跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(35.172.136.29) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/07/29 07:45
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:范尼思
研究生(外文):Luis Fernando Valenzuela Munguia
論文名稱:飼糧中添加藻類萃取物對於太平洋白蝦的成長、免疫、抗氧化力及氧化緊迫反應的影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Dietary Supplement of Algae Extract on Growth, Immunity, Antioxidant Capacity and Oxidative Stress Response of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)
指導教授:陳瑤湖陳瑤湖引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yew-Hu Chien
口試委員:黃承輝賴弘智鄭達智陳瑤湖
口試委員(外文):Huang, Chen-HueiLai, Hong-ThihCheng, Da-ChihYew-Hu Chien
口試日期:2016-06-17
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:水產養殖學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:漁業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:英文
論文頁數:79
中文關鍵詞:太平洋白蝦抗氧化物萃取物抗氧化反應免疫反應代謝反應
外文關鍵詞:Litopenaeus vannameiantioxidant extractsantioxidant responseimmune responsemetabolic response
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:164
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:36
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
此研究的目的是要評估飼糧中添加藻類(Spirulina sp., Chlorella sp., Nannochloropsis sp., Sargassum wightii及 Ulva lactuca)萃取物對太平洋白蝦(Litopenaeus vannamei)的成長、免疫、抗氧化能力及氧化緊迫反應的影響。十二個處理包括控制組(C)、蝦紅素標準控制組(AX)及使用藻類的10組,其中5組為單倍濃度Chlorella (Cx1)、Spirulina (Sx1)、Nannochloropsis (Nx1)、Sargassum(Sx1)及Ulva (Ux1);相對兩倍濃度的是Cx2、Sx2、Nx2、Sx2及Ux2。均衡組的比較顥示含萃取物的組及蝦紅素比控制組有顯著較高的平均終重、平均增重及平均比成長。總血球數(THC)在正常及低溶氧狀況下,有添加組皆高於控制組。從最高至最低在無緊迫下,紅血球的排序為:(Cx2 = Sx2 = Wx2 = Ux2 = Nx2) > (Sx1 = Cx1 = Wx1 =Ux1 = Nx1) > AX > C;在有緊迫下排序為:(Ux2 = Nx2 = Wx2 = Ux2 = Nx2) > (Cx1 = Sx1 = Nx1 =Wx1 = Ux1) > AX > C。SOD在不同處理及濃度下呈現差異且增加不同。在緊迫下,GPx在添加組顯著的不同於控制組。然而儘管來源或濃度不同,GPx在添加組之間並無差異。類似於GPx,GR在緊迫下,添加組比蝦紅素組及控制組高,代謝反應進行均衡組分析顯示在無緊迫與有緊迫下Gluc及Trigs有三種比較呈現顯著:控制組比處理組、蝦紅素組比藻萃取物組、以及藻萃取物中單倍濃度比雙倍濃度在低溶氧的緊迫下,雙倍濃度組的蝦比單倍濃度組的蝦活存較久。整體而言,白蝦餵食添加藻類萃取物的飼糧可增進其免疫、抗氧化及代謝之反應。
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary antioxidant supplements extracted from algae (Spirulina sp., Chlorella sp., Nannochloropsis sp., Sargassum wightii and Ulva lactuca) on growth, immunity, antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress response of pacific white Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Twelve treatments were made including a Control (C), standard control astaxanthin (AX) and 10 diets using algae, five in single concentration Chlorella (Cx1), Spirulina (Sx1), Nannochloropsis (Nx1), Sargassum(Sx1) and Ulva (Ux1), and five with double concentration Chlorella (Cx2), Spirulina (Sx2), Nannochloropsis (Nx2), Sargassum(Sx2) and Ulva (Ux2). After orthogonal comparison, the treatments supplemented with raw extract and astaxanthin compared to control obtained significantly higher averages of MFW, MWG and SGR. Total hemocytes count (THC) showed to be significantly higher in supplemented diets compared to control under normal and hypoxia conditions. Analysis of non-stressed and stressed shrimp immune parameters ranked the greatest to the least as follow: RB under no stress: (Cx2 = Sx2 = Wx2 = Ux2 = Nx2) > (Sx1 = Cx1 = Wx1 =Ux1 = Nx1) > AX > C. RB under stress: (Ux2 = Nx2 = Wx2 = Ux2 = Nx2) > (Cx1 = Sx1 = Nx1 =Wx1 = Ux1) > AX > C. