(3.236.222.124) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/05/13 01:26
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:李奕潔
研究生(外文):Li, Yi-Jie
論文名稱:海洋活性物質surfactin應用於抗光老化和保濕之研究
論文名稱(外文):The study of marine bioactive compound-surfactin in anti-photoaging and moisture
指導教授:陸振岡
指導教授(外文):Lu, Jenn-Kan
口試委員:胡紹揚許濤陸振岡
口試委員(外文):Hu, shao-yangHsu, toddLu, Jenn-Kan
口試日期:2016-07-19
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:水產養殖學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:漁業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:83
中文關鍵詞:表面素抗光老化保濕個人化
外文關鍵詞:surfactinanti-photoagingmoisturepersonalized
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:115
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
枯草桿菌(Bacillus subtilis) 生產的表面素 (surfactin) 為非核醣體合成機制下產生之環型脂胜肽兩性分子,能降低界面及表面張力的能力,為一強效型生物界面活性劑,也是種良好的皮膚穿透加強劑對生物膜及皮膚都有協助滲透的效果。近年來已經應用於藥物穿透(Lopez et al., 2000)。與化學合成的界面活性劑相比,表面素較溫和,不會對皮膚造成傷害。現在化妝品常用之助滲劑、乳化劑和防腐劑多為化學合成。已有文獻指出化學乳化劑被發現含有1, 4-二氧六環(1,4-dioxane)已知致癌物質(Argus et al. 1965)。現在市面上的化妝品都是固定的濃度及配方,不一定適合每個人的肌膚且膚質狀況調控因子(skin conditional regulator)也未必能夠進入皮膚中。尋找無毒、無副作用、生物可分解的天然的助滲劑、乳化劑及膚況調控因子具有巨大商機。客製化的定義在於能夠針對個別個體將其特有的屬性或行為,創造特有的價值與功能(Pine,1998)。由於每個人的肌膚狀況會根據其遺傳、飲食及生活環境等而有所不同,故個人化保養品頇憑藉:1) 膚質檢測儀;2) 生物標記(biomarker);3) 膚質狀況調控因子(Skin conditional regulator);4) 效果加強劑(transdermal penetration enhancer)。本論文研究目的為將表面素應用於個人化醫美保養品之開發。為達到此目標,設立以下短程目標 : 1) 表面素對活性氧 ( ROS ) 的捕捉;2) 表面素對人類纖維母細胞抗光老化的功能;3) 表面素對膚質狀況調控因子(奈米金、水解魚鱗膠原蛋白胜肽及耳突麒麟菜萃取液)對皮膚狀況是否具有加乘效果;4) 針對不同個人膚質,以表面素作為效果加強劑加強膚況調控因子之效果達到客製化個人保養品之目標。在捕捉活性氧之實驗結果顯示活性氧捕捉之功效均隨膚況調控因子濃度提高而增加,添加 100 μM 有更佳的捕捉效果 ; 抗光老化修護功能之實驗結果顯示添加 75 μM 表面素和膚況調控因子可使人類纖維母細胞於紫外線照射下提高細胞存活率及修復能力,且可有效提高膠原蛋白 1 型及彈力蛋白並在添加表面素 100 μM 可抑制膠原蛋白分解酶-基質金屬蛋白酶 9 型等抗老化基因表現;表面素以及膚況調控因子可以促進人類皮膚纖維母細胞中膠原蛋白之蛋白表現量,並可抑制基質金屬蛋白酶 9 型 ; 添加 100 μM 表面素可提高細胞凋亡相關基因 Bcl2 和抑制 BAX 之基因表現量。本論文研究結果顯示表面素使人類纖維母細胞啟動抗老化相關基因及抑制細胞凋亡基因,對於膚況調控因子具有加乘效果,本實驗結果亦顯示可以根據個人膚況,將表面素作為助滲劑幫助膚況調控因子吸收達到客製個人保養品之功效。
Surfactin is an amphipathic cyclic lipopeptide molecule derived from aquatic probiotics, Bacillus subtilis, secondary metabolites. This molecule also had seen shown promising as an anti-bacteria, anti-coagulant and transdermal penetration enhancer. The lipopeptides are amphiphatic and consist of a hydrophobic chain containing from about 8 to 24 carbon atoms and a peptide chain that is hydrophilic or has been rendered hydrophilic. The applications for lipopeptides has been in anti-wrinkle, antiaging, and rejunenation cosmetics(Wu and Lu, 2011). Nowaday cosmetics commonly used emulsifiers, penetration enhancers and preservatives which are mostly chemical synthesis. Chemical emulsifier has indicated that it has 1,4-dioxane are known as carcinogens(Argus et al. 1965). Therefore, looking for non-toxic, no side effects, biodegradable natural transdermal penetration enhancers, emulsifiers and skin condition regulator have a huge market potential. The objective of this dissertation is to study the potential of application of surfactin in personalized cosmeceutical products. To fulfill the goal, served special aims established: 1) to determine the surfactin scavenging ROS, 2)to determine surfactin the effects of human skin fibroblast at anti-photoaging mechanism, 3) to determine the surfactin have synergistic effect in other skin condition regulator (Gold nanoparticle, hydrolyzed fish scale collagen peptide and Eucheuma Cottonii extracts. 