跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(18.205.192.201) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/08/05 10:46
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:聶皓宇
研究生(外文):Nieh, Hao-Yu
論文名稱:不同乾燥條件對洛神花萃取液之 delphinidin-3-sambubioside 及 cyanidin-3-sambubioside 含量及抗氧化能力之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effect of different drying conditions on the delphinidin-3-sambubioside and cyanidin-3-sambubioside contents and antioxidant capacity of Roselle extracts
指導教授:張克亮
指導教授(外文):Chang, Ke-Liang
口試委員:蕭心怡宋文杰陳輝煌
口試委員(外文):Hsiao, Hsin-ISung, Wen-ChiehChen, Huei-Huang
口試日期:2016-06-17
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:50
中文關鍵詞:洛神花抗氧化能力乾燥方法花青素
外文關鍵詞:Roselleantioxidant capacitydrying methodanthocyanin
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:989
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:208
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
本研究使用台灣台東縣生產之新鮮洛神花作為原料,以不同乾燥方式乾燥後經研磨機磨成粉,再以 30% 乙醇萃取,並觀察其各項抗氧化能力之變化,再使用高效能液相層析儀 (High performance liquid chromatography, HPLC) 來分析洛神花中之花青素矢車菊素 (cyaniding-3-sambubioside) 及飛燕草素 (delphinidin-3-sambubioside) 的含量,比較不同乾燥方式所產生的有效成分多寡,並預期熱風乾燥及冷凍乾燥法除了省時之外,其抗氧化能力以及有效成分含量皆優於傳統日曬法。不同乾燥組別的洛神花粉末其一般成分都以粗纖維及水分較高,各佔 12% 左右,灰分及粗蛋白較少,分別佔 6% 及 10% 左右,且只含有微量的的粗脂肪。粉末顏色部分,日曬組較亮且偏黃色,而熱風及凍乾組則為暗紅色,各組別萃取液均在 pH 3 左右,呈現酸性。在抗氧化能力分析方面,以冷凍乾燥及熱風乾燥的組別,其在各項抗氧化能力測試中均優於傳統日曬法。在總抗氧化能力測試中 (TEAC),凍乾組優於熱風組,但在總酚含量、清除 DPPH 自由基能力及還原能力中,熱風組與凍乾組則沒有顯著差異,而總多酚類具有良好的抗氧化功效,與許多抗氧化實驗具有相關性,可以發現清除 DPPH 自由基能力以及還原能力都呈現高度相關性,與總抗氧化力呈現中度相關性,而與螯合亞鐵離子則無相關性。花青素 delphinidin-3-sambubioside 以及 cyanidin-3-sambubioside 的含量則是以冷凍乾燥洛神花之萃取液最多,其次為熱風乾燥洛神花之萃取液,而日曬組洛神花之萃取液含量最少。
In this study, we use fresh Roselle from Taitung County, Taiwan as a raw material. We used different drying conditions and extracted Roselle with 30% ethanol, and observed the changes in its antioxidant capacity, and then used high-performance liquid phase chromatograph to analyze the amount of the anthocyanin (delphinidin-3-sambubioside and cyanidin-3-sambubioside) in Roselle. It is expected that hot air drying and freeze-drying will not only shorten the drying time, but also produce dried Roselle with better antioxidant capacity and content of anthocyanin than traditional sun-drying. Different groups of dried Roselle powder are mainly composed of crude fiber and water, each about 12%. Less ash and crude protein are observed accounting about 6% and 10%, respectively, The dried powders contain trace amounts of fat. Sun-dried group looks yellow and is brighter than the other groups. In contrast, the freeze dried group looks red and dark. The pH values of each group were about 3, indicating that these powders are acidic. In terms of antioxidant capacity, freeze-dried and hot air dried groups are superior to the traditional method of sun-dried group. The results of antioxidant capacity test indicated that the total antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of freeze-dried group is better than hot air group. Nevertheless, the total phenolic content, DPPH free radical scavenging ability and reducing power of the hot air dried and free-dried groups show no significant difference. The antioxidative results are positively correlated with total phenol content, especially the DPPH free radical scavenging ability and reducing power. Freeze dried group contains more anthocyanin, delphinidin-3-sambubioside and cyanidin-3-sambubioside, followed by hot air dried group and sun-dried group.
