dimensions. In R. Giulianotti, & R. Robertson (Eds.), Globalization and sport (pp. 1-5). Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
Guzman, A. T. (2002). A compliance-based theory of international law. California Law Review, 90 (6), 1823-1888.
Haas, P. M., & Bilder, R. B. (2003). Compliance theories. In D. Shelton (Ed.), Commitment and compliance: The role of non-binding norms in the international legal system (pp. 43-74). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Haggard, S., & Simmons, B. A. (1987). Theories of international regimes. International Organization, 41 (3), 491-517.
Hanstad, D. V., Waddington, I., & Smith, A. (2009). The establishment of the world anti-doping agency. In I. Waddington, & A. Smith (Eds.), An introduction to drugs in sport: Addicted to winning? (pp. 179-199). New York, NY: Routledge.
Hasenclever, A., Maye, P., & Rittberger, V. (1997). Theories of international regimes. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Hathaway, O. A. (2002). Do human rights treaties make a difference? Yale Law Journal, 111 (8), 1935-2042.
Hayashi, M. (2012). Dealing with compliance and non-compliance: the case of the landmine convention. Chinese Journal of International Law, 11 (3), 505-522.
Henkin, L. (1968). How nations behave: Law and foreign policy. New York, NY: Praeger.
Hoberman, J. (1992). The early development of sports medicine in Germany. In J.W. Berryman & R.J. Park (Eds.), Sport and Exercise Science: Essays in the History of Sports Medicine (pp. 233-282). Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press.
Hoffman, J. R., & Ratamess, N. A. (2006). Medical issues associated with anabolic steroid use: are they exaggerated? Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 5, 182-193.
Houlihan, B. (1999). Dying to win: Doping in sport and the development of anti-doping policy. Strasbourg, France: Council of Europe Pub.
Houlihan, B. (2001). The World Anti-doping Agency: Prospects for success. In J. O'Leary (Ed.), Drugs and doping in sport: Socio-legal perspectives (pp. 125-145). London, UK: Cavendish.
Houlihan, B. (2002). Managing Compliance in international anti-doping policy: the world anti-doping code. European Sport Management Quarterly, 2 (3), 188-208.
Houlihan, B. (2004). Civil rights, doping control and the world anti-doping code. Sport in Society, 7 (3), 420-437.
Houlihan, B. (2008). Detection and education in anti-doping policy: A review of current issue and an assessment of future prospects. Hitotsubashi Journal of Arts and Sciences, 49, 55-71.
Houlihan, B. (2009). Doping, public health and the generalization of interests. In V. Møller, M. McNamee, & P. Dimeo (Eds.), Elite sport, doping and public health (pp.41-54). Odense, DK: University Press of Southern Denmark.
Independent Commission. (2015). The independent commission report #1-final report. Retrieved from World Anti-doping Agency Web site: https://www.wada-ama.org/en/resources/world-anti-doping-program/independent-commission-report-1
International Olympic Committee. (2013). Members. Retrieved from International Olympic Committee Web site: https://www.olympic.org/ioc-members-list
International Olympic Committee. (2016). Members. Retrieved from International Olympic Committee Web site: https://www.olympic.org/ioc-members-list
International World Games Association (2011). WADA: Introduces ADAMS. Retrieved from International World Games Association Web site: http://www.theworldgames.org/news/news-of-the-world-games/28-wada--introduces-adams
Jackson, J., Bradford, B., Hough, M., Myhill, A., Quinton, P., & Tyler, T. R. (2012). Why do people comply with the law? British Journal of Criminology, 52 (6), 1051-1071.
Jenny, A., Fuentes, H. F., & Mosler, H. (2007). Psychological factors determining individual compliance with rules for common pool resource management: The case of a Cuban community sharing a solar energy system. Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 35 (2), 239-250.
Keohane, R. (2005). After Hegemony: Cooperation and Discord in the World Political Economy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Keohane, R., & Nye, J. S. (1977). Power and interdependence. Boston, MA: Little, Brown.
Koh, H. H. (1997). Why do nations obey international law? Yale Law Journal, 106 (8), 2599-2659.
Krasner S. D. (1982). Structural causes and regime and regime consequences: regime as intervening variables. International Organization, 36 (2), 185-205.
Maguire, J. (1999). Global sport. identities, societies, civilizations. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.
Mazanov, J., & McDermott, V. (2009). The case for a social science of drugs in sport. Sport in Society, 12 (3), 276-295.
Micheli, L. J. (2011). Doping and performance enhancement: historical overview. In L. J. Micheli (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Sports Medicine (Vols. 1-4, pp. 386-389). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Mifsud, J., Attard, D., & Attard, L. (2011). Drug doping in sports: an overview and recommendations for the Maltese context. Malta Medical Journal, 23 (1), 16-21.
Mitchell, R. B. (1996). Compliance theory: an overview. in improving compliance with international environmental law. In J. Cameron, J. Werksman, & P. Roderick (Eds.), Improving Compliance with International Environment Law (pp. 3-28). London. UK: Earthscan.
Mitchell, R. B. (2007). Compliance theory: compliance, effectiveness, and behavior change in international environmental law. In J. Brunee, D. Bodansky, & E. Hey (Eds.), Oxford Handbook of International Environmental Law (pp. 893-921). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Müller, R. K. (2010). History of doping and doping control. In D. Thieme & P. Hemmersbach (Eds.), Doping in sports (pp. 1-24). New York, NY: Springer.
Onoda, M. (2008). Satellite observation of greenhouse gases: monitoring the climate change regime. Space Policy, 24 (4), 190-198.
Porterfield, J. (2008). Doping: athletes and drugs. New York, NY: The Rose Publishing.
