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研究生:李芳仁
研究生(外文):Lee, Fang-Ren
論文名稱:荊眼刺尻魚人工孵化繁殖與飼料中不同蛋白質及油脂含量對斑紋蓋刺魚幼魚成長與活存之研究
論文名稱(外文):Captive breeding and rearing of Centropyge acanthops, and the effect of different dietary protein levels and lipid level on juvenile growth of Pomacanthus maculosus
指導教授:冉繁華冉繁華引用關係
指導教授(外文):Nan, Fan-Hua
口試委員:鄭安倉李孟洲冉繁華
口試委員(外文):Cheng, Ann-ChangLee, Meng-ChouNan, Fan-Hua
口試日期:2016-01-25
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:水產養殖學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:漁業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:63
中文關鍵詞:荊眼刺尻魚斑紋蓋刺魚仔稚魚發育蛋白質需求油脂需求
外文關鍵詞:Centropyge acanthopsPomacanthus maculosuslarval developmentprotein requirementlipid requirement
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本論文分為兩部分,一為荊眼刺尻魚(Centropyge acanthops)人工孵化繁殖及胚胎與仔稚魚之發育;二為探討不同蛋白質含量及不同油脂之飼料對斑紋蓋刺魚(Pomacanthus maculosus)幼魚成長之影響。
荊眼刺尻魚受精卵直徑為0.65 ± 0.05 mm,卵中央具有一油球(直徑為0.15± 0.05 mm)。水溫28℃下受精卵約於受精後17-18小時孵化,剛孵化的仔稚魚,體全長為0.8-1.15 mm,肌節上平均分佈黑色色素細胞,具有一很大的卵黃囊,卵黃囊後方具有油滴,眼睛尚未完全發育完成。孵化後第3天時,達2.3-2.5 mm,油球及卵黃囊消耗殆盡,口部已形成。孵化後第11天後,體全長達5.5 mm,魚體開始拉高,消化道發育完整且腸道面積明顯擴增,自吻端直至肛門口散佈有淺褐色及枝枒狀色素,肉眼可見黑色及淡紅色的體色,背部逐漸開始出現黑色素堆積。孵化後第二天下午則開始投餵游仆蟲及人工微粒飼料。孵化後第七天開始提供小型輪蟲與小型橈足類無節幼蟲,並持續添加光合菌與枯草桿菌以穩定水質。
斑紋蓋刺魚為首批成功完全人工繁殖,並銷售全球之蓋刺魚。全球海水觀賞魚市場持續成長的氛圍與蓋刺科魚類繁殖技術逐漸突破的環境下,本研究希望藉由探討斑紋蓋刺魚幼魚對蛋白質與油脂的需求,進而推展至同科其他魚種。實驗二為利用白魚粉為蛋白質來源,鱈魚肝油為油脂來源,利用纖維素及α-澱粉調整能量,配置五組不同蛋白質含量(36.77%、41.45%、47.05%、51.8%、56.5%)、油脂含量9% 之等能量飼料投餵斑紋蓋刺魚幼魚14週。結果顯示,魚隻成長隨著飼料中蛋白質含量增加而增加,直至蛋白質含量47.05%之處理組有最佳的增重率,與36.77%及56.5%處理組有顯著差異(p < 0.05)。飼料轉換率(Feed Conversion Ratio, FCR)在9.28-10.69之間,特殊成長率(Specific Growth Rate, SGR)在0.435-0.626之間,FCR及SGR均在飼料之蛋白質含量47.05%達最高值,同時也有最佳活存率85%。
實驗三則以實際蛋白質含量46.5%作為基礎,使用鱈魚肝油做為油脂來源,配置五組不同油脂含量(5.7%、8.5%、10.2%、12.2%、15.1%)之等能量飼料投餵斑紋蓋刺魚幼魚8週。結果顯示,各處理組魚隻增重率隨飼料中油脂含量減少而增加,在油脂含量5.7%之處理組有最佳的增重率(103.33%),但與油脂含量8.5%之處理組,顯著優於其他組,以迴歸曲線推得飼料油脂含量為2.75 %時,有最佳的成長表現。飼料轉換率在2.70-4.89之間,特殊成長率在0.698-1.268之間,FCR及SGR均在飼料油脂含量5.7%處理組表現最佳。
斑紋蓋刺魚幼魚以摺線迴歸曲線求得蛋白質需求為44.44%,迴歸曲線求得油脂需求為2.75%。