4) to determine the surfactin added different concentraction in moisturizing skin care of specific molecular products to achieve personal products. The present results showed that surfactin can activate the expression of collagen I and elastin effectively, inhibited MMP9 gene expression, and proliferation of fibroblast by treatment with 75 μM surfactin with culture medium. Surfactin also can increased cell survival rate and repair ability after UV-A and UV-B radiation, and induced the gene expression of collagen I and MMP9 in humean skin fibroblast cells. Surfactin also enhance the penetration of skin condition regulator. Surfactin depending on the concentration level on the basis of added skin care products to the needs of customer which can improve the skin water retention effectively. These results indicated that Surfactin can servesed as personalized skin care is feasible.
目錄
謝辭 ................................................................................................................................... I
摘要 .................................................................................................................................. II
Abstract ........................................................................................................................... III
目錄 ................................................................................................................................ IV
圖目錄 ........................................................................................................................... VII
壹、 前言 .................................................................................................................. 1
一、表面素之介紹及應用 .......................................................................................... 1
二、多胜肽於化妝品之應用 ...................................................................................... 3
三、皮膚狀況調控因子(Skin condition regulator) ..................................................... 4
四、皮膚的結構 .......................................................................................................... 6
五、皮膚老化的因素 .................................................................................................. 7
六、人體的抗氧化系統 .............................................................................................. 7
七、自由基學說 .......................................................................................................... 9
八、自由基學說對皮膚老化的意義 ........................................................................ 10
九、皮膚光老化 ........................................................................................................ 11
十、皮膚自然老化與光老化具有共同的分子機制 ................................................ 11
十一、短期紫外線對皮膚的影響 ............................................................................ 12
十二、皮膚光癌化 .................................................................................................... 12
十三、膠原蛋白第 I 型(collagen I) ................................................................... 14
十四、彈力蛋白(Elastin) ..................................................................................... 14
十五、膠原蛋白分解酶-基質金屬蛋白酶(Matrix metalloproteinase-9, MMP9) .................................................................................................................................... 15
十六、細胞凋亡相關基因 ........................................................................................ 15
十七、客製個人化保養品 ........................................................................................ 16
十八、本研究之目標 ................................................................................................ 16
貳、 實驗材料 ........................................................................................................ 18
一、實驗菌株 ............................................................................................................ 18
V
二、培養基 ................................................................................................................ 18