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), was very different and increased differentially under varying concentration of treatment supplementation. Glutathione peroxide (GPx), under stress was significantly different when comparing the supplemented diets against control. However, supplemented diets were no significantly different, despite, source or concentration. Glutathione reductase (GR), similarly to GPx under stress was significantly higher when comparing the supplemented diets against control and astaxanthin. The orthogonal analysis for the metabolic response showed, Gluc and Trigs non-stressed and stressed condition had significant difference in three levels of comparison control vs. treatments, astaxanthin vs. algae extracts and algae extracts x1 vs. x2. Hypoxia test revealed that double concentration diets lasted for longer time under stress conditions and were significantly higher than single concentration of supplemented diets. Overall, results in this study showed that immune response, antioxidant response and metabolic response of L. vannamei, were enhanced significantly by the supplementation of algae-derived antioxidant in their diets.
Acknowledgements iii
摘要 iv
Abstract v
Tables of Contents vi
List of Tables ix
List of Figures xi
1. Introduction 1
1.1 Importance of Shrimp in aquaculture 2
1.2 Reactive Oxygen Species 2
1.3 Antioxidants 2
1.4 Importance of Micro and Macroalgae 3
1.5 Polyphenols 3
1.6 General Objective 3
2. Literature Review 4
2.1 White Shrimp 5
2.1.1 White Shrimp Taxonomy 5
2.1.2 Shrimp Immune Capacity 5
2.1.3 Shrimp Immune Capacity Assessment 6
2.2 Algae 7
2.2.1 Microalgae 7
2.2.2 Macroalgae 8
2.3 Antioxidants 9
2.4 Polyphenols 9
2.4.1 Role of Polyphenols in Algae 10
2.5 Reactive Oxygen Species 10
3. Material and Methods 11
3.1 Algae Source 12
3.2 Algae Extraction Method 12
3.3 Total Phenolic Content Estimation 12
3.4 Antioxidant Essays 13
3.4.1 Total Antioxidant Status (TAS) 13
3.4.2 Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) 13
3.4.3 Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) 14
3.5 In vitro Antimicrobial Activity 14
3.5.1 Microbes 14
3.5.2 Antibacterial Disk Diffusion Test 14
3.6 Experimental Design 14
3.7 Experimental System 15
3.8 Shrimp Source 15
3.9 Experimental Diets 15
3.10 Sample Collection 16
3.11 Oxygen Depletion Stress Test 16
3.12 Biochemical Analysis 16
3.12.1 Antioxidant Capacity 16
3.12.2 Immune Response 16
3.12.3 Metabolic Response 17
3.13 Growth Parameters Measured 17
3.13.1 Survival and Growth Performance 17
3.14 Proximate Analysis 17
3.15 Statistical Analysis 17
4. Results 19
4.1 Total phenolic content 20
4.2 Total Antioxidant Status Determination (ABTS) 20
4.3 Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay 20
4.4 Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) Antioxidant Assay 21
4.5 Statistical Correlation of Different Antioxidant Assays Against TPC 21
4.6 Disk Diffusion Test Antibacterial Assay 22
4.7 Shrimp Growth Performance and Muscle Proximate Analysis 22
4.8 Shrimp Immune Response 23
4.9 Shrimp Antioxidant Response 24
4.10 Shrimp Metabolic Response 25
4.11 Oxygen Depletion Stress Test 27
4.12 Correlation Among Parameters 27
5. Discussion 28
5.1 Algae Total Phenolic Content 29
5.2 Algae Total Antioxidant Assay 30
5.3 Algae Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl 31
5.4 Algae Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power 32
5.5 Statistical Correlation of Different Antioxidant Assays Against TPC 32
5.6 Disk Diffusion Test Antibacterial Assay 33
5.7 Shrimp in vivo Experiment 33
6. Conclusion and Recommendations 37
References 40
Tables 51
Figures 70
Agarwal, Rajesh, Santosh K. Katiyar, Sikandar G. Khan, and Hasan Mukhtar. 1993. "Protection against ultraviolet B radiation-induced effects in the skin of SKH-1 hairless mice by a polyphenolic fraction isolated from green tea". Photochemistry and Photobiology 58 (5): 695-700.

