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研究生:楊涵婷
研究生(外文):Yang, Han-Ting
論文名稱:鮪魚加工副產物之血合肉釀製魚醬油之研究
論文名稱(外文):Studies on the preparation of fish sauce from tuna by-product dark muscle
指導教授:蕭泉源蕭泉源引用關係吳純衡
指導教授(外文):Shiau, Chyuan-YuanWu, Chwen-Herng
口試委員:吳純衡劉馨嵐陳泰源
口試委員(外文):Wu, Chwen-HerngLiu, Hsin-LanChen, Tai-Yuan
口試日期:2016-06-23
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:70
中文關鍵詞:鮪魚血合肉水解液醱酵魚醬油
外文關鍵詞:tuna dark musclehydrolysatefermentationfish sauce
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本研究以鮪魚加工副產物之血合肉為原料,經水解後再接種豆麥麴及耐鹽性微生物進行醱酵,探討鮪魚血合肉釀造魚醬油之可行性,以提高副產物之附加價值。黃鰭鮪血合肉之水分含量約為 64.34%,蛋白質、脂肪分別為 16.89% 及 12.62%,灰分為 0.92%。血合肉加入 3 倍體積 (v/w) 的蒸餾水經自家消化、酵素添加 (alcalase + flavourzyme) 水解 4 及 6 小時,添加酵素水解者之游離胺基酸 (FAA)、甲肌肽、胜肽類等皆遠高於自家消化組和控制組,其中又以 alcalase 2 小時 + flavourzyme 4 小時 (A2F4) 水解液增加更為明顯。自家消化或酵素添加組之揮發性鹽基態氮 (VBN)、三甲胺 (TMA)、氨含量與水解率等皆高於控制組,且以 A2F4 最高,但 VBN 皆低於水產品的品質限量標準 25 mg/100 g。綜合以上結果,採用 A2F4 二階段複合酵素進行水解可大量增加具甘味和功能性之 FAA、甲肌肽和胜肽類,故以其水解液作為後續魚醬油醱酵之原料。
將鮪魚血合肉水解液鹽度調整成 15% 及 30%,接種 10% 豆麥麴後分別添加耐鹽性微生物,於 35℃下醱酵 90 天,結果顯示隨釀造時間延長,四組魚醬油之 L 值降低,a、b 值增加,pH 值皆緩慢下降,鹽分含量無顯著變化,VBN 和 TMA 則隨著時間延長而增加。可溶性固形物則在醱酵 15 天時迅速增加,之後呈緩慢上升之趨勢至 75 天,而總氮與胺基態氮含量逐漸增加,於 60 天達最高後呈緩慢下降趨勢,15% 鹽分之製品符合國際食品法典委員會 (Codex Alimentarius Commission, CAC) 魚醬油總氮與胺基態氮之標準。四種魚醬油製品之 FAA 總量在醱酵期間逐漸增加,主要之 FAA 為麩胺酸、白胺酸、離胺酸、天門冬胺酸、丙胺酸、脯胺酸等。整體而言,15% 鹽分組之魚醬油較 30% 鹽分組含有較高之總氮量、胺基態氮與 FAA 含量,但組織胺含量皆低於 CAC 魚醬油限量標準 40 mg/100 g。醱酵期間耐鹽性微生物添加之有無,對於魚醬油製品之品質無顯著影響,研究結果得知以鮪魚血合肉為原料,添加豆麥麴進行醱酵製成魚醬油是可行的。
To increase the added value of tuna by-product dark muscle, this study was to make it as a raw material by hydrolysis and then inoculated with soy-wheat koji and salt-tolerant microorganism to explore the feasibility of fish fermentation sauce. Yellowfin tuna contained the moisture of 64.34%, protein 16.89%, fat 12.62% and ash 0.92%. Dark muscle added 3 volumes (v/w) distilled water through autolysis or enzymes added (alcalase + flavourzyme) hydrolysis of 4 and 6 hours, the total free amino acids (FAA), anserine and peptides of hydrolysis by adding enzyme are much higher than autolysis and control group, which went alcalase 2 + flavourzyme 4 (A2F4) hydrolyzate increased more obviously. Whether the volatile basic nitrogen (VBN), trimethylamine (TMA), ammonia contents and hydrolysis ratio of autolysis or enzymes added are higher than control, and the highest in A2F4, but VBN are lower than aquatic product quality limit standard 25 mg/100 g. Based on the above results, hydrolysis by A2F4 two-stage complex enzyme can be carried out with a great increase in sweetness and functional components including FAA, anserine and peptides. This hydrolysate was selected as raw material for further fermentation of fish sauce.
