跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.236.28.137) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/07/25 21:27
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:梅妮莎
研究生(外文):Mainisa
論文名稱:金透紅小丑魚繁殖技術之開發與不同色素對呈色及成長之影響
論文名稱(外文):The Study of Hatching Technology Development and The Effect of Different Dietary Pigments on The Skin Pigmentation and Growth ofMaroon Clownfish (Premnas biaculeatus)
指導教授:冉繁華冉繁華引用關係
指導教授(外文):Fan-Hua Nan
口試委員:秦宗顯黃世鈴冉繁華
口試委員(外文):Tzong-Shean ChinShih-Ling HuangFan-Hua Nan
口試日期:2016-01-25
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:水產養殖學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:漁業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:英文
論文頁數:71
中文關鍵詞:金透紅小丑胚胎發育蝦紅素角黃素成長
外文關鍵詞:ornamental fishearly developmentastaxanthincanthaxanthingrowth
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:187
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:55
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
小丑魚(海葵魚)在眾多品種的熱帶魚中,由於其鮮豔及多樣的外觀與能與海葵共生的獨特習性,每每總能吸引眾人目光,也因而成為水族貿易市場中相當受歡迎的物種。為了滿足市場大眾的需求,完善人工繁養殖技術或許能避免過漁的可能。本研究分為兩個部分,第一部分為孵化並記錄金透紅小丑魚(Premnas biaculeatus)胚胎及魚苗早期發育。第二部分則以人工金金透紅小丑魚幼魚,進一步探討了解飼料中添加不同濃度與不同種類的類胡蘿蔔色素對體表呈色與成長之影響。
金透紅小丑魚種魚養殖環境水溫在27-28°C,產卵時間集中在上午10:00- 12:00之間,親魚每次產卵量在300-800顆之間。初生魚卵呈現半透明橘色,橢圓形,受精卵長徑在1.7mm,短徑1mm。魚卵在受精後第七天魚卵開始孵化,孵化時間在第七天日落後1小時內。
剛孵化的魚苗平均體全長為3.42mm;在孵化後第3-4天時,魚體表面色素開始轉為黑色;到第十五天時,魚苗開始呈色,此時魚苗與成魚外觀體色已相當接近;孵化後第30天,各魚鰭發育完整,全身已覆蓋淺棕色的色素細胞,幼魚平均體全長在11-12mm。仔魚開口後,投餵之餌料生物依序為S型輪蟲、橈足類無節幼蟲、豐年蝦無節幼蟲與人工飼料。
第二部分的實驗則於飼料添加不同種類的類胡蘿蔔素,蝦紅素(AS)與角黃素(CA),濃度分別為(0、AS100、AS200、AS400、CA50、CA100、CA200),投餵金透紅小丑進行60天實驗,觀察魚隻成長與體表顏色的變化。
結果顯示,在所有處理組間,成長、SGR、FCR與活存率之間並沒有顯著差異(p>0.05)。所有處理組中,CA100的處理組有較高的成長率,增重率為89.74%,FCR為0.20;而在對照組中成長效率最差,僅47.80%及FCR為0.39。各處理組末重在0.39-0.46g。SGR在0.64-1.02間,各處理組活存率皆高於85%。各處理組金透紅小丑魚體色,用色度值分析顏色參數(L*、a*、b*系統),所有使用蝦紅素與角黃素的處理組,體色皆有變黑的趨勢。在實驗60天後,L*、a*、b*、C*與H*數值,CA50的處理組顯著高於其他處理組,而CA100的數值則顯著低於其他處理組(p<0.05)。
One of the more conspicuous groups of fish on tropical reefs is the anemone fish. Anemonefishes are the most popular attractions of aquarists, and they are important in the aquarium trade, very high demand in the market, surface bright color and diverse, interesting display and especially the unique symbiotic relationship with sea anemones. Therefore, may be more prone to over-exploitation. The present study describes the embryonic development and early ontogeny of Premnas biaculeatus. Also, to investigate the effects of synthetic carotenoids to the skin pigmentation and fish growth.
Anemonefish spawned at 27-28°C. Spawning time concentrated in the morning about10:00 to12:00. The number of eggs at a single spawning ranged from 300 to 800. The eggs were orange in color, elliptical in shape, 1.7 mm in length and 1 mm in diameter. Incubation period lasted for 7 days. Hatching time is within 1 hour after sunset. Newly hatched larvae were having an average total length of 3.42 mm. Body coloration started darkening from 3rd and 4th day after hatching. By the 15th day, the juvenile attained all coloration pattern of an adult fish. On 30th day, all fins were well developed, the whole body was covered with light brown colored chromatophores and the average total length was about 11-12 mm. The larvae were fed with the rotifer Brachionus rotundiformis, copepod nauplii, Artemia nauplii and artificial diet.
