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研究生:陳又新
研究生(外文):Chen, You-Xin
論文名稱:鱘魚副產物生化學組成與膠原蛋白特性之探討
論文名稱(外文):Studies on characterization of biochemical composition and collagen of sturgeon by-products
指導教授:蕭泉源蕭泉源引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shiau, Chyuan-Yuan
口試委員:黃書政張君如陳泰源陳莉臻
口試委員(外文):Huang, Shu-ChenChang, Chun-JuChen, Tai-YuanChen, Li-Chen
口試日期:2016-06-23
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:59
中文關鍵詞:鱘魚副產物化學組成膠原蛋白軟骨素
外文關鍵詞:sturgeon by-productschemical compositionscollagenchondroitin
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鱘魚 (sturgeon) 為具高商業價值的養殖魚類,經加工製成魚片後,剩餘的廢棄物約占總重的 55%,尚未有效利用,其廢棄物相關文獻甚少,故本研究擬探討鱘魚魚皮、魚鰭、魚骨之化學組成分及膠原蛋白物化之特性。鱘魚皮及骨骼蛋白質含量為 25 及 13%,脂肪為 8 及 14%;魚鰭之蛋白質含量為17%,灰分 9%,脂肪含量甚低。三者之 pH 值介於 6.68-7.27,氨含量甚少,而主要游離胺基酸皆為牛磺酸、丙胺酸、β-丙胺酸及組胺酸,魚皮之總游離胺基酸 (93.75 mg/100 g) 高於其他兩種組織。魚骨之肌肽含量約為 11.76 mg/100 g,其餘部位則未檢出。鱘魚皮之主要脂肪酸為 C16:0、C16:1、C18:1 及 C20:0,鱘魚骨之主要脂肪酸為 C16:0、C16:1、C18:1、C18:2、C22:6,兩者所含的不飽和脂肪酸比例高於飽和脂肪酸。鱘魚副產物富含 Ca、P、Na、K、Mg 等礦物質,其中鳍之含量最高。鱘魚骨之軟骨素產率為 4.48 %,並以硫酸軟骨素-6 之含量較高。鱘魚皮、鰭及骨骼之酸可溶膠原蛋白產率分別為 10.82、13.22 及 12.26%,三者之分子量在 125 kDa 左右,均含有兩條 α-chain α1 及 α2,與牛皮第一型膠原蛋白相似。魚皮、鰭及骨骼之膠原蛋白胺基酸組成以 Gly 及 Pro 含量較高,除魚鰭之 Hypro 含量較少外,三者之組成無太大差異。魚皮、鰭、骨之酸可溶膠原蛋白保水力分別為 18.63、8.17 及 16.28 H2O µL/mg of collagen;油脂吸附能力分別為 17.13、22.66 及 19.25 oil g/g of collagen,在不同鹽濃度下之溶解度以魚鰭最高,魚皮最低,三者膠原蛋白於 pH 值超過 5 時出現溶解度大幅下降情形,而變性溫度分別為 29、23 及 25℃。鱘魚皮、鰭及骨骼之膠原蛋白皆具有醯胺基 A、B 以及醯胺基 I、II、III 等波峰,與其他魚類的膠原蛋白相似。鱘魚副產物含蛋白質、牛磺酸、不飽和脂肪酸、礦物質與膠原蛋白,可做為開發保健食品、藥品與化妝品之原料。
Sturgeon is an important cultured fish with high economic value in Taiwan. The processing by-products such as skin, bone and fin constitute up to 55% of the original raw material. However, few researches have been done on their nutritional and functional compositions. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the characterization of biochemical composition and collagen of sturgeon by-products. The crude protein contents in the skin and bone were 25 and 13%, and crude fat were 8 and 14%, respectively. Fin contained 17% protein, 9% ash and a very low level of lipid. The pH value of skin, fin and bone ranged from 6.68 to 7.27 with a low amount of ammonia. Taurine, alanine, β-alanine and histidine were the major free amino acids (FAAs) in skin, fin and bone. Moreover, total FAA (93.75 mg/100 g) in sturgeon skin was higher than other tissues. Carnosine was found in trace in bone (11.76 mg/100 g) while it was not detected in other tissiues. The dominant fatty acids in skin were C16:0, C16:1, C18:1, C20:0 and C16:0, C16:1, C18:1, C18:2, C22:6 in bone, respectively. Besides, the amount of