三、13nm 奈米金(gold nanoparticles, AuNPs)溶液 .......................................... 18
四、萃取液 ................................................................................................................ 18
五、細胞培養與分析之藥品 .................................................................................... 19
六、抗氧化功能測定 ................................................................................................ 19
七、皮膚纖維母細胞經 UV 照射測詴 .............................................................. 20
八、基因表現量測定 ................................................................................................ 20
九、萃取液對促進膠原蛋白合成之作用詴劑 .................................................... 20
十、抑制基質金屬蛋白酶 MMP9 能力詴劑 ......................................................... 20
十一、實驗儀器 ........................................................................................................ 20
參、 實驗方法 ........................................................................................................ 22
一、13nm 奈米金之製備 ......................................................................................... 22
二、細胞培養 ............................................................................................................ 22
三、清除α , α- diphenyl-β-picryhydrazyl (DPPH)自由基之效果 ........................... 23
四、清除過氧化氫能力 ............................................................................................ 23
五、清除超氧陰離子能力之測定 ............................................................................ 23
六、人類皮膚纖維母細胞經 UV 照射模式測詴 .................................................. 24
七、基因表現量測定 ................................................................................................ 24
八、萃取液對促進膠原蛋白合成之作用 ................................................................ 26
九、萃取液對抑制基質金屬蛋白酶(Matrix metallopeptidase 9)之作用 .......... 27
十、個人化皮膚保水能力測詴 ................................................................................ 27
十一、統計分析 ........................................................................................................ 27
肆、結果 ........................................................................................................................ 28
一、Bacillus subtitlis TH 生產之表面素與 13 nm 奈米金、水解魚鱗膠原蛋白胜肽與耳突麒麟菜萃取液清α , α- diphenyl-β-picryhydrazyl(DPPH)自由基抗氧化能力之效果 ................................................................................................................ 28
二、Bacillus subtitlis TH 生產之表面素與 13 nm 奈米金、水解魚鱗膠原蛋白胜肽與耳突麒麟菜萃取液清除過氧化氫能力之測定效果 ........................................ 28
VI
三、Bacillus subtitlis TH 生產之表面素與 13 nm 奈米金、水解魚鱗膠原蛋白胜肽與耳突麒麟菜萃取液清除超氧陰離子能力之測定效果 .................................... 28
四、人類皮膚纖維母細胞經紫外線照射後之存活率 ............................................ 28
五、Bacillus subtitlis TH 生產之表面素與 13 nm 奈米金、水解魚鱗膠原蛋白胜肽與耳突麒麟菜萃取液對人類皮膚纖維母細胞抗光老化修護能力之影響 ........ 29
六、Bacillus subtitlis TH 生產之表面素與 13 nm 奈米金、水解魚鱗膠原蛋白胜肽與耳突麒麟菜萃取液對人類皮膚纖維母細胞抗光老化預防能力之影響 ........ 30
七、Bacillus subtitlis TH 生產之表面素與 13 nm 奈米金、水解魚鱗膠原蛋白胜肽與耳突麒麟菜萃取液對人類皮膚纖維母細胞抗老化基因 collagen 1、elastin 和 MMP9 ......................................................................................................................... 30
八、Bacillus subtitlis TH 生產之表面素與 13 nm 奈米金、水解魚鱗膠原蛋白胜肽與耳突麒麟菜萃取液對人類皮膚纖維母細胞之細胞凋亡相關基因 Bcl2和 BAX 表現量之影響 .................................................................................................. 30
九、Bacillus subtitlis TH 生產之表面素與 13 nm 奈米金、水解魚鱗膠原蛋白胜肽與耳突麒麟菜萃取液對人類皮膚纖維母細胞膠原蛋白增生之影響 ................ 31
十、個人化皮膚保濕率及保水度分級測詴 ............................................................ 31
伍、討論 ........................................................................................................................ 33
附錄一、引子列表(Pimer list) .................................................................................. 75