The second experiment focused on feed were added with different carotenoids (astaxanthin and canthaxanthin) and different level concentrations (0, AS100, AS200, AS400, CA50, CA100, CA200) were fed on anemone fish (0.27 ± 0.01 g initial weight) for its growth and surface color changes during 60 days. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) were found in growth, SGR, FCR and survival rate among fish from all dietary treatments. The higher growth values were observed in fish feed CA100 diet with 89.74% growth and FCR 0.20 whereas lower growth in fish fed with no carotenoids (control) with 47.80% and FCR 0.39. The final weight varied from 0.39 to 0.46 g. The SGR ranged from 0.64 to 1.02 and survival in all treatments was high ranging from 85% to 100%. There was a general darkening with decreasing in L*, a* and b* after feeding astaxanthin and canthaxanthin. After 60 days of the experiment, L*, a*, b*, C* and H* values in the skin of CA50 fish were significantly (P<0.05) highest, whereas CA100 treatment group showing significantly (P<0.05) lowest values.
Acknowledgement i
Chinese Abstract ii
Abstract iii
Table of Contents v
List of Table vii
List of Figures viii
Chapter
I. Introduction 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Statement of Problem 3
1.3 Objectives 4
II. Literature Review 5
2.1 Biology of Maroon Clownfish (Premnas biaculeatus) 5
2.1.1 Maroon Clownfish Classification and Morphology 5
2.1.2 Distribution and Natural Habitat 6
2.1.3 Social Behavior 7
2.1.4 Breeding 7
2.1.5 Threats and Conservation 10
2.2 Pigment and Color Animal Body Surface 11
2.3 Carotenoids 12
2.3.1 Carotenoids 12
2.3.2 Astaxanthin 14
2.3.3 Canthaxanthin 15
2.3.4 The Function of Carotenoids 16
a. Provitamin A Activity 17
b. Antioxidant and Immune System 18
c. Coloration 19
2.3.5 Absorption, Transport, and Metabolism of Carotenoids 20
III. Materials and Methods 23
3.1 Eggs and Larvae Development of Maroon Clownfish (Premnas biaculeatus) 23
3.1.1 Experimental Site 23
3.1.2 Experimental Fish 23
3.1.3 Experimental Egg Environment 23
3.1.4 Egg Development 23
3.1.5 Larval Rearing Tank Preparation 23
3.1.6 Larval Feeding 24
3.1.7 Larvae Development 24
3.2 Dietary Supplementation with Different Carotenoids on Skin Pigmentation and Growth of Maroon Clownfish (Premnas biaculeatus) 24
3.2.1 Experimental Site 24
3.2.2 Experimental Design 24
3.2.3 Experimental Fish 25
3.2.4 Experimental System 25
3.2.5 Experimental Condition 25
3.2.6 Experimental Feed Formulation 25
3.2.7 Surface Color Determination 26
3.2.8 Sampling and Fish Measurement 26
3.3 Statistical Analysis 27
IV. Results 28
4.1 The Study of Hatching Development of Maroon Clownfish (Premnas biaculeatus) 28
4.1.1 Broodstock Spawning Behavior 28
4.1.2 Eggs Development 39
4.1.3 Larvae Development 30
4.2 Dietary Supplementation with Different Pigments on Skin Pigmentation and Growth of Maroon Clownfish (Premnas biaculeatus) 31
4.2.1 Growth performances 31
4.2.2 Effect of carotenoids on skin color 32
V. Discussion 33
5.1 The Study of Hatching Development of Maroon Clownfish (Premnas biaculeatus) 33
5.1.1 Broodstock Spawning Behavior 33
5.1.2 Eggs Development 34
5.1.3 Larvae Development 36
5.2 Dietary Supplementation with Different Pigments on Skin Pigmentation and Growth of Maroon Clownfish (Premnas biaculeatus) 38
5.2.1 Growth performance 38
5.2.2 Effect of carotenoids on skin color 39
VI. Conclussion 41
References 43
Aas, G.H., Bjerkeng, B., Storebakken, T., Ruyter, B., 1999. Blood appearance, metabolic transformation and plasma transport proteins of C-astaxanthin in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 21: 325-334.
Ahlstrom, E.H., Moser, H.G., 1980. Characters useful in identification of pelagic marine fish eggs. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations Reports, 21, 121–131.
Alava, V.R., Gomes, L.A.O., 1989. Breeding marine aquarium animals: The anemone fish. The Naga Iclarm Quarterly, 12-13.
Allen, G.R., 1972. Anemonefishes: Their Classification and Biology. Neptune City: T.F.H. Publications, 288 pp.
Allen G. R., 1974. The anemonefishes, Their Classification and Biology (second edition). Tropical Fish Hobbyist publication, Neptune City. U.S.A : 352 p.
Allen, G.R., 1980. The Anemonefishes of the world. Species, care and breeding. Aquarium Systems, Ohio
Amar, E.C., Kiron, V., Satoh, S., Watanabe, T., 2001. Influence of various dietary synthetic carotenoids on bio-defence mechanisms in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Aquaculture Research. 32 (Suppl. 1), 162–163.
Ambati, R.R., Moi, P.S., Ravi, S., Aswathanarayana, R.G., 2014. Astaxanthin: Sources, Extraction, Stability, Biological Activities and Its Commercial Applications—A Review. Marine Drugs, 12, 128-152; doi:10.3390/md12010128.