摘要 IV
Abstract V
表目錄 IX
圖目錄 X
一、前言 1
二、文獻回顧 3
2.1.洛神花 3
2.1.1.洛神葵 3
2.1.2. 洛神花之型態與產地 3
2.1.2.1.名稱 3
2.1.2.2.型態 3
2.1.2.3.產地 3
2.1.3. 洛神花性狀 4
2.1.4.洛神花之營養價值 4
2.1.4.1花萼 4
2.1.4.2.葉子 4
2.1.4.3.種子 4
2.1.5.洛神花之有效成分 5
2.1.5.1.花青素 5
2.1.5.2.黃酮類化合物 5
2.2.乾燥 6
2.2.1.乾燥定義 6
2.2.2.熱風乾燥法 6
2.2.3.冷凍乾燥法 7
2.2.4.日曬法 8
2.3.自由基 8
2.3.1.自由基的定義 8
2.3.2.自由基的產生途徑 8
2.3.3.自由基主要的種類 9
2.3.3.1.超氧陰離子 9
2.3.3.2.過氧化氫 9
2.3.3.3.氫氧自由基 10
2.3.3.4.單重態氧 10
2.3.3.5.過氧化脂質自由基 10
2.4.抗氧化劑 11
2.4.1. 抗氧化劑的功能 11
2.4.1.1.自由基終止劑 11
2.4.1.2.還原劑或氧清除劑 11
2.4.1.3.金屬螯合劑 12
2.4.1.4.單重態氧抑制劑 12
2.4.1.5.過氧化物分解劑 12
2.4.1.6.酵素型抗氧化劑 12
2.4.2.天然抗氧化劑 12
2.4.2.1.多酚化合物 13
2.4.2.2.類黃酮 13
2.4.2.3.抗壞血酸 13
2.4.2.4.維生素E 13
2.4.2.5.類胡蘿蔔素 14
2.4.2.6.藥草及香辛料萃取物 14
三、實驗材料 15
3.1.實驗原料 15
3.2.實驗藥品 15
3.3.實驗儀器設備 15
四、實驗架構與方法 17
4.1.洛神花前處理 18
4.2.日曬 18
4.3.冷凍乾燥 18
4.4.熱風乾燥 18
4.5.洛神花萃取液製備 18
4.6.一般成分分析 18
4.6.1.水分 18
4.6.2.灰分 19
4.6.3.粗蛋白 19
4.6.4.粗脂肪 19
4.6.5.粗纖維 20
4.6.6.色澤分析 20
4.6.7.萃取液 pH 值測定 20
4.7.抗氧化能力分析 20
4.7.1. 總多酚類含量測定 20
4.7.2. 清除DPPH自由基能力測定 21
4.7.3. 螯合亞鐵離子能力測定 21
4.7.4. 總抗氧化能力 (TEAC) 22
4.7.5. 還原能力測定 22
4.8.花青素含量分析 23
4.8.1. cyanidin 及 delphinidin 分析 23
4.8.2. HPLC 分析條件 23
4.9. 統計分析 23
五、結果與討論 24
5.1.洛神花之一般組成 24
5.2.洛神花粉末之顏色分析及其萃取液 pH 值測定 24
5.3.不同乾燥條件之洛神花萃取液抗氧化活性之分析 25
5.3.1總多酚類含量測定 25
5.3.2清除 DPPH 自由基能力測定 25
5.3.3螯合亞鐵離子能力測定 26
5.3.4總抗氧化能力 (TEAC) 26
5.3.5還原能力測定 27
5.4.花青素含量分析 27
5.5.抗氧化活性與總多酚含量之關聯性分析 28
六、結論 29
七、參考文獻 30
八、表 37
九、圖 40
十、附錄 50


王俊民,2000,洛神花色素成分及其抗氧化活性之分析,私立中山醫學院生物化學研究所碩士論文。
王瀚揚,2009,薑超臨界二氧化碳萃取製程薑油中6-Shogaol 生成之探討,國立屏東科技大學食品科學系研究所。
李文渝,2010,不同萃取條件對薑萃取液之6-gingerol及6-shogaol 含量及抗氧化能力的影響,國立臺灣海洋大學食品科學系碩士論文。
李敏雄。1996。水。食品化學,pp. 20–25。台北。
孫朝棟(1987)食品工程學,pp.305–319。國立編譯館。台北。
陳自珍(1987)蔬菜與水果商品之製造,pp.257–268。復文書局。台南。
陳昫寧,2010,微波輔助熱風乾燥處理對金棗蜜餞製程能源效能與其產品品質之影響,國立宜蘭大學食品科學系碩士論文。
施嘉禾, 施科念, & 顏裕鴻. (2003). 不同加工方式與乾燥方法對胡蘿蔔抗氧化性之影響.
