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研究生:翁渝婷
研究生(外文):Wong, Yu-Ting
論文名稱:冷藏食品之溫度管理決策分析 : 以臺灣地區仙人掌桿菌在即食性飯糰之微生物風險評估為例
論文名稱(外文):Analysis of Handling Temperature Decision : Illustrated by Microbial Risk Assessment of Bacillus cereus in Ready-To-Eat Rice Balls in Taiwan
指導教授:蕭心怡蕭心怡引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsiao, Hsin-I
口試委員:李根永林仲聖潘崇良宋文杰
口試日期:2016-06-29
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:64
中文關鍵詞:微生物風險評估冷鏈冷藏飯糰仙人掌桿菌
外文關鍵詞:Microbial risk assessmentCold chainChill foodRice ballBacillus cereus
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對低溫食品而言,由製造、倉儲、運輸、配送的每一環節均能保持一適當低溫以確保食品的安全及品質實屬不易,2014 年台灣衛生福利部食品藥物管理署發布「食品良好衛生規範準則」,其中要求食品物流業者之理貨環境須設定在 15℃,本篇目的在以微生物風險評估工具提出科學證據,評估該法規所訂定的溫度是否合適。本研究選擇高風險的低溫即食飯糰,模擬國人食用受仙人掌桿菌 (Bacillus cereus) 污染的飯糰,導致食品中毒的機率。研究利用二手資料收集 B. cereus 在飯糰中的初始菌數、B. cereus 在飯糰中的檢出率、國人膳食資料及劑量反應模型,並發放問卷至食品配送中心及零售商店,分別收集倉庫、理貨區、運輸車廂及販售架上的溫度與時間;再利用預測微生物模型,計算飯糰中 B. cereus 的暴露量。此外,並模擬七種情境,計算出不同情境下國人食用每份飯糰造成 B. cereus 中毒機率。結果得知,法規所訂定的「低溫食品之理貨及裝卸,應於攝氏十五度以下場所迅速進行」之風險值為 1.33 × 10-6,與歐洲食品安全局 (European Food Safety Authority) 所訂定之風險值 (10-6) 相近;若將整條冷鏈設定在 7℃ 下,則可使風險值更低,為 7.79 × 10-7。敏感性分析結果顯示,影響 B. cereus 暴露量因子依序為初始菌數、食品低溫物流中心理貨階段的溫度、倉庫貯藏階段的溫度及運輸階段的溫度。建議食品物流業者及政府都應注重冷鏈的維持以降低食品中毒的風險。
Temperature management in the cold chain recently began to receive attention in Taiwan. The Taiwanese government requires the environment temperatures in handling areas of distribution center to be 15℃. However, decision cannot be made without information about the average risks exposed for consumers.
This study aims to evaluate temperature requirements in handling area by developing a microbial risk assessment of Bacillus cereus associated with ready-to-eat rice balls produced and consumed in Taiwan. We collected temperature and time information from food distribution center (DC) and retailer through survey, and used secondary data such as initial bacterial counts in rice balls and dose-response model. We simulated seven scenarios to calculate the risk of B. cereus poisoning and propose best solution compared to advices of European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) regarding B.cereus infection risk (10-6). Results show that the risk is 1.33 × 10-6 when temperatures in handling areas set at 15℃. The risk is lower to be 7.79 × 10-7 when keeping cold chain at 7℃. The sensitivity analysis indicated that the most influencing factors were initial microbial number, tally temperature, warehouse storage temperatures. Overall, we suggest that both logistics companies and government should pay special attentions on cold chain management to secure food safety in Taiwan.
目錄 I
表目錄 IV
圖目錄 V
謝誌… VI
摘要… VII
Abstract VIII
壹、前言 1
1.1 研究背景與動機 1
1.2 研究目的 2
貳、文獻整理 3
2.1 微生物風險評估 3
2.1.1 微生物風險評估介紹 3
2.1.2 暴露量評估 4
2.1.2.1 預測微生物模型介紹 4
2.1.2.2 預測微生物模型發展 4
2.1.2.3 預測微生物模型計算 5
2.1.3 劑量反應評估 6
2.1.3.1 劑量反應模型介紹 6
2.1.3.2 劑量反應模型計算 7
2.1.4 風險特徵 8
2.1.4.1 風險特徵介紹 8
2.1.4.2 風險特徵軟體 8
2.1.5 微生物風險評估應用於溫度管理 9
2.2 低溫食品類別 10
2.2.1 高風險性食品 10
2.2.2 即食性食品 11
2.3 低溫物流 11
2.3.1 低溫物流管理 11
2.3.2 食品物流業者良好衛生規範 12
2.4 仙人掌桿菌 12
2.4.1 仙人掌桿菌特性 12
2.4.2 仙人掌桿菌中毒事件 12
參、研究架構、材料及方法 14
3.1 研究架構 14
3.2 研究材料 16
3.2.1 實驗菌株 16
3.2.2 培養基 16
3.2.3 實驗藥品 16
3.2.4 儀器設備 16
3.2.5 電腦軟體 16
3.3 暴露量評估 17
3.3.1 初始菌數 17
3.3.2 物流中心溫度及時間調查 17
3.3.3 零售店溫度及時間調查 18
3.3.4 暴露量計算 (預測微生物模型) 19
3.4 模型驗證 19
3.4.1 取樣 19
3.4.2 菌株活化 19
3.4.3 仙人掌桿菌在飯糰中的生長曲線 20
3.4.4 預測微生物模型敏感度分析 20
3.5 劑量反應評估 20
3.5.1 仙人掌桿菌劑量反應模型 20
3.6 風險特徵 21
3.6.1 國人食用每份即食飯糰之重量 21
3.6.2 仙人掌桿菌在即食飯糰中檢出率 21
3.6.3 風險特徵 21
3.6.4 管理方案比較 21
3.6.4.1 風險指標 21
3.6.4.2 管理方案 22
3.6.5 敏感性分析 22
3.7 風險評估假設 23
肆、結果與討論 24
4.1 暴露量評估 24
4.1.1 初始菌數 24
4.1.2 物流中心溫度及時間調查 24
4.1.3 零售店溫度及時間調查 25
4.1.4 暴露量計算 25
4.2 模型驗證 25
4.3 劑量反應評估 26
4.4 風險特徵 26
4.4.1 國人食用每份即食飯糰之重量 26
4.4.2 仙人掌桿菌在即食飯糰中檢出率 26
4.4.3 風險特徵及方案比較結果 27
4.4.4 敏感性分析 28
伍、綜合討論 29
陸、結論 30
柒、參考文獻 31
捌、圖表 36
玖、附錄 59
附錄一 59
附錄二 60
附錄三 63


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