Ando, S., Takeyama, T., Hatano, M., Zama, K., 1985. Carotenoid carrying lipoproteins in the serum of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) associated with migration. Agricultural, Biology and Chemistry, 49: 2185-2187.
Anil, M.K., Santhosh, B., Jasmine, S., Reenamole, S., Unnikrishnan, C., Anukumar, A., 2010. Techniques for mass production of two species of clown fish: Clown anemonefish Amphiprion ocellaris Cuvier, 1830 and Spinecheek anemonefish Premnas biaculeatus (Bloch, 1790). In: Felix, S. (Ed.), The proceedings of the National Seminar on technology and trade prospects in Ornamental aquaculture, Fisheries Research and Extension Centre, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chennai, p. 96-102.
Anil, M.K., Santhosh, B., Prasad, B.O., George, R.M., 2012. Broodstock development and breeding of black-finned anemone fish Amphiprion nigripes Regan, 1908 under captive conditions. Indian Journal Fish, 59(1) : 77-82.
AOAC., 1990. Official Methods of Analysis.15th Ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Inc., Virginia, USA.
Asker, D., Ohta, Y., 2002.Production of canthaxanthin by Haloferax alexandrinus under non-aseptic conditions and a simple, rapid method for its extraction. Application Microbiology and Biotechnology, 58:743–750
Baron, M., Davies, S., Alexander, L., Snellgrove, D., Sloman, K.A., 2008. The effect of dietary pigments on the coloration and behaviour of flame-red dwarf gourami, Colisa lalia. Animal Behaviour 75, 1041–1051
Beardsworth, P.M., Hernández, J.M., 2003. Canthaxanthin is more than a safe carotenoid. World Poultry Bulletin. Volume 19, No.3.
Bell, L.J., 1976. Notes on the nesting success and fecundity of anemonefish Amphiprion clarkii at Miyake-Jima, Japan. Japanese journal of ichthyology 22, 207–211.
Bertschy, A., 1979. Essais de reproduction en aquarium d’Amphiprion ocellaris Cuv. (Pomacentrides). Revue Française D'aquariology, 6, 3:91-94.
Bjerkeng, B., 2000. Carotenoid pigmentation of salmonid fishes—recent progress. In: Cruz-Sua´rez, L.E., Rique-Marie, D., Tapia-Salazar, M., Overa-Novoa, M.A., y Civera-Cerecedo, R. (Eds.), Avances en Nutricio´n Acuı´cola V. Memorias del V Simposium Internacional de Nutricio´n Acuı´cola 19–22 Noviembre, 2000. Me´rida, Yucata´n.
Booth, M., Warner-Smith, R., Allan, G., Glencross, B., 2004.Effects of dietary astaxanthin source and light manipulation on the skin colour of Australian snapper Pagrus auratus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801). Aquaculture Research, 35: 458-464.
Britton, G., 1995. Structure and properties of carotenoids in relation to function. Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Journal. 9, 1551-1558.
Brizio, P., Benedetto, A., Righetti, M., Prearo, M., Gasco, L., Squadrone, S., Abete, M.C., 2013. Astaxanthin and Canthaxanthin (Xanthophyll) as Supplements in Rainbow Trout Diet: In Vivo Assessment of Residual Levels and Contributions to Human Health. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 61, 10954−10959.
Bruckner, A.W., 2005. The importance of the marine ornamental reef fish trade in the wider Caribbean. Revista de Biologia Tropical, 53 (1): 127‐137.
Buston, P.M., 2003. Mortality is associated with social rank in the clown anemonefish (Amphiprion percula). Marine Biology, 143, 811-815.
Buston, P.M., Elith, J., 2011. Determinants of reproductive success in dominant pairs of clownfish: a boosted regression tree analysis. Journal of Animal Ecology, 80: 528-538.
Castenmiller, J.J.M., West, C.E., 1998. Bioavailability and bioconversion of carotenoids. Annual Reviews on Nutrition, 18: 19-38.
Chapman, F.A., Fitz-Coy, S.A., Thurnberg, E.M., Adams, C.M., 1997. United States of America trade in ornamental fish. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 28, 1–10.
Chew, B.P., Park, J.S., 2004. Carotenoid action on the immune response. Journal of Nutrition 134:257S–261S.
Choubert, G., Heinrich, O., 1993. Carotenoid pigments of the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis: assay on rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, pigmentation in comparison with synthetic astaxanthin and canthaxanthin. Aquaculture, 112, 217–226.
Choubert, G., Cravedi, J.-P., Laurentie, M., 2005. Pharmacokinetics and bioavailabilities of 14C-ketocarotenoids, astaxanthin and canthaxanthin, in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Aquaculture Research, 36, 1526-1534.
Choubert, G., Mendes-Pinto, M.M., Morais, R., 2006. Pigmenting efficacy of astaxanthin fed to rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss: effect of dietary astaxanthin and lipid sources. Aquaculture, 257, 429–436.
CIE, 1976. Official recommendations on uniform colour space, colour difference equations and metric colour terms. suppl. N° 2 to CIE publication N° 15, colorimetry. commission international de l'Eclairage, Paris.