Preuss, H. (2006). The economics of staging the olympics: a comparison of the games, 1972-2008. Camberley, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Prokop, L. (1970). The struggle against doping and its history. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 10 (1), 45-48.
Raustiala, K., & Slaughter, A. M. (2002). Compliance, international relations, and international law. In W. Carlsnaes, T. Risse, and B. Simmons (Eds.), Handbook of International Relations (pp. 538-558). London, UK: Sage Publications.
Rosen, D. M. (2008). Dope: A history of performance enhancement in sports from the nineteenth century to today. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Ruggie, J. G. (1975). International responses to technology: concepts and trends. International Organization, 29 (3), 557-583.
Shahin, W. (2013). Compliance with international regulation on AML/CFT: the case of banks in Lebanon. Journal of Money Laundering Control, 16 (2), 109-118.
Slaughter, A. M. (2011). International relations, principal theories. In R. Wolfrum (Ed.), Max Planck encyclopedia of public international law. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Retrieved from https://www.princeton.edu/~slaughtr/Articles/722_IntlRelPrincipalTheories_Slaughter_20110509zG.pdf
Teetzel, S. (2004). The road to WADA. Proceedings of the International Symposia for Olympic Research (pp. 213-224). Ontario, CA: Seven International Symposium for Olympic Research.
The Olympic Museum. (2013). The Olympic Games in antiquity. Lausanne, CH: Author.
Thompson, C. S. (2008). The tour de france: a cultural history. Oakland, CA: University of California Press.
Todd, J., & Todd, T. (2001). Significant events in the history of drug testing and the olympic movement: 1960-1999. In W. Wilson, & E Derse (Eds.), Doping in élite Sport: The Politics of Drugs in the Olympic Movement. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Tomlinson, A., & Young, C. (2006). National identity and global spots events: culture, politics, and spectacle in the olympics and the football world cup. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (2016). Fund for the elimination of doping in sport. Retrieved from United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Web site: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/social-and-human-sciences/themes/anti-doping/fund-for-the-elimination-of-doping-in-sport/
United States Anti-Doping Agency. (2001). USADA announces 2000 fourth quarter testing information. Retrieved from United States Anti-Doping Agency Web site: http://www.usada.org/usada-announces-2000-fourth-quarter-testing-information/
Vezirgiannidou, S. (2009). The climate change regime post-Kyoto: Why compliance is important and how to achieve it. Global Environmental Politics, 9 (4), 41-63.
Waddington, I. (2000). Sport, Health and Drugs: A Critical Sociological Perspective. London, UK: Taylor & Francis.
Waddington, I. (2006). The Development of Doping and Doping Control in Britain. In G. Spitzer. (Ed.), Doping and Doping Control in Europe (pp. 115-144). Aachen, DE: Meyer and Meyer Sport.
Waddington, I., & Smith, A. (2009). An introduction to drugs in sport: addicted to winning? New York, NY: Routledge.
Williams, M. H. (1981). Blood doping: an update. Physician and Sports Medicine, 9 (7), 59-62.
Wong, G. M. (2010). Essentials of Sports Law. (4th ed.). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
World Anti-doping Agency. (2009a). A short history of anti-doping. In J. Fahay, & D. Howman (Eds.), Play true (Vol. 2, pp. 24-30). Montreal, CA: Author.
World Anti-doping Agency. (2009b). Our first decade of playing true. In J. Fahay, & D. Howman (Eds.), Play true (Vol. 2, pp. 5-23). Montreal, CA: Author.
World Anti-doping Agency. (2009c). World anti-doping code. Montreal, CA: Author.
World Anti-doping Agency. (2013). Executive committee. Retrieved from World Anti-doping Agency Web site: https://www.wada-ama.org/en/executive-committee
World Anti-doping Agency. (2016a). Governance. Retrieved from World Anti-doping Agency Web site: https://www.wada-ama.org/en/governance
World Anti-doping Agency. (2016b). Code signatories. Retrieved from World Anti-doping Agency Web site: https://www.wada-ama.org/en/code-signatories
World Anti-doping Agency. (2016c). Who we are. Retrieved from World Anti-doping Agency Web site: https://www.wada-ama.org/en/who-we-are
World Anti-doping Agency. (2016d). Executive committee. Retrieved from World Anti-doping Agency Web site: https://www.wada-ama.org/en/executive-committee
World Anti-doping Agency. (2016e). What we do. Retrieved from World Anti-doping Agency Web site: https://www.wada-ama.org/en/what-we-do
World Anti-doping Agency. (2016f). Strategy. Retrieved from World Anti-doping Agency Web site: https://www.wada-ama.org/en/strategy
World Anti-doping Agency. (2016g). Code compliance. Retrieved from World Anti-doping Agency Web site: https://www.wada-ama.org/en/what-we-do/the-code/code-compliance
Yesalis, C. E. (1993). Incidence of anabolic steroid use: a discussion of methodological issues. Anabolic Steroids in Sport and Exercise. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetic Publishers.
Yesalis, C. E., & Bahrke, M. S. (2002). History of Doping in Sport. International Sports Studies, 24 (1). 42-76.
Young, O. R. (1982). Regime dynamics: the rise and fall of international regimes. International Organization, 36 (2), 277-297.
Zaelke, D. & Kaniaru, D. & Kruzikova, E. (2005). Compliance Theories. In D. Zaelke, D. Kaniaru, & E. Kruzikova (Eds.), Making law work: environmental compliance and sustainable development (Vols. 1-2, pp. 53-62). London, UK: Cameron May Ltd.
Zucker, L. G. (1987). Institutional Theories of organization. Annual Review of Sociology, 13, 443-464.

連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top