Aguirre-Guzman, Gabriel, Jesus G Sanchez-Martinez, Angel I Campa-Cordova, Antonio Luna-Gonzalez, and Felipe Ascencio. 2009. "Penaeid Shrimp Immune System". The Thai Journal of Veterinary Medicine 39 (3): 205-2015.

Ames, B. N., M. K. Shigenaga, and T. M. Hagen. 1993. "Oxidants, Antioxidants, And The Degenerative Diseases of Aging.". Proceedings of The National Academy of Sciences 90 (17): 7915-7922.

Antolovich, Michael, Paul D. Prenzler, Emilios Patsalides, Suzanne McDonald, and Kevin Robards. 2001. "Methods for Testing Antioxidant Activity". The Analyst 127 (1): 183-198.

Araneda, Marcelo, Eduardo P. Pérez, and Eucario Gasca-Leyva. 2008. "White Shrimp Penaeus vannamei Culture in Freshwater at Three Densities: Condition State Based On Length and Weight". Aquaculture 283 (1-4): 13-18.

Arnold, Thomas M. 2008. "Brown Algal Polyphenols: Primary Metabolites with Multiple, Transitional Roles". Journal of Phycology 37: 6-6

Bachère, E., E. Mialhe, D. Noël, V. Boulo, A. Morvan, and J. Rodriguez. 1995. "Knowledge and Research Prospects in Marine Mollusc and Crustacean Immunology". Aquaculture 132 (1-2): 17-32.

Bachère, Evelyne. 2000. "Shrimp Immunity and Disease Control". Aquaculture 191 (1-3): 3-11.

Bauer, Alfred W. 1959. "Single-Disk Antibiotic-Sensitivity Testing of Staphylococci". American Medical Association’s journal of Internal Medicine 104 (2): 208.

Brown, M.R., S.W. Jeffrey, J.K. Volkman, and G.A Dunstan. 1997. "Nutritional Properties of Microalgae for Mariculture". Aquaculture 151 (1-4): 315-331.

Cadenas, Enrique and Lester Packer. 2002. Handbook of Antioxidants. New York: Marcel Dekker.

Chang, Yueh-Ping, Chun-Hung Liu, Chih-Chung Wu, Chi-Ming Chiang, Juang-Lin Lian, and Shu-Ling Hsieh. 2012.
"Dietary Administration of Zingerone to Enhance Growth, Non-Specific Immune Response, And Resistance to Vibrio alginolyticus in Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus Vannamei) Juveniles". Fish & Shellfish Immunology 32 (2): 284-290.

Choi, Jonghoon and James T. Oris. 2000. "Evidence of Oxidative Stress in Bluegill Sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) Liver Microsomes Simultaneously Exposed to Solar Ultraviolet Radiation and Anthracene".
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 19 (7): 1795-1799.

Das, Minati, Pratima Sur, Aparna Gomes, J. R. Vedasiromoni, and Dilip K. Ganguly. 2002. "Inhibition of Tumour Growth and Inflammation by Consumption of Tea". Phytotherapy Research 16 (S1): 40-44.

Davies, Kelvin J.A. 1995. "Oxidative Stress: The Paradox of Aerobic Life". Biochemical Society Symposia 61: 1-31.

De Forbes, Donna M. 2008. Save The Bay's Uncommon Guide to Common Life of Narragansett Bay and Rhode Island Waters. Providence, R.I.: Save the Bay.

Du, Yu, Huaifang Guo, and Hongxiang Lou. 2007. "Grape Seed Polyphenols Protect Cardiac Cells from Apoptosis Via Induction of Endogenous Antioxidant Enzymes". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 55 (5): 1695-1701.

El Gharras, Hasna. 2009. "Polyphenols: Food Sources, Properties and Applications - A Review" International Journal of Food Science & Technology 44 (12): 2512-2518.

Fingerman, M., N.C. Jackson, and R. Nagabhushanam. 1998. "Hormonally-Regulated Functions in Crustaceans as Biomarkers of Environmental Pollution". Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Pharmacology, Toxicology and Endocrinology 120 (3): 343-350.