毛文君、李翊,1997。海洋功能食品的研究開發 (一)。中國海洋藥物雜誌。63 (3): 53-56。
甘淑芬等譯,Stuart Ira Fox 原著,2007。人體生理學,高立圖書出版發行。25-58。
光亞,2013。Skin Chart 皮膚圖表。1-10。
李玉蓮,2011。膠原蛋白的發展與展望。碩士論文。雲林。國立虎尾科技大學。生物科技系。 35-54。
李建雄,1992。生物化學。藝軒圖書出版社。670-675。
邱品齊,2013。科學發展。485, 10-14。
陳芳怡,2007。海藻 Eucheuma cottonii 調節血糖功能性評估及其複方中草藥飲品之開發。國立嘉義大學食品科學系碩士學位論文。10-45。
許烜瑞,2013。表面素應用於抗老化妝品之研究。國立臺灣海洋大學水產養殖系碩士學位論文。33-36。
吳顯勁、孟慶勇,2006。瓊枝麒麟菜多醣對衰老模型小鼠血漿和肝中 SOD, CAT, MDA 的影響。中國老年學雜誌。26 , 5, 653-654。
吳顯勁、孟慶勇,2007。瓊枝麒麟菜多醣對輻射損傷小鼠脾細胞免疫功能的影響。解放軍預防醫學雜誌。25 , 1, 24-26。
戚勃、李來好、章超樺,2005。麒麟菜的營養成分分析及評價。現代食品科技。21 , 1, 115-117。
張麗卿,1998。化妝品製造實務。復文圖書。55-65
周俊卲,2001。膠原蛋白為基材之創傷敷料研究,國立陽明大學醫學工程研究所碩士論文。12-24。
梁智洲、岑穎州、葉紹明、伍秓明,2005。瓊枝異枝麒麟菜中硫酸酯基多醣不同提取方法的化學分析比較。暨南大學學報 (自然科學版)。5-16。
臺 灣 海 藻 資 訊 網 ,2009。耳 突 麒 麟 菜 。
墾 丁 國 家 公 園 管 理 處 ,2009 。 生 物 詳 細 資 料 - 耳 突 麒 麟 菜 。
廖琦淑,2009。表面素最適生產條件及生物活性之研究。國立台灣海洋大學水產養殖系碩士論文。2-9。
趙承琛,1995。界面科學基礎。復文圖書。33-58。
Argus, MF, Arcos JC, Hoch-Ligeti C. 1965 Studies on the carcinogenic activity of protein denaturing agents: Hepatocarcinogenicity of dioxane. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 35, 949–958
Aumailley, M., Mark, H. V. D., Timpl, R. 1985. Size and domain structure of collagen VI produced by cultured fibroblasts. FEBS Letters, 182: 499-502.
37
Bae, I., Osatomi, K., Yoshida, A., Osako, K., Yamaguchi, A. and Hara, K. 2008. Biochemical properties of acid-soluble collagens extracted from the skins of underutilised fishes. Food Chem. 108, 49-54.
Barnard, K., Gathercole, L. J., Bailey, A. J. 1987 . Basement membrane collagen - evidence for a novel molecular packing. FEBS Letters, 212, 49-52
Birkedal-Hansen, H., Moore, W. G., Bodden, M. K., Windsor, L. J., Birkedal-Hansen, B., DeCarlo, A., Engler, J. A. 1993. Matrix metalloproteinases: a review. Crit. Rev. Oral Biol. Med. 4, 197-250.
Bouwstra, J. A., Honeywell-Nguyen, P. L., Gooris, G. S., Ponec, M. 2003. Structure of the skin barrier and its modulation by vesicular formulations. Prog. Lipid Res. 42, 1-36.
Brand-Williams, W., Cuvelier, M. E., Berset, C. 1995. Use of a free radical method to evaluate anti- oxidant activity. Food Sci. Tech. 28, 25-30.
Cai, J., Jones, D. P. 1998. Superoxide in apoptosis. Mitochondrial generation triggered by cytochrome c loss. J. Biol. Chem. 273, 11401-11404.
Chiocchini, C., L. U., Stachelhaus, T., 2006. In vivo biocombinatorial synthesis of lipopeptides by COM domain-mediated reprogramming of the surfactin biosynthetic complex. Chem. Biol. 13, 899-908.
Cosulich, S. C., Savory, P. J., Clarke, P. R. 1999. Bcl-2 regulates amplification of caspase activation by cytochrome c. Curr Biol. 9, 147-150.
Chung, J. H., Seo, J. Y., Choi, H. R., Lee, M. K., Youn, C. S., Rhie, G., Cho, K. H., Kim, K. H., Park, K. C. and Eun, H. C., 2001. Modulation of skin collagen metabolism in aged and photoaged human skin in vivo. The Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 117, 5, 1218-1224.
Darr, D., Fridovich, I. 1994. Free radicals in cutaneous biology. The Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 102, 5, 671-675.
Davies, K. J. A., Qaintanilha, A. T., Brooks, G. A. and Packer, L. 1982. Free radicals and tissue damage produced by exercise. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 107, 4, 1198-1205.
Darbre, PD. 2003. Underarm cosmetics and breast cancer. J. Appl. Toxicol. 23, 89–95.
Deleu, M., Paquot, M., Jacques, P., Thonart, P., Adriaensen, Y., Dufrene, Y. F. 1999. Nanometer scale organization of mixed surfactin/phosphatidylcholine monolayers. Biophys. J. 77, 2304-2310.
Eliseev, S. A., Vildanova-Martisishin, R., Shulga, A., Shabo, A., Turovsky, A. 1991. "Oil washing bioemulsifier produced by Bacillus sp. Microbiology. 53-61.