Clutton-Brock, T.H., 1991.The evolution of parental care, Vol. Princeton University Press, NJ. pp. 391-420. In: Complex Ecosystem, (Eds.) Sale, P., Academic Press, San Diego CA, USA.
Cook, J.T., McNiven, M.A., Richardson, G.F., Sutterlin A.M., 2000. Growth rate, body composition and feed digestibility conversion of growth-enhanced transgenic Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Aquaculture, 188, 15-32.
Cooper, D.A., Webb, D.R., Peters, J.C., 1997. Evaluation of the potential for olestra to affect the availability of dietary phytochemicals. Journal of Nutrition 127, 1699S-1709S.
Dam Roy. S., Ray B.C., Sarma, K., George, G., 2014. Captive Breeding and Larval Rearing of Maroon Spiny Damsel Fish, Premnas biaculeatus. Journal of the Andaman Science Association Vol. 19(1):78-87.
Delbare, D., Dhert, P., Lavens, P., 1996. Zooplankton. In: Lavens, P. and 80 (geloos, P. (eds.) Manual on the production and use of live food for aquaculture. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 361, Rome, FAO. 1996. 295 pp.
Del Campo, J.A., García-González, M., Guerrero, M.G., 2007. Outdoor cultivation of microalgae for carotenoid production: current state and perspectives. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 74, 1163–1174.
De Ritter, E., Purcell, A.E., 1981. Carotenoid analytical methods. In: Carotenoids as Colorants and Vitamin A Precursors (ed. by J.C. Bauernfeind), pp. 815-923. Academic Press, NewYork.
Dhaneesh, K.V., Kumar, A.T.T., Shunmugaraj, T., 2009. Embryonic development of percula clownfish, Amphiprion percula (Lacepede, 1802). Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 4 (2): 84-89.
Erdman J. W., Bierer T. L., Gugger E. T., 1993. Absorption and transport of carotenoids. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 691:76–85.
EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS). 2010. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of canthaxanthin (E 161 g) as a food additive. European Food Safety Authority Journal, 8(10):1852
EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP). 2014a. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of astaxanthin (CAROPHYLL Pink 10% CWS) for salmonids and ornamental fish. European Food Safety Authority Journal, 12(6):3725.
EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP). 2014b. Scientific opinion on the safety and efficacy of canthaxanthin as a feed additive for poultry and for ornamental birds and ornamental fish. European Food Safety Authority Journal, 12(6):3527.
FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.2005-2015. Fisheries and aquaculture topics. Ornamental Fish. Topics Fact Sheets. Text by Devin Bartley. In: FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department [online]. Rome. Updated 27 May 2005. [Cited 19 November 2015]. Available at: http://www.fao.org/fishery/topic/13611/en
Fassett, R.G., Coombes, J.S., 2011. Astaxanthin: a potential therapeutic agent in cardiovascular disease. Marine Drugs; 9:447-465.
Fautin, D.G., Allen, G.R., 1997. Anemonefishes and Their Host Sea Anemones: A Guide for Aquarists and Divers. Western Australian Museum.
FishLore.com. 2013.Saltwater Aquarium and Reef Tank Book.
Folch, J., Lee, M., Stanley, C.H.S., 1957.A simple method for isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissue. J. Biol. Chem. 226, 497-509.
Frank, H.A., Young‚ A.J., Britton, G., Cogdell, R.J., 1999.The Photochemistry of Carotenoids‚ Kluwer Academic Publishers. USA. 406 p.
Fraser, P.D., Bramley, P.M., 2004. The biosynthesis and nutritional uses of carotenoids. Progress in Lipid Research, 43, 228–265.
Foppen, F.H., 1971. Tables for the identification of carotenoid pigments. Chromatographic Reviews 14,133-298.
Fujii, R., 1993. Coloration and chromatophore. In: Evans, D.H. (Ed.), The Physiology of Fishes. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp. 535–562.
Fujii, R., 2000. The regulation of motile activity in fish chromatophores. Pigment Cell Research, 13(5): 300–319.
García-Chavarría, M., Lara-Flores, M., 2013.The use of carotenoid in aquaculture. Research Journal of Fisheries and Hydrobiology, 8(2): 38-49,
García-González, M., Moreno, J., Manzano, J.C., Florencio, F.J., Guerrero, M.G., 2005.Production of Dunaliella salina biomass rich in 9-cis-β-carotene and lutein in a closed tubular photobioreactor. Journal of Biotechnology, 115, 81–90.
Ghosh, S., Kumar, T.T.A., Balasubramanian, T., 2012a.Determining the level of parental care relating fanning behavior of five species of clownfishes in captivity. Indian Journal of Geo-Marine Sciences, Vol. 41(5), pp. 430-441.
Ghosh, S., Kumar, T.T.A., Balasubramanian, T., 2012b.Embryology of Maldives Clownfish, Amphiprion nigripes (Amphiprioninae). Journal Ocean University of China, 11 (2): 174‐180.