Flegel, T.W. 2006. "Detection of Major Penaeid Shrimp Viruses in Asia, A Historical Perspective with Emphasis On Thailand". Aquaculture 258 (1-4): 1-33.

Flores, Maricela, Fernando Díaz, Rebeca Medina, Ana Denisse Re, and Alexei Licea. 2007. "Physiological, Metabolic and Haematological Responses in White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) Juveniles Fed Diets Supplemented with Astaxanthin Acclimated to Low-Salinity Water". Aquaculture Research 38 (7): 740-747.

Fox, Joe. 2007. "Litopenaeus vannamei (Whiteleg Shrimp)". Cabi.Org. http://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/71097.
Frei, Balz, and Jane V. Higdon. "Antioxidant activity of tea polyphenols in vivo: evidence from animal studies." The Journal of nutrition 133.10 (2003): 3275S-3284S.

Fridovich, I. 1995. "Superoxide Radical and Superoxide Dismutases". Annual Review of Biochemistry 64 (1): 97-112.

Giulianini, Piero Giulio, Manuel Bierti, Simonetta Lorenzon, Silvia Battistella, and Enrico Antonio Ferrero. 2007. "Ultrastructural and Functional Characterization of Circulating Hemocytes from The Freshwater Crayfish Astacus leptodactylus: Cell Types and Their Role After in Vivo Artificial Non-Self Challenge". Micron 38 (1): 49-57.

Habib, M. Ahsan B. 2008. “A Review On Culture, Production, And Use of Spirulina as Food for Humans and Feeds for Domestic Animals and Fish”. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Halliwell, B. 2000. "Antioxidant Activity and Other Biological Effects of Flavonoids". International Congress and Symposium Series - Royal Society of Medicine 226: 13-23.

Hernandez, F., J. Madrid, V. Garcia, J. Orengo, and M. D. Megias. 2004. "Influence of Two Plant Extracts On Broilers Performance, Digestibility, And Digestive Organ Size". Poultry Science 83 (2): 169-174.

Holthuis, L. B., Isabel Pérez Farfante, Brian Kensley, and Isabel Perez Farfante. 1998. "Penaeoid and Sergestoid Shrimps and Prawns of the World. Keys and Diagnoses for The Families and Genera". Journal of Crustacean Biology 18 (3): 621.

Hsieh, T, J Wang, C Hu, C Li, C Kuo, and S Hsieh. 2008. "Effects of Rutin from Toona Sinensis on the Immune and Physiological Responses of White Shrimp (Litopenaeus Vannamei) Under Vibrio alginolyticus Challenge". Fish & Shellfish Immunology 25 (5): 581-588.

Huang, Dejian, Boxin Ou, and Ronald L. Prior. 2005. "The Chemistry Behind Antioxidant Capacity Assays". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 53 (6): 1841-1856.

Huynh, Truong-Giang, Su-Tuen Yeh, Yong-Chin Lin, Jeng-Feng Shyu, Li-Li Chen, and Jiann-Chu Chen. 2011. "White Shrimp Litopenaeus Vannamei Immersed in Seawater Containing Sargassum hemiphyllum Var. Chinense Powder and Its Extract Showed Increased Immunity and Resistance Against Vibrio Alginolyticus and White Spot Syndrome Virus". Fish & Shellfish Immunology 31 (2): 286-293.

Iwamoto, Chika, Takeshi Yamada, Yoshinori Ito, Katsuhiko Minoura, and Atsushi Numata. 2001. "Cytotoxic Cytochalasans from A Penicillium Species Separated from a Marine Alga". Tetrahedron 57 (15): 2997-3004.

Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul, Bok Luel Lee, and Kenneth Söderhäll. 2006. "Cell-Mediated Immunity in Arthropods: Hematopoiesis, Coagulation, Melanization and Opsonization". Immunobiology 211 (4): 213-236.

Johansson, M.W. and K. Soderhall. 1989. "Cellular Immunity in Crustaceans and the Pro-Po System". Parasitology Today 5 (6): 171-176.