38
Epstein, J. H., K. Fukuyama, and K. Fye. 1970. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on the mitotic cycle and DNA, RNA and protein synthesis in mammalian epidermis in vivo. Photochem. Photobiol. 12, 57-65.
Eric, F. B. and Jouni, U. 1996. The effect of photodamage on dermal extracellular matrix. Clinical Dermatology. 14, 143-151.
Haddad N. I., W. J., Mu B. 2008. Isolation and characterization of a biosurfactant producing strain, Brevibacilis brevis HOB1. J. Ind. Microbiol Biotechnol 35, 1597-1604.
Harman, D. 1956. Aging: A theory based on free radical and radiation chemistry. J. gerontol, 11, 298-300.
Hawk, J. L., G. M. Murphy and C. A. Holden. 1988. The presence of neutrophils in human cutaneous ultraviolet-B inflammation. Br. J. Dermatol. 118, 27-30.
Hiroaki, K., Masahiro, Y., Yuki, O., Koji, T., Yoko, F. and Masamitsu I. 2001. Epidermal change caused by chronic low-dose UV irradiation induce wrinkle formation in hairless mouse. J. Dermatol. Sci.1, 19-25.
Hitoshi, M. 2010. Role of antioxidants in the skin: Anti-aging effects.Nikkol Group Cosmos Technical Center Co., Ltd., 3-24-3 Hasune, Itabashi-Ku, Tokyo 174-0046, Japan.
Hosono, K., Suzuki, H. 1985. Morphological transformation of Chinese hamster cells by acylpeptides, inhibitors of cAMP phosphodiesterase, produced by Bacillus subtilis. J. Biol. Chem. 260, 11252-11255.
Huang-Lee, L. L. H. and Nimni M. E. 1993. Preparation of type I collagen fibrillar matrices and the effects of collagen concentration on fibroblast contraction. Biomedical Engineering Application, Basis and Communication Engineering. 5, 664-675.
Gary, J., Zeng Quan, W., Subhash, C., Datta, J. V., Sewon, K., John, J. V. 1997. Pathophysiology of premature skin aging induced by ultraviolet light. The New England Journal of Medicine. 337, 20, 1419-1428.
Genji, I., Yoshinori, T., Yukiko, Y., Kazue, T., Michio, K. and Shuhei, I. 1995. Degree of elastic fibers in rat skin is age dependent. J. Invest. Dermatol. 2, 254-258.
Grossman, D. and D. J. Leffel. 1997. The molecular basis of nonmelanoma cancer. New understanding. Arch. Dermatol. 133, 1263-1270.
Gómez-Guillén, M. C., Giménez B., López-Caballero M. E., Montero M. P. 2011. Functional and bioactive properties of collagen and gelatin from alternative sources: A review. Food Hydrocolloids. 25, 1813-1827.
Jae-Yong, S., Hyeon-Kyeong, J., Beom-Soo, K. 2010. Biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Magnolia kobus and Diopyros kaki leaf extracts, Department
39
of Chemical Engineering, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk. 361-763.
Jenkins, G. 2002. Molecular mechanisms of skin ageing. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development. 123, 802-810.
Jen-Leih, Wu and Jenn-Kan, Lu. 2011. Marine cosmeceuticals.26, 371-385
Jun Deng, Mingcong Sun, Jiyu Zhu, ChangyouGao. 2013. Molecular interactions of different size AuNP–COOH nanoparticles with human fibrinogen
Van den Bergh BAI, Vroom J., Gerritsen H, Junginger HE, Bouwstra JA. 1999. Interactions of elastic and rigid vesicles with human skin in vitro: electron microscopy and two-photon excitation microscopy. BiochimBiophys Act; 1461, 155–173.
Karin, S. K., Peter, B., Jutta, W., Gernot, H., Weijan, Ma., Lale K., Christian, M., Meinhard, W. 2000. Photoaging of the skin from phenotype to mechanisms. Experi. Geronto. 35, 307-316.
Kenneth B. B., Bruce N. A. 1998. The free radical theory of aging matures. Physiological Reviews. 78, 547-581.
Kielbassa, C., L. Roza and B., Epe. 1997. Wavelength dependence of oxidative DNA damage induced by UV and visible light. Carcinogenesis 18, 811-816.