The purpose of this study is divided into two parts: to record and compare the Centropyge acanthops with other marine angel fishs via record of embryonic ontogeny as well as larval and juvenile development; also, as the juvenile Pomacanthus maculosus grow up to know the effect of dietary protein and lipid on the growth performance.
In the first trial, among the species in Pomacanthidae, C. acanthops is the member of pomacanthide family, which has smaller size and the simlair about their morphological, reversible sex change and their spawn behavior. We hope the ability to rear this species in captivity is a valuable tool to be utilized for address a greater breadth and depth of biological questions.
Successful natural spawning of C. acanthops in captivity from 14 December, 2014 to 31 July, 2015 is described for the first time. Throughout the entire spawning period, the water temperature fluctuated between 25.0and 27.0 degrees. Fertilized egg were spherical and floating, with a mean diameter of 0.65 ± 0.05 mm, and a single oil globule with a mean diameter of 0.15 ± 0.05 mm. The eggs will hatch in 19 hours after fertilization under 28 degree. Newly-hatched larvae are 0.8-1.15 mm in length. The yolk sac is almost completely absorbed after three days post-hatch, when the larvae reach 2.3-2.5 mm. The larvae can feed biological feedings on euplotes and copepod nauplii enriched with Isochrysis galbana at first feeding. Bigger size of copepodites and small rotifers can be offered as the larvae grow. Photosynthetic bacteria and Bacillus subtilis was added to stabilize water quality. 12 DPH (5.2-5.4 mm TL), with light brown melanophores covered from head to cloaca and the gastrointestinal development completed.
In the second trial, white fish meal was used as dietary protein source, fish oilwas used as dietary lipid source, α-starch and cellulose was used as energy regulater. Five diets with different dietary protein inclusion levels of 36.77, 41.45, 47.05, 51.8, and 56.5% and dietary lipid levels with 9% are offered in experiment II for eight weeks to study the effect of different diets on growth performance of Pomacanthus maculosus junvenile. The weight gain of which fed diet with 47.05 % protein is the highest (68 %), and a model of weight gain against protein content fitted with broken-line regression shows the highest weight gain at 44.4 % protein level. Food conversion ratio (FCR) were 9.28-10.69. Specific growth rate (SGR) were 0.435-6.26. FCR and SGR were improve with dietary protein increase until the protein level 47.05% hightest.
In the third trial, white fish meal was used as dietary protein source, fish oil was used as dietary lipid source, α-starch and cellulose was used as energy regulater. Base on the previous experiment, junveniles P. maculosus were fed isocaloric diets containing five dietary lipid levels (5.7, 8.5, 10.2, 12.2, 15.1%) and 45 % dietary protein level for 8 weeks. The weight gain of which fed diet with 5.7 % lipid is the highest (103.33%) , is significantly higher(p < 0.05) than those fed treatment, without the 8.5% lipid ped contant.and a model of weight gain against lipid content fitted with second-order polynomial regression analysis shows the highest weight gain at 2.75 % lipid level. Food conversion ratio (FCR) were 2.70-4.89. Specific growth rate (SGR) were 0.698-1.268. FCR and SGR were improve with dietary protein increase until the lipid level 5.7% hightest.