Kang, Min-Sook, Sang-Jun Sim, and Hee-Jeong Chae. 2004. "Chlorella as a Functional Biomaterial". Korean Society for Biotechnology and Bioengineering 19 (1): 1-11.
Keeling, P. J. 2004. "Diversity and Evolutionary History of Plastids and Their Hosts". American Journal of Botany 91 (10): 1481-1493.

Kelman, Dovi, Ellen Kromkowski Posner, Karla J. McDermid, Nicole K. Tabandera, Patrick R. Wright, and Anthony D. Wright. 2012. "Antioxidant Activity of Hawaiian Marine Algae". Marine Drugs10 (12): 403-416.

Kilinc, Berna, Semra Cirik, Gamze Turan, Hatice Tekogul, and Edis Koru. 2013. "Seaweeds for Food and Industrial Applications". Food Industry Chapter 31.

Le Moullac, Gilles and Philippe Haffner. 2000. "Environmental Factors Affecting Immune Responses in Crustaceans". Aquaculture 191 (1-3): 121-131.

Le Moullac, Gilles, Claude Soyez, Denis Saulnier, Dominique Ansquer, Jean Christophe Avarre, and Peva Levy. 1998. "Effect of Hypoxic Stress on the Immune Response and The Resistance to Vibriosis of the Shrimp Penaeus stylirostris". Fish & Shellfish Immunology 8 (8): 621-629.

Leopold, Jane A and Joseph Loscalzo. 2009. "Cyclic Strain Modulates Resistance to Oxidant Stress by Increasing G6PDH Expression in Smooth Muscle Cells". American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology 279 (5): H2477-H2485.

Leung, PingSun and Carole Ruth Engle. 2006. Shrimp Culture. [Baton Rouge, La.]: World Aquaculture Society.
Li, Chang-Che, Su-Tuen Yeh, and Jiann-Chu Chen. 2010. "Innate Immunity of the White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Weakened by the Combination of a Vibrio alginolyticus Injection and Low-Salinity Stress". Fish & Shellfish Immunology 28 (1): 121-127.

Liao, I Chiu and Yew-Hu Chien. 2011. "The Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, In Asia: The World’S Most Widely Cultured Alien Crustacean". In The Wrong Place - Alien Marine Crustaceans: Distribution, Biology And Impacts, 6th ed., 489-519. Springer Science & Business Media, 2011.

Liu, Chun-Hung, Shinn-Pyng Yeh, Chin-Ming Kuo, Winton Cheng, and Chang-Hung Chou. 2006. "The Effect of Sodium Alginate on the Immune Response of Tiger Shrimp Via Dietary Administration: Activity and Gene Transcription". Fish & Shellfish Immunology 21 (4): 442-452.

Lorenzon, Simonetta, Piero Giulio Giulianini, and Enrico Antonio Ferrero. 1997. "Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Hyperglycemia Is Mediated by CHH Release in Crustaceans". General and Comparative Endocrinology 108 (3): 395-405.

Lucas, John S and Paul C Southgate. 2003. Aquaculture. Oxford, UK: Fishing News Books.

Menz, A. and B.F. Blake. 1980. "Experiments On the Growth of Penaeus vannamei Boone". Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 48 (2): 99-111.

Miranda, M.S., R.G. Cintra, S.B.M. Barros, and J. Mancini-Filho. 1998. "Antioxidant Activity of the Microalga Spirulina Maxima". Braz J Med Biol Res 31 (8).

Miyashita, Kazuo. 2016. "Marine Antioxidants: Polyphenols and Carotenoids from Algae". In Antioxidants and Functional Components in Aquatic Foods, 1st ed., 219-235. Wiley Blackwell.

Molyneux, Philip. "The use of the stable free radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) for estimating antioxidant activity." Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology 26, no. 2 (2004): 211-219.

Montoro, Paola, Carlo I.G. Tuberoso, Sonia Piacente, Angela Perrone, Vincenzo De Feo, Paolo Cabras, and Cosimo Pizza. 2006. "Stability and Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenols in Extracts of Myrtus communis L. Berries Used for the Preparation of Myrtle Liqueur". Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 41 (5): 1614-1619.