Gomes, E., Dias, J., Silva, P., Valente, L., Empis, J., Gouveia, J.B., Young, A., 2002. Utilization of natural and synthetic sources of carotenoids in the skin pigmentation of gilthead sebream (Sparus aurata). European Food Research and Technology, 214, 287– 293.
Goodwin, T.W., 1955. Carotenoids. In: Modern Methods of Plant Analysis (ed. by K. Peach & M.V. Tracey),Vol. III, pp. 272-311. Springer Verlag, Berlin.
Goodwin, T.W., 1986. Metabolism, Nutrition and Function of Carotenoids. Annual Review of Nutrition, 6:273-97
Gopakumar, G., George, R. M. and Jasmine, S. 1999. Breeding and larval rearing of the clownfish Amphiprion chrysogaster. Marine Fish Information Service, 161: 8-11.
Gouveia, L., Rema, P., Pereira, O., Empis, J., 2003. Colouring ornamental fish (Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus) with microalgal biomass. Aquaculture Nutrition, 9(2):123–129.
Gouveia, L., Rema, P., 2005. Effect of microalgal biomass concentration and temperature on ornamental goldfish (Carassius auratus) skin pigmentation. Aquaculture Nutrition, 11(1):19–23.
Graham, R.D., Rosser, J.M., 2000. Carotenoids in staple foods: Their potential to improve human nutrition. Food Nutrition Bulletin, 21, 405–409.
Green, B.S., 2004. Parental and environmental effects on the early life history of a tropical fish Amphiprion malanopus. Ph.D dissertation, School of Marine Biology and Aquaculture, James Cook University, Queensland, Australia.
Green, B.S., McCormick, M.I., 2004. O2 replenishment to fish nests: males adjust brood care to ambient conditions and brood development. Behavioural Ecology, 16: 389–397.
Grumbach, K.H., Lichtenthaler, H.K., 1982. Chloroplast pigments and their biosynthesis in relation to light intensity Radish seedlings. Photochemistry and Photobiology, 35: 209–212.
Gupta, S.K., Jha, A.K., Pal, A.K., Venkateshwarlu, G., 2007. Use of Natural Carotenoids for Pigmentation in Fishes. Natural Product Radiance, Vol 6(1), pp 46-49.
Halliwell, B., Gutteridge, J.M.C., 1989. Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine, 2nd Ed. Clarendon, Oxford.
Hama, T., 1975. Chromatophores and iridocytes. Medaka (Killfish) Biology and Strains, ed Yamamoto T (Keigaku, Tokyo), pp 138–153.
Hanaee, J., Agh, N., Delazar, A., Sarker, S.D., 2005. Studies on the enrichment of Artemia urmiana cysts for improving fish food value. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 120: 107-112.
Hencken, H.,1992. Biological properties of feed carotenoids. Feed Magazine, (2), 25-28.
Hertrampf, J.W., Piedad-Pascual, F., 2000. Handbook on Ingredients for Aquaculture Feeds. Kluwer Academic Publishers. USA. 573 p.
Hill, G.E., 1999. Mate choice, male quality, and carotenoid-based plumage coloration. In: Adams, N. & Slowtow, R. (Eds), Proc 22 Int. Ornothol. Congr. Durban, University of Natal.
Higuera-Ciapara, I., Felix-Valenzuela, L., Goycoolea, F.M., 2006. Astaxanthin: A review of its chemistry and applications. Critical Review in Food Science and Nutrition, 46, 185–196.
Ho, Y.S., Chen, C.M., Chen, W.V., Chang, W.B., 2008. Embryo Development and Larval Rearing of Pink Clownfish (Amphiprion perideraion). Journal of th Fisheries Socisty of Taiwan, 35(1): 75-85.
Ho, A.L.F.C., Brthran, N.M.O., Lin, J., 2013. Dietary Esterified Astaxanthin Concentration Effect on Dermal Coloration and Chromatophore Physiology in Spinecheek Anemonefish, Premnas biaculeatus. Journal of World Aquaculture Society, vol 44 (1): 76-85.
Hoff, F.H, 1996. Conditioning, spawning and rearing of fish with emphasis on marine clownfish. Aquaculture Consultants Inc, Dade City, Florida, USA. 212 p.
Hunziker, R., 1990. Before it is too late. Tropical Fish Hobbyist, 39(1): 6.
Iga, T., 1993.Kinetic control of leucophore and mobility iridophore of fish. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 10(2):72–80.
Ignatius, B., Rathore, G., Jagadis, I., Kandasami, D., Victor, A.C.C., 2001. Spawning and larval rearing technique for tropical clown fish Amphiprion sebae under captive conditions. Journal of Aquaculture in the Tropics, 16: 241-249.
Jaswir, I., Noviendri, D., Hasrini, R.F., Octavianti, F., 2011. Carotenoids: Sources, medicinal properties and their application in food and nutraceutical industry. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Vol. 5(33): 7119-7131.
Jobling, M. (1995).Environmental Biology of fishes. Chapman and Hall, New York.
Johnson, E.A., An, G.-H., 1991. Astaxanthin from microbial sources. CRC Critical Reviews in Biotechnology, 11, 297-326.