Kielty C. M., Sherratt M. J., Shuttleworth C. A. 2002. Elastic fibres. J. Cell Sci. 115, 2817-2828
Kleinkauf H., Von Dohren H. 1996. A nonribosomal system of peptide biosynthesis. J. Biol. Chem. 236, 335-351.
Kohen, K. 1999. Skin antioxidants: their role in aging and in oxidative stress- new approaches for their evaluation. Biomed. Pharm. 53, 181-192.
Lambalot R.H., G. A. M., Flugel R. S., Zuber P., LaCelle M., Marahiel M. A., Reid R., Khosla C., Walsh C. T. 1996. A new enzyme superfamily - the phosphopantetheinyl transferases."Chem. Biol. 3, 923-936.
Lane, D. P. 1992. Guardian of the genome. Nat. 358, 15-16.
Latt S. A., Allen J., Bloom S. E., Carano A. V. Falke E., Kram D. 1981. Sister chromatid exchange: a report of the GENE-TOX program, Mutat. Res., 87, 17-62.
Lods, L. M., Dres, C., Johnson, C., Scholz, D. B. and Brooks, G. J. 2000. The future of enzymes in cosmetics. J. SOC. COSMET. CHEM. 22, 85-94.
Lopez, A., Llinares, F., Cortell, C., Herraez, M. 2000. Comparative enhancer effects of Span 20 with Tween 20 and Azone on the in vitro percutaneous penetration of compounds with different lipophilicities. Int. J. Pharm. 202, 133-140.
Maget-Dana, R., Ptak, M. 1995. Interactions of surfactin with membrane models. Biophys. J. 68, 1937-1943
40
Marahiel M. A., S. T., Mootz H. D. 1997. Modular Peptide Synthetases Involved in Nonribosomal Peptide Synthesis. Chemical Reviews. 97, 2651-2674
Martyn, C. N. and Greenwald, S. E. 1997. Impaired synthesis of elastin in the walls of the aorta and large conduit arteries during early development may be an initiating event in the pathogenesis of systemic hypertension. Lancet. 350, 953-955.
Meanwell, E. F., B. L. Diffey. 1989. Reciprocity of ultraviolet erythema in human skin. Photodermatol. 6, 146-148.
M. Kanlayavattanakul, N. Lourith (2010). " Lipopeptides in cosmetics." International Journal of Cosmetic Science 32: 1-8.
Morliere, P., Moysan, A. and Tirache, I. 1995. Action spectrum for UV-induced lipid peroxidation in cultured human skin fibroblasts. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 19, 3, 365-371.
Moysan, A., Marquis, I. Gaboriau, F., Santus, R. Dubertret, L., Morliere, P. 1993. UltravioletA-Induced lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense systems in cultured human skin fibroblasts. J. Invest. Dermatol. 100, 5, 692-698.
Nagase, H., Woessner, J. F., Jr. 1999. Matrix metalloproteinases. J. Biol. Chem. 274, 21491-21494.
Nicholas, J. L., David, P. M., Joshua, M. W., Debra, L., Teresa, B., Marjorie, D. L., Anthony, W. J. and Ian, R. S. 1995. Low doses of repetitive ultraviolet A induce morphologic changes in human skin. J. Invest. Dermatol. 6, 739-743.
Nokhodchi, A., Shokri, J., Dashbolaghi, A., Hassan-Zadeh, D., Ghafourian, T., Barzegar-Jalali, M. 2003. The enhancement effect of surfactants on the penetration of lorazepam through rat skin. Int. J .Pharm. 250, 359-369.
Nomura, T., H. Nakajima, T. Hongyom. 1997. Inductions of cancer, actinic keratosis, and specific p53 mutations by UVB light in human skin maintained in severe combined immunodeficient mice. Cancer Res. 57, 2081-2084.
Norlen, L. 2001. Skin barrier structure and function: the single gel phase model. J. Invest Dermatol. 117, 830-836.
Oltvai, ZN., Milliman, C. L., Korsmeyer, S. J. 1993. Bcl-2 heterodimerizes in vivo with a conserved homolog, BAX, that accelerates programmed cell death. Cell 74, 609-619.
Pine, J. B., Gilmore, J. H. 1998. Welcome to the experience economy. Harvard Business Review, 76, 97-105.