The salinity of hydrolysate from tuna dark muscle was adjusted to 15% and 30%, inoculated with 10% soy-wheat koji, and then added salt-tolerant microorganism for fermentation at 35℃ for 90 days. The results showed that with prolonged brewing, the L values of four fish sauce decreased, a and b values increased, pH value slowly declined, and no significant change in salt content. VBN and TMA increased with fermentation time. Soluble solids increased rapidly at 15 day, and then slowly increased until 75 day. Total nitrogen and amino nitrogen contents increased gradually during 60-day fermentation and thereafter decreased slowly. The total nitrogen and amino nitrogen of 15% NaCl product meet the fish sauce standards of Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). Total FAAs of four fish sauce products gradually increased during fermentation. The major FAAs were glutamic acid, leucine, lysine, aspartic acid, alanine, and proline. Overall, 15% NaCl of fish sauce contain higher amount of total nitrogen, amino nitrogen and FAA than those of 30% NaCl product, but histamine content are lower than CAC fish sauce limit standard 40 mg/100 g.
The addition of salt-tolerant microorganism during fermentation showed no significant effect on the quality of fish sauce products. Results revealed that inoculated with soy-wheat koji for making fish sauce from tuna by-product dark muscle was feasible.
摘要I
AbstractII
專有名詞縮寫表III
目錄IV
表次VI
圖次VII
附錄VIII
壹、研究背景與目的1
貳、文獻整理2
一、鮪魚簡介2
(一)鮪魚分類及分布2
(二)黃鰭鮪(Thunnus albacores)介紹2
(三)鮪魚經濟價值2
(四)加工利用3
(五)血合肉之營養價值4
二、魚貝類萃取物成分5
(一)游離胺基酸5
(二)低分子胜肽6
(三)核苷酸及其相關化合物7
(四)有機酸7
(五)醣類 7
三、魚腥成分7
(一)揮發性鹽基類7
(二)揮發性酸類8
(三)揮發性羰基化合物8
(四)揮發性含硫化合物8
(五)非羰基化合物8
四、蛋白質水解方式8
(一)酵素法8
(二)蛋白酶9
(三)蛋白酶分類9
(四)蛋白酶特性與影響因子10
五、魚醬油11
(一)魚醬油簡介11
(二)魚醬油呈味成分11
(三)傳統製造方式12
(四)改良製造方式12
(五)魚醬油品質規範13
參、材料與方法15
一、實驗材料15
(一)材料來源與前處理15
(二)實驗菌株15
(三)實驗藥品及培養基15
(四)實驗儀器設備16
二、實驗流程17
(一)黃鰭鮪血合肉水解液之製備及化學成分之分析17
(二)鮪魚血合肉釀造魚醬油可行性之評估17
三、實驗項目與方法18
(一)原料一般成分之分析18
(二)黃鰭鮪血合肉水解液之製備及化學成分之分析18
(三)鮪魚血合肉釀造魚醬油可行性之評估18
四、分析方法19
(一)一般成分分析 19
(二)pH值 20
(三)甲醛態氮(formaldehyde nitrogen, FN)20
(四)氨態氮(ammonia nitrogen, AN)20
(五)水解率20
(六)水解物胜肽含量21
(七)鹽分21
(八)胺基態氮(amino nitrogen)21
(九)可溶性固形物21
(十)L, a, b 值21
(十一)揮發性鹽基態氮21
(十二)三甲胺22
(十三)游離胺基酸、雙胜肽及氨22
(十四)組織胺23
五、統計分析23
肆、結果與討論25
伍、結論32
陸、參考文獻33
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