Kalinowski, C.T., Robaina, L.E., Ferna´ndez-Palacios, H., Schuchardt, D., Izquierdo, M.S., 2005. Effect of different carotenoid sources and their dietary levels on red porgy (Pagrus pagrus) growth and skin colour. Aquaculture, 244, 223– 231.
Keenleyside, M., 1991.Parental care. pp. 191-208. In: Cichlid fishes: behaviour, ecology and evolution, (Eds.) Keenleyside, M., Chapman and Hall, London.
Khan, M.H.K., Ang, K.J., Ambak, M.A., Saad, C.R., 1994. Optimum dietary protein requirement of Malaysian freshwater catfish, Mystus nemurus (Cuvier). Aquaculture 112, 227-235.
Kidd, P., 2011. Astaxanthin, cell membrane nutrient with diverse clinical benefits and anti-aging potential. Alternative Medicine Review,16, 355–364.
Kimler, V.A., Taylor, J.D., 2002. Morphological studies on the mechanisms of pigmentary organelle transport in fish xanthophores and melanophores. Microscopy Research and Technique, 58, 470–480.
Kimura, T., Nagao, Y., Hashimoto, H., Yamamoto-Shiraishi, Y., Yamamoto, S., Yabe, T., Takada, S., Kinoshita, M., Kuroiwa, A., Naruse, K., 2014. Leucophores are similar to xanthophores in their specification and differentiation processes in medaka. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences, vol. 111, no. 20; 7343-7348.
Kirti, K., Amita, S., Priti, S., Kumar, A.M., Jyoti, S., 2014. Review Article;Colorful World of Microbes: Carotenoids and Their Applications. Advances in Biology.13 p.
Kläui, H., Bauernfeind, J.C., 1981. Carotenoids as food colors. In: Carotenoids as Colorants and Vitamin A Precursors (ed. by J.C. Bauernfeind), pp. 47-317. Academic Press, New York.
Knouft, J.H., Page, L.M., Plewa, M.J., 2003. Antimicrobial egg cleaning by the fringed darter (Perciformes: Percidae: Etheostoma crossopterum): implications of a novel component of parental care in fishes. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 270: 2405-2411.
Kotake-Nara, E., Nagao, A., 2011.Review; Absorption and Metabolism of Xanthophylls. Marine Drugs, 9; 1024-1037.
Krinsky, N.I., Landrum, J.T., Bone, R.A., 2003. Biologic mechanisms of the protective role of lutein and zeaxanthin in the eye. Annual Review of Nutrition, 23, 171–201.
Krishna, M.V.R., Anil, M.K., Raj, P.N., 2015. Studies on Growth and Development of Hatchery Produced Juveniles of Amphiprion Clarkii (Bennett, 1830). The International Journal Of Science and Technology, Vol 3 Issue 5.
Lamoreux, M.L., Kelsh, R.N., Wakamatsu, Y., Ozato, K., 2005. Pigment pattern formation in the medaka embryo. Pigment Cell Research, 18(2):64–73.
Liebler, D.C., 1993. Antioxidant Reactions of Carotenoids. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 691: 20–31
Liew, H.J., Ambak, M.A., Abol-Munafi, A.B., 2006.Embryonic development of clownfish Amphiprion ocellaris under laboratory conditions. Journal of Sustainability and Management, 1, 64–73.
Lilley, G.R., Lilley, R., 2007. Towards a Sustainable Marine Aquarium Trade: An Indonesian Perspective. SPC Live Reef Fish Information Bulletin #17.
Lin, M.Q., Ushio, H., Ohshima, T., Yamanaka, H., Koizumi, C., 1998.Skin color control of the red sea bream (Pagrus major). Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und-Technologie, 31: 27-32.
Liu, X., Wang, H., Chen, Z., 2014. Effect of carotenoids on body colour of discus fish (Symphysodon Aequifasciatus axelrodi Schultz, 1960). Aquaculture Research, 1–6.
Lu, S., Li, L., 2008.Carotenoid Metabolism: Biosynthesis, Regulation, and Beyond. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology, 50 (7): 778–785.
Madhu, K., Madhu, R., Krishnan, L., Sasidharan, C.S., Venugopalan, K.M., 2006. Spawning and larval rearing of Amphiprion ocellaris under captive condition. Marine Fisheries Information Service, No 188pp.1-5.
Madhu, K., 2009. Pair formation, broodstock development and breeding of clown fishes. Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, India. No. 1603.
Madhu, K., Madhu, R., Retheesh, T., 2012.Broodstock development, breeding, embryonic development andlarviculture of spine-cheek anemonefish, Premnas biaculeatus (Bloch, 1790). Indian Journal of Fisheries, 59(1) :65-75.
Maoka, T., 2011.Review; Carotenoids in Marine Animals. Marine Drugs (9), 278-293
Matsuno, T., 2001. Review Article: Aquatic animal carotenoids. Fisheries Science, 67(5): 771–783
McGraw, K.J., Ardia, D.R., 2003. Carotenoids, immunocompetence, and the information content of sexual colors: an experimental test. American Society of Naturalists, 162(6):704–712.