Quadri L. E., W. P. H., Lei M., Nakano M. M., Zuber P., Walsh C. T. 1998. "Characterization of Sfp, a Bacillus subtilis phosphopantetheinyl transferase for peptidyl carrier protein domains in peptide synthetases." Bio. Chem. 37, 1585-1595.
41
Razafindralambo H., P. Y., Deleu M., Hbid C., Jacques P., Thonart P., Paquot M. 1998. Foaming Properties of Lipopeptides Produced by Bacillus subtilis: Effect of Lipid and Peptide Structural Attributes. J. Agric. Food Chem. 46, 911-916.
Robert, L., Keys, K. 1997. The spectral dependence for UVA- induced cumulative damage in human skin. J. Invest. Dermatol. 108, 17-21.
Roskoski R., J., Gevers W., Kleinkauf H., Lipmann F. 1970. Tyrocidine biosynthesis by three complementary fractions from Bacillus brevis (ATCC 8185). Bio.chem. 9, 4839-4845.
Rosse, T., Oliver, R., Monney, L., Rager, M., Conus, S., Fellay, I., Jansen, B., Borner C. 1998. Bcl2 prolongs cell survival after Bax-induced release of cytochrome c. Nat. 391, 496-499.
Saunders, J., Davis, H., Coetzee, L., Botha, S., Kruger, A., Grobler, A. 1999. A novel skin penetration enhancer: evaluation by membrane diffusion and confocal microscopy. J . Pharm. Sci. 2, 99-107.
Shapiro, S. S., Pharmd, C. S. 2001. Role of Vitamins in skin care. Nut. 17, 839-844.
Sheppard, J. D., Jumarie, C., Cooper, D. G., Laprade, R. 1991. Ionic channels induced by surfactin in planar lipid bilayer membranes. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1064, 13-23.
Shoichi, T., Mitsuyoshi, M. and Takao, K. 2001. Age-related changes 50 in oxidative damage to lipid and DNA in rat skin. Mech. Ageing. Dev. 122, 415-426.
Shokri, J., Nokhodchi, A., Dashbolaghi, A., Hassan-Zadeh, D., Ghafourian, T., Barzegar Jalali, M., 2001. The effect of surfactants on the skin penetration of diazepam. Int. J. Pharm. 228, 99-107.
Shin, S. C., Kim, H. J., Oh, I. J., Cho, C. W., Yang, K. H. 2005. Development of tretinoin gels for enhanced transdermal delivery. J. Biopharm. 60, 67-71.
Sieber S. A., M. M. A. 2003. Learning from nature's drug factories: nonribosomal synthesis of macrocyclic peptides. J. Bacteriol. 185, 7036-7043.
Singhal, N. S. S. a. R. S. 2010. Surfactin – A Review on Biosynthesis, Fermentation, Purification and Applications. Food Technol. Biotechnol 48, 2, 119-134.
Singh P., Cameotra S. S. 2004. Potential applications of microbial surfactants in biomedical sciences. Trends Biotechnol. 22, 142-146.
Slominski, A. and J. Pawelek. 1998. Animals under the sun: effects of ultraviolet radiation on mammalian kin. Clin. Der. 16, 503-515.
Stachelhaus T., S. A., Marahiel M. A. 1995. Rational design of peptide antibiotics by targeted replacement of bacterial and fungal domains. Sci. 269, 69-72.
Steenvoorden, D. P. T. and Henegouwen, M. J. B. V. 1997. The use of endogenous antioxidants to improve photoprotection. J. Photochem. Photobio. B. 41, 1-10.
42
Stein T., V. J., Kruft V., Otto A., Wittmann-Liebold B., Franke P., Panico M., McDowell R., Morris H. R. 1996. The multiple carrier model of nonribosomal peptide biosynthesis at modular multienzymatic templates. J. Biol. Chem. 271, 15428-15435.
Suarez DL, Schultz-Cherry S. 2000. Immunology of avian influenza virus: a review. 269-283.
Susin, S. A., Lorenzo, H. K., Zamzami, N., Marzo, I., Snow, B. E., Brothers, G. M., Mangion, J., Jacotot, E., Costantini, P., Loeffler, M., Larochette, N., Goodlett, D. R., Aebersold, R., Siderovski, D. P., Penninger, J. M., Kroemer, G. 1999. Molecular characterization of mitochondrial apoptosis-inducing factor. Nautre 397, 441-446.