屠康, & 佟馨. (2005). 热风干燥蘑菇片的工艺研究. 食品工业科技, 26(3), 126-128.
賴滋漢、金安兒和柯文慶(1992)食品加工學方法篇,pp.261–296。精華出版社。
鄭光宏,2008,不同萃取方式之香椿萃取液抗氧化性質與其對中式半乾式香腸品質影響之研究,國立嘉義大學動物科學系研究所碩士論文。
Alarcon-Aguilar, F. J., Zamilpa, A., Perez-Garcia, M. D., Almanza-Perez, J. C., Romero-Nuñez, E., Campos-Sepulveda, E. A., & Roman-Ramos, R. (2007). Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa on obesity in MSG mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 114(1), 66-71.
Alarcón-Alonso, J., Zamilpa, A., Aguilar, F. A., Herrera-Ruiz, M., Tortoriello, J., & Jimenez-Ferrer, E. (2012). Pharmacological characterization of the diuretic effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn (Malvaceae) extract. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 139(3), 751-756.
Anderson, D. & Phillips, B. J., 1999. Comparative in vitro and in vivo effects of antioxidants. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 37, 1015-1025.
Associaation of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). 1995. Official Methods of Analysis. 16th edition, Arlington, VA, USA.
Balami, A. (1998). The effect of processing conditions packaging and store on selected quality attributes of Mungza Ntusa (Doctoral dissertation, M. Sc. Thesis, University of Ibadan, Nigeria).
Bando, N., Hayashi, H., Wakamatsu, S., Inakuma, T., Miyoshi, M., Nagao,A., Yamauchi, R. & Terao, J., 2004. Participation of single toxygen in ultraviolet-a-induced lipid peroxidation in mouse skin and its inhibition by dietary β-carotene: an ex vivo study. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 37, 1854-1863.
Beltrán-Debón, R., Alonso-Villaverde, C., Aragones, G., Rodríguez-Medina, I., Rull, A., Micol, V., & Joven, J. (2010). The aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa calices modulates the production of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in humans. Phytomedicine, 17(3), 186-191.
Berger, D. & Pei, D.C.T. 1973. Drying of hygroscopic capillary porous solids: a theoretical approach. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 16, 293-302.
Breimer, I. H., 1990.Molecular mechanisms of oxygen radical carcinogenesis and mutagensis. The role of DNA base damge. Molecular Carcinogenesis. 3: 188-197.
Brooker, D. B., Bakker-Arkema, F.W. & Hall, C.W. 1974. Drying cereal grains. The Avi Publishing Company, Inc., Westport, Connecticut. USA.
Chen, H.Y. & Yen, G.C., 1998. Free Radicals, antioxidant defenses and human health. Nutrition Sciences Journal, 23(1), 105-121.
Chiang, W.C. & Peterson, J.N. 1985. Thin layer air-drying of French fried potatoes. Journal of Food Technology, 20, 67-78.
Christian, K. R., Nair, M. G., & Jackson, J. C. (2006). Antioxidant and cyclooxygenase inhibitory activity of sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa). Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 19(8), 778-783.
Da-Costa-Rocha, I., Bonnlaender, B., Sievers, H., Pischel, I., & Heinrich, M. (2014). Hibiscus sabdariffa L.–A phytochemical and pharmacological review. Food Chemistry, 165, 424-443.
Davis, M. (Ed.). (2009). Stockley's herbal medicines interactions: a guide to the interactions of herbal medicines, dietary supplements and nutraceuticals with conventional medicines. London; Chicago: Pharmaceutical Press.