McGraw, K.J., Klasing, K.C., 2006. Carotenoid, Immunity, and Integumentary Coloration in red junglefowl (Gallus gallus).The Auk, 123(4):1161–1171.
Meyers, S.P., 1994. Developments in world aquaculture, feed formulations, and role of carotenoids. Pure and Applied Chemistry, Vol. 66, No. 5, pp. 1069-1076.
Miao, F., Lu, D., Li, Y., Zeng, M., 2006.Characterization of astaxanthin esters in Haematococcus pluvialis by liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Analytical Biochemistry, 352:176–181
Michael, S.W., 2008. Damselfishes and Anemonefishes: The Complete illustrated Guide to Their Identification, Behavior, and Captive Care. TFH Publication. Neptune City.256 p.
Moe, M.A., 1999. Marine ornamental aquaculture. First International Conference of Marine Ornamentals. Hawaii.
Molina, L.D., Segade, A.B., 2013. An overview of marine ornamental fish breeding as a potential support to the aquarium trade and to the conservation of natural fish populations.Grupo de investigación en acuicultura, ULPGC & ICCM, Telde, Canary Islands. International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, 0: 1–25.
Mora, G.I., Arredondo-Figueroa, J., Ponce-Palafox, J., Barriga-Soca, I.A., Vernon-Carter, J., 2006. Comparison of red chilli (Capsicum annuum) oleoresin and astaxanthin on rainbow trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss) fillet pigmentation. Aquaculture, 258, 487.
NAFED (National Agency For Export Development). 2010. Indonesian Ornamental Fish Redefining the Global Status. National Agency For Export Development (NAFED) The Ministry of Trade Republic of Indonesia. Export Indonesia News [Bulletin].
Nasrabadi, M.R.N., Razavi, S.H., 2010. Use of response surface methodology in a fed-batch process for optimization of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates to achieve high levels of canthaxanthin from Dietzia natronolimnaea HS-1. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 109:361–368
Nelis, H.J., de Leenheer, A.P., 1989. Reinvestigation of Brevibacterium sp. Strain KY-4313 as a Source of Canthaxanthin. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 55, No. 10, p. 2505-2510.
Nickell, D.C., Bomage, N.R., 1998.The effect of timing and duration of feeding astaxanthin on the development and variation of fillet colour and efficiency of pigmentation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture, 169, 233– 246.
NRC (Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle). 2000. 7. Natl. Acad. Press; Washington, DC.rev. ed.
Oelmuller, R., Mohr, H., 1985. Carotenoid composition in milo (Sorghum vulgare) shoots as affected by phytochrome and chlorophyll. Planta, 164: 390–395.
Olivotto, I., Cardinali, M., Barbaresi, L., Maradonna, F., Carnevali, O., 2003. Coral reef breeding: the secretes of each species. Aquaculture, 224: 69-78.
Olivotto, I., Zenobi, A., Rollo, A., Migliarini, B., Avella, M., Carnevali, O., 2005. Breeding, rearing and feeding studies in the cleaner goby Gobiosoma evelynae. Aquaculture, 250:175-182.
Olson, J.A., 1994. Absorption, transport, and metabolism ofcarotenoids in humans. Pure and Applied Chemistry, Vol. 66, No. 5, pp. 1011-1016.
Page, G., Davies, S., 2006.Tissue astaxanthin and canthaxanthin distribution in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology-Part A: Molecular and Integrative Physiology, 143, 125–132.
Park, J.S. Chyun, J.H., Kim, Y.K., Line, L.L., Chew, B.P., 2010. Astaxanthin decreased oxidative stress and inflammation and enhanced immune response in humans. Nutrition and Metabolism, 7, 18.
Parker, R.S., 1996.Absorption, metabolism, and transport of carotenoids. Federation of American Societies and Experimental Biology, 5:542-51
Pavlidis, M., Papandroulakis, N., Divanach, P., 2006. A method for the comparison of chromaticity parameters in fish skin: preliminary results for coloration pattern of red skin Sparidae. Aquaculture, 258, 211–219.
Rao, A.V., Rao, L.G., 2007. Carotenoids and human health. Pharmacological Research, 55, 207–216.
Rattanayuvakorn, S., Mungkornkarn, P., Thongpan, A., Chatchavalvanich, K., 2005. Embryonic Development of Saddleback Anemonefish, Amphiprion polymnus, Linnaeus (1758). Kasetsart Journal: Natural Science, 39: 455 - 463.
Rehulka J., 2000. Influence of astaxanthin on growth rate, condition, and some blood indices of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Aquaculture, 190, 27–47.
Richardson, D.L., Harrison, P.L. and Harriott, V.J., 1997. Timing of spawning and fecundity of a tropical and subtropical anemonefish (Pomacentridae: Amphiprion) on a high latitude reef on the east coast of Australia. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 156, 175–181.
ROC Yearbook. 2014. The Republic of China Yearbook 2014. Executive Yuan. 350 p.
Rodriguez-Amaya, D.B., 1997.Carotenoids and Food Preparation: The Retention of Provitamin A Carotenoids in Prepared, Processed, and Stored Foods. U.S. Agency for International Development. USA. 99 p.