Paterson, B.D. 1993. "The Rise in Inosine Monophosphate and L-Lactate Concentrations in Muscle of Live Penaeid Prawns (Penaeus japonicus, Penaeus monodon) Stressed by Storage Out of Water". Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Comparative Biochemistry 106 (2): 395-400.

Racotta, Ilie S. and Elena Palacios. 1998. "Hemolymph Metabolic Variables in Response to Experimental Manipulation Stress and Serotonin Injection in Penaeus vannamei". Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 29 (3): 351-356.

Roy, Sudeshna Sen and Ruma Pal. 2014. "Microalgae in Aquaculture: A Review with Special References to Nutritional Value and Fish Dietetics". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 68 (1): 1-8.

Scalbert, A., I.T. Johnson, and M. Saltmarsh. 2005. "Polyphenols: Antioxidants and Beyond.". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 81 (1): 215S-217S.

Seibert, Caroline H. and Aguinaldo R. Pinto. 2012.
"Challenges in Shrimp Aquaculture Due to Viral Diseases: Distribution and Biology of the Five Major Penaeid Viruses and Interventions to Avoid Viral Incidence and Dispersion". Brazilian Journal of Microbiology 43 (3): 857-864.

Abirami, R. G., and S. Kowsalya. "Nutrient and nutraceutical potentials of seaweed biomass Ulva lactuca and Kappaphycus alvarezii." Nong Ye Ke Xue Yu Ji Shu 5, no. 1 (2011).

Sirirustananun, Nuttarin, Jiann-Chu Chen, Yong-Chin Lin, Su-Tuen Yeh, Chyng-Hwa Liou, Li-Li Chen, Su Sing Sim, and Siau Li Chiew. 2011. "Dietary Administration of a Gracilaria tenuistipitata Extract Enhances the Immune Response and Resistance Against Vibrio alginolyticus and White Spot Syndrome Virus in The White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei". Fish & Shellfish Immunology31 (6): 848-855.

Skrzydlewska, E., J. Ostrowska, A. Stankiewicz, and R. Farbiszewski. 2002. "Green Tea as A Potent Antioxidant in Alcohol Intoxication". Addiction Biology 7 (3): 307-314.

Sukenik, Assaf, Yael Carmeli, and Tamar Berner. 1989. "Regulation of Fatty Acid Composition by Irradiance Level in the Eustigmatophyte Nannochloropsis sp. 1". Journal of Phycology 25 (4): 686-692.

Tayag, Carina Miranda, Yong-Chin Lin, Chang-Che Li, Chyng-Hwa Liou, and Jiann-Chu Chen. 2010. "Administration of The Hot-Water Extract of Spirulina platensis Enhanced the Immune Response Of White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and its Resistance Against Vibrio alginolyticus". Fish & Shellfish Immunology 28 (5-6): 764-773.

Warner, Huber R. 1994. "Superoxide Dismutase, Aging, and Degenerative Disease". Free Radical Biology and Medicine 17 (3): 249-258.

Winston, Gary W. and Richard T. Di Giulio. 1991. "Prooxidant and Antioxidant Mechanisms in Aquatic Organisms". Aquatic Toxicology 19 (2): 137-161.

Yeh, Su-Tuen, Chiu-Sha Lee, and Jiann-Chu Chen. 2006. "Administration of Hot-Water Extract of Brown Seaweed Sargassum duplicatum Via Immersion and Injection Enhances the Immune Resistance of White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei". Fish & Shellfish Immunology 20 (3): 332-345.

Yen, Gow-Chin and Hui-Yin Chen. 1995. "Antioxidant Activity of Various Tea Extracts in Relation to Their Antimutagenicity". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemestry 43 (1): 27-32.

Yende, SubhashR, BhupalB Chaugule, and UdayN Harle. 2014. "Therapeutic Potential and Health Benefits of Sargassum Species". Pharmacognosy Reviews 8 (15): 1.
"Antioxidant". 2016. Academic Dictionaries and Encyclopedias.
http://medicine.academic.ru/551/Antioxidant.
"Chapter 10. Antioxidants in Compounded Feeds". 2016.
Fao.Org. http://www.fao.org/docrep/X5738E/x5738e0b.htm.
"Official Analytical Chemists". 1987. Analytical Chemistry 59 (19): 1133A-1133A.

連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top