unsaturated fatty acids was higher than saturated fatty acids. Sturgeon fin was rich in calcium, phosphorus and sodium. The yield of chondroitin including chondroitin-4-sulfate and chondroitin-6-sulfate extracted from fish bone was 4.48%. The amount of the later chondroitin was higher than the former. The yields of acid soluble collagen (ASC) extracted from skin, fin and bone of sturgeon were 10.82, 13.22 and 12.26%, respectively. The ASCs were heterotrimers with α1 and α2 chains, indicating that the ASCs were type I collagen. The profiles of SDS-PAGE were similar to that of calf skin collagen type. The major amino acids of collagen were glycine and proline. Except for hydroxyproline, amino acid composition in skin, fin and bone collagen were similar. Water holding capacity of skin, fin and bone collagen were 18.63, 8.17 and 16.28 H2O µL/mg, while oil binding capacity were 17.13, 22.66 and 19.25 oil g/g, respectively. A sharp decrease in solubility was observed in the presence of NaCl above 2% (w/v) and pH above 6, and denaturation temperatures were 29, 23 and 25℃, respectively. Sturgeon skin, bone and fin collagens exhibited characteristic peaks of amide A, B, I, II, III. The major peaks in the collagen spectra were similar to those of collagens purified from other fish species. In conclusion, sturgeon by-products contain high amount of protein and functional compounds such as taurine, unsaturated fatty acid, minerals, chondroitin and collagen. Based on these results, these by-products might have the potential for the development of food, medical and cosmetic industries.
摘要 I
Abstract II
目錄 III
表目錄 V
圖目錄 VI
壹、 研究背景與目的 1
貳、 文獻整理 2
一、 鱘魚簡介 2
(一) 鱘魚之分類及分布 2
(二) 鱘魚之形態特徵 2
(三) 鱘魚之棲息環境與生活習性 2
二、 游離胺基酸 3
三、 脂肪酸 4
四、 軟骨素 4
五、 膠原蛋白 6
(一) 分子結構 6
(二) 生合成 6
(三) 型態分類 6
(四) 應用 7
六、 魚類膠原蛋白之相關研究 7
(一) 萃取方法 7
(二) 含量與分布 8
(三) 熱變性溫度 9
七、 蛋白質水解產物 9
(一) 蛋白質水解特性與方法 9
參、 實驗材料與方法 11
(一) 實驗架構 11
(一) 鱘魚各副產物之化學組成差異 11
(二) 鱘魚各副產物之膠原蛋白組成差異 11
(二) 實驗材料 12
(一) 樣品來源與處理 12
(二) 實驗藥品 12
(三) 實驗儀器設備 12
(三) 分析方法 13
(一) 一般成分分析 13
(二) 游離胺基酸、雙胜肽、尿素與氨 13
(三) 脂肪酸組成 13
(四) 礦物質 14
(五) 軟骨素之萃取 15
(六) 膠原蛋白之萃取 15
(七) 膠原蛋白之型態鑑定 15
(八) 膠原蛋白溶解度測定 16
(九) 膠原蛋白黏度及熱穩定性測定 16
(十) 保水力測定 17
(十一) 油脂吸收能力 17
(十二) 總胺基酸分析 17
(十三) 可溶性蛋白質測定 17
(十四) 膠原蛋白及軟骨素之官能基測定 17
(十五) 微細構造之觀察 17
(十六) 統計分析 18
肆、 結果與討論 19
一、 鱘魚各副產物之化學組成差異 19
(一) 一般成分分析 19
(二) pH 值及氨 19
(三) 游離胺基酸 19
(四) 脂肪酸組成 20
(五) 礦物質含量 20
(六) 軟骨素 21
二、 鱘魚各副產物之膠原蛋白物化特性之差異 22
(一) 膠原蛋白含量與產率 22
(二) 型態鑑定 22
(三) 胺基酸組成 22
(四) 膠原蛋白之保水力與油脂吸附能力 23
(五) 溶解度測定 23
(六) 膠原蛋白黏度及熱穩定性測定 24
(七) 膠原蛋白官能基測定 24
(八) 微細構造之觀察 25
伍、 結論 26
陸、 參考文獻 27



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