Ross, R.M., 1978. Reproductive behavior of anemonefish Amphiprion melanopus on Guam. Copeia, 1978, 103–107.
Rotlant, J., Tort, L., Montero, D., Pavlidis, M., Martinez, M., Wenderlaar Bonga, S.E., Balm, P.H.M., 2003.Background colour influence on the stress response in cultured red porgy Pagrus pagrus. Aquaculture, 223: 129-139.
Sale, P.F., Eckert, G.J., Ferell, D.J., Fowler, A.J., Jones, T.A., Mapstone, B.D., Stell, W.J., 1986. Aspects of the demography of seven species of coral reef fishes, with recommendations for their management. Report to the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Townsville, Queensland.
Simpson, K.L., 1983. Relative value of carotenoids as precursors of vitamin A. Proceedings of the Nutritiion Society, 42:7-17.
Simpson, K.L., Tsou, S.C.S., Chichester, C., 1985.Carotene. In: Method of Vitamin Assay (ed. by J. Augustin, B.P. Klein, D. Becher & P.Venugopal), pp.185-220. JohnWiley & Sons, NewYork, NY, USA.
Slifka, K.A., Bowen, P.E., Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis, M., Crissey, S.D., 1999.A survey of serum and dietary carotenoids in captive wild animals. Journal of Nutrition, 129, 380–390.
Straub, O., 1976. Key to Carotenoids. Birkhauser Verlag, Basel,163pp.
Stickney, R.R., 2005. Aquaculture: An Introductory text. 2nd Edition. CABI Publishing, Oxfosdshire, London. 304.
Tacon, A.G.J., 1981. Speculative review of possible carotenoid function in fish. Progressive Fish-Culturist, 43, 205–208.
Takeuchi, I.K., 1976. Electron microscopy of two types of reflecting chromatophores (iridophores and leucophores) in the guppy, Lebistes reticulatus Peters. Cell Tissue Research, 173(1):17–27.
Tanaka, Y., Yamamoto, A., Kamata, T.,Simpson, K., 1992. Biochemical study on the carotenoids in the anemonefish, Amphiprion spp. Memoirs of Faculty of Fisheries, Kagoshima University 41:1–8.
Teimouri, M., Amirkolaie, A.K., 2015.The effects of synthetic pigments on pigmentation of Pethia conchonius (Hamilton, 1822). Aquaculture Research, 46, 1156–1161.
Tlusty, M., Hyland, C.,2005. Astaxanthin deposition in the cuticle of juvenile American lobster (Homarus americanus): implications for phenotypic and genotypic coloration. Marine Biology, 147, 113–119.
Torrissen, O.J., Hardy, R.W., Shearer, K.D., 1989. Pigmentation of salmonids - Carotenoid Deposition and Metabolism. CRC Critical Reviews in Aquatic Sciences, 1:209-225.
Tsushima, M., 2007.Distribution and Metabolism of Carotenoids in Animals. Foods Food Ingredients Journal of Japan, Vol. 212, No.7,
Vachali, P., Bhosale, P., Bernstein, P.S., 2012. Microbial Carotenoids. Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.); 898:41-59.
Van der Salm, A.L., Martínez, M., Flik, G., Bonga, S.E.W., 2004. Effects of husbandry conditions on the skin colour and stress response of red porgy, Pagrus pagrus. Aquaculture, 241, 371-386.
Veron, J.E.N., Hoegh‐Guldberg, O., Lenton, T.M., Lough, J.M., Obura, D.O., Pearce‐ Kelly, P., Sheppard, C.R.C., Spalding, M., Stafford‐Smith, M.G., Rogers, A.D., 2009. The coral reed crisis: the critical importance of <350 ppm CO2. Marine Pollution Bulletin 58; 1428–1436.
Wabnitz, C., Taylor, M., Green, E., Razak, T., 2003. From ocean to aquarium.UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Cambridge, 64 pp.
Watanabe, T., Kitajima, C., Fujita, S., 1983. Nutritional values of live organisms used in Japan for mass propagation of fish: a review. Aquaculture, 34: 115-143.
White, D.A., Moody, A.J., Serwata, R.D., Bowen, J., Soutar, C., Young A.J., Davies, S.J., 2003. The degree of carotenoid esterification influences the absorption of astaxanthin in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Aquaculture Nutrition, 9: 247-251.
Wilkerson, J.D., 2001. Clownfishes : A guide to their Captive Care, Breeding and Natural History. Microsom Ltd. USA. 240 p.
Wood, E., 2001a. Collection of coral reef fish for aquaria: Global trade, conservation issues and management strategies. Marine Conservation Society, Herefordshire, 80 pp.
Wood, E., 2001b. Global advances in conservation and management of marine ornamental resources. Marine conservation society. Herefordshire, UK. Aquarium Sciences and Conservation 3: 65‐77.
Yasir, I., Qin, J.G., 2007. Embryology and early ontogeny of an anemonefish Amphiprion ocellaris.Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK. 87: 1025–1033.
連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top