摘要 I
Abstract II
目錄 IV
表目錄 VII
圖目錄 VIII
第一章 前言 1
第二章 文獻整理 4
一、蓋刺魚(Pomacanthidae)簡介 4
1.蓋刺魚分布與分類 4
2.蓋刺魚的生態習性 4
3.蓋刺魚的性轉變機制 5
4.蓋刺魚的性別辨別及生殖 5
5.蓋刺魚的人工繁殖與近期研究現況 6
二、荊眼刺尻魚(Centropyge acanthops)簡介 7
1.荊眼刺尻魚分類地位 7
2.荊眼刺尻魚型態分布與習性 7
三、斑紋蓋刺魚(Pomacanthus maculosus)簡介 8
1.斑紋蓋刺魚分類地位 8
2.斑紋蓋刺魚型態、分布與習性 8
四、蛋白質簡介 9
1.蛋白質的生理功能 9
2.魚類蛋白質的營養需求 9
五、油脂簡介 10
1.油脂對於魚類的生理功能 10
2.魚類對飼料中油脂的最適需求 11
六、餌料生物與人工飼料 12
1.等鞭金藻 12
2.原生動物 13
3.輪蟲 13
4.橈足類 14
第三章 材料與方法 15
ㄧ、實驗一:荊眼刺尻魚胚胎及仔稚魚型態發育之顯微鏡觀察 15
1.實驗生物 15
2.種魚培育環境 15
3.種魚餌料投餵 16
4.餌料生物培養 16
5.益生菌培養 17
6.受精卵及仔稚魚發育觀察 18
7、仔稚魚的培育 19
二、實驗二:投餵不同蛋白質含量飼料對斑紋蓋刺魚幼魚成長影響 19
1.實驗生物 19
2.實驗環境 19
3.實驗條件 20
4.配方設計 20
三、實驗三:投餵不同油脂含量飼料對斑紋蓋刺魚幼魚成長影響 20
1.實驗生物 20
2.實驗環境 21
3.實驗條件 21
4.配方設計 21
四、飼料製作 21
五、一般成分分析 22
六、成長指標 24
1.增重百分率(Percent weight gain) 24
2.特殊成長率(Specific growth rate, SGR),計算公式如下。 25
3.飼料轉換率(Feed conversion ratio, FCR) 25
4.攝食量(Feed Intake, FI) 25
5.活存率(Survival rate) 25
七、統計分析 25
第四章 結果 26
實驗一、荊眼刺尻魚人工孵化繁殖 26
一、種魚產卵 26
二、荊眼刺尻魚受精卵及胚胎的發育 26
三、仔稚魚發育、成長及行為觀察 26
實驗二:投餵不同蛋白質含量飼料對斑紋蓋刺魚幼魚成長影響 27
一、飼料一般成分分析 27
二、不同蛋白質含量對於斑紋蓋刺魚幼魚各成長指標 27
實驗三:投餵不同油脂含量飼料對斑紋蓋刺魚幼魚成長影響 28
一、飼料一般成分分析 28
二、不同油脂含量對於斑紋蓋刺魚幼魚各成長指標 28
第五章 討論 30
實驗一:荊眼刺尻魚的人工孵化繁殖 30
實驗二 :投餵不同蛋白質含量飼料對斑紋蓋刺魚幼魚成長之影響 31
實驗三 :不同油脂含量對斑紋蓋刺魚幼魚成長之影響 32
第六章 結論 34
參考文獻 35
附錄 63


表目錄
Table 1. Ingredient and proximate composition of experimental diets for maculosus Angelfish (Pomacanthus maculos) in experiment 2. 45
Table 2. Ingredient and proximate composition of experimental diets for maculosus Angelfish (Pomacanthus maculos) in experiment 3. 46
Table 3. Ingredient and proximate composition of experimental diets for maculosus Angelfish (Pomacanthus maculosus) in experiment 2. 47
Table 4. Ingredient and proximate composition of experimental diets for maculosus Angelfish (Pomacanthus maculosus) in experiment 3. 48
Table 5. Mean initial weight, mean final weight, weight gain, SGR, FCR, FI and survival rate of Pamacanthus maculosus of experimental 2 in 14 weeks. 49
Table 6. Mean initial weight, mean final weight, weight gain, SGR, FCR, FI and survival rate of Pamacanthus maculosus of experimental 3 in 8 weeks 50
Table 7. Comparison of the eggs and larvae of pomacanthids family 51
Table 8. The optimal protein level of different fish growth 53
Table 9. The optimal lipid level of different fish growth 54

Figure 1. Schematic diagram of the recirculation system for natural spawning 55
Figure 2. Daily changes in the number of egg produced 56
Figure 3. Feeding scheme and growth of Centropyge acanthops from 0 to 12 days post hatch. 57
Figure 4. Embryonic development of Centropyge acanthops from fertilization to late gastrula stage at 28℃ 58
Figure 5. Embryonic development of Centropyge acanthops from neurula to newly hatched larvaeat at 28℃ 59
Figure 6. Larval development of Centropyge acanthops at 28℃ 60
Figure 7. Broken line of experimental 2: dietary protein levels and weight gain (%) of Pamacanthus maculosus. 61
Figure 8. Regression line of experimental 3: dietary lipid levels and weight gain (%) of Pamacanthus maculosus. 62


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