Taylor D. M. 1996. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy — the beginning of the end ? Brit. Vet. J., 152, 501-518.
Tettey CO, Nagajyothi PC, Lee SE, Ocloo A, Minh An TN, Sreekanth TV, Lee KD. 2011. Anti-melanoma, tyrosinase inhibitory and anti-microbial activities of gold nanoparticles synthesized from aqueous leaf extracts of Teraxacumofficinale.Department of Biochemistry, Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Ghana, Legon LG586, Ghana.
Tsan P., V. L., Besson F., Lancelin J.M. 2007. Structure and dynamics of surfactin studied by NMR in micellar media. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 129, 1968-1977
Tsuge K., A. T., Shoda M. 1996. Isolation of a gene essential for biosynthesis of the lipopeptide antibiotics plipastatin B1 and surfactin in Bacillus subtilis YB8. Arch Microbiol 165, 243-251.
Tsukagoshi, N., Tamura, G., Arima, K. 1970. A novel protoplast-bursting factor (surfactin) obtained from Bacillus subtilis IAM 1213. II. The interaction of surfactin with bacterial membranes and lipids. Biochim Biophys Acta 196, 211-214.
Turgay K., K. M., Marahiel M. A. 1992. "Four homologous domains in the primary structure of GrsB are related to domains in a superfamily of adenylate-forming enzymes. Molecular Microbiology. 6, 529-546.
Urbach, F. 1997. Ultraviolet radiation and skin cancers in humans. J. Photochem. Photobiol. 40, 3-7.
Usov, A. I. 1992. Sulfated polysaccharides of the red seaweeds. Food Hydrocoll. 6, 9-23.
43
Van den Steen P. E., Dubois, B., Nelissen, I., Rudd, P. M., Dwek, R. A., Opdenakker, G. 2002. Biochemistry and molecular biology of gelatinase B or matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9). Crit. Rev. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 37, 275-536.
Vu, T.H., Werb, Z. 2000. Matrix metalloproteinases: effectors of development and normal physiology. Genes Dev. 14, 2123-33.
Walker, R.B., Smith, E.W. 1996. The role of percutaneous penetration enhancers. Adv Drug Deli. 18, 295-301.
Whang L.M., L. P. W., Ma C.C., Cheng S.S. 2008. Application of biosurfactants, rhamnolipid, and surfactin, for enhanced biodegradation of diesel-contaminated water and soil. J. Hazard Mater 151, 155-163.
Wickens, A. and Andrew, P. 2001. Ageing and the free radical theory. Respiration Physiology. 128, 3, 379-391.
Williams, A.C., Barry, B.W. 1991. Terpenes and the lipid-protein-partitioning theory of skin penetration enhancement. Pharm. Res. 8, 17-24.
Wolter, K. G., Hsu, Y. T., Smith, C. L., Nechushtan, A., Xi, X. G., Youle, R. J. 1997. Movement of BAX from the cytosol to mitochondria during apoptosis. J. Cell Biol. 139, 1281-1292.
Yeh, H. Y., Klesius, P. H. 2008. Complete structure, genomic organization, and expression of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Rafinesque 1818) matrix metalloproteinase-9 gene. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 72, 702-14.
Yoshiki, M. 1995. Journal of Dermatological Science. 9: 79-86.
Yoshinori, T., Michihiro, H. and Katsunori, A. 1996. The relationship between quantitative change in collagen and formation of wrinkles on hairless mouse skin after chronic UV irradiation. J. Dermatol. Sci. 12, 56-63.
Zhang, M., Liu, W. and Li, G. 2009. Isolation and characterization of collagens from the skin of largefin longbarbel catfish (Mystusmacropterus). Food Chem. 1115: 826-831.
Zamzami, N., Brenner, C., Marzo, I., Susin, S. A., Kroemer, G. 1998. Subcellular and submitochondrial mode of action of Bcl-2-like oncoproteins. Oncogene. 16, 2265-2282.
Zhivotovsky, B., Orrenius, S., Brustugun, O. T., Doskeland, S. O. 1998. Injected cytochrome c induces apoptosis. Nature. 391, 449-450.
連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