Degenhardt, A., Knapp, H., & Winterhalter, P. (2000). Separation and purification of anthocyanins by high-speed countercurrent chromatography and screening for antioxidant activity. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48(2), 338-343.
Demir, V., Gunhan, T., Yagcioglu, A. K., & Degirmencioglu, A. (2004). Mathematical modelling and the determination of some quality parameters of air-dried bay leaves. Biosystems Engineering, 88(3), 325-335.
Dinis, T. C., Madeira, V. M., & Almeida, L. M. (1994). Action of phenolic derivatives (acetaminophen, salicylate, and 5-aminosalicylate) as inhibitors of membrane lipid peroxidation and as peroxyl radical scavengers. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 315(1), 161-169.
Duangmal, K., Saicheua, B., & Sueeprasan, S. (2008). Colour evaluation of freeze-dried roselle extract as a natural food colorant in a model system of a drink. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 41(8), 1437-1445.
Du, C. T., & Francis, F. J. (1973). Anthocyanins of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa, L.). Journal of Food Science, 38(5), 810-812.
Duh, P.D. & Yen, G.C., 1997. Antioxidative activity of three herbal water extracts. Food Chemistry. 60: 639-645.
Dziezak, J.D., 1986. Preservatives: Antioxidants. Food Technology. 40:94-102.
Esterbauer, H., 1993. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of lipid oxidation products. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 57, 779-786.
Fang, X.Z., Yang, S. & Wu, G., 2002. Free radicals, antioxidants, and nutrition. Nutrition, 18(10), 872-879.
Fernández-Arroyo, S., Rodríguez-Medina, I. C., Beltrán-Debón, R., Pasini, F., Joven, J., Micol, V., & Fernández-Gutiérrez, A. (2011). Quantification of the polyphenolic fraction and in vitro antioxidant and in vivo anti-hyperlipemic activities of Hibiscus sabdariffa aqueous extract. Food Research International, 44(5), 1490-1495.
Ginnette, L. F., & Kaufman, V. F. (1968). Freeze-drying of foods. The freezing preservation of foods, 3, 377-403.
Goodstein, D. (2004) Out of gas: the end of the age of oil. New York:McGraw-Hill.
Gutteridge, J.M.C. & Halliwell, B., 1990. The measurement and mechanism of lipid peroxidation in biological systems. Trends in Biochemical Sciences, 15, 129-135.
Gutteridge, J.M.C, 1995. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidants as biomarkers of tissue damage. Clinical Chemistry, 41, 1819-1828.
Halliwell, B., Murcia, M.A., Chirico, S. & Aruoma, O.I., 1995. Free radicals and antioxidants in food and in vivo: what they do and how they work. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 35, 7-20.
Herranz-López, M., Fernández-Arroyo, S., Pérez-Sanchez, A., Barrajón-Catalán, E., Beltrán-Debón, R., Menéndez, J. A., & Micol, V. (2012). Synergism of plant-derived polyphenols in adipogenesis: perspectives and implications. Phytomedicine, 19(3), 253-261.
Hirunpanich, V., Utaipat, A., Morales, N. P., Bunyapraphatsara, N., Sato, H., Herunsale, A., & Suthisisang, C. (2006). Hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects of aqueous extracts from the dried calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. in hypercholesterolemic rats. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 103(2), 252-260.
Hutchinson, D. & L. Otten. 1983. Thin-layer air drying of soybeans and white beans. Journal of Food Technology. 18: 507-524.
Igbeka, J.C., 1982. Simulation of Moisture Movement during Drying of a Starchy Food Product. Journal of Food Technology, 17, 27-36.
Ismail, A., Ikram, E. H. K., & Nazri, H. S. M. (2008). Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) Seeds-nutritional composition, protein quality and health benefits. Food, 2(1), 1-16.
Kao, E. S., Tseng, T. H., Lee, H. J., Chan, K. C., & Wang, C. J. (2009). Anthocyanin extracted from Hibiscus attenuate oxidized LDL-mediated foam cell formation involving regulation of CD36 gene. Chemico-biological interactions, 179(2), 212-218.
Karathanos, V.T. & Belessiotis, V.G. 1997. Sun and artificial air drying kinetics of some agricultural products. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 31, 35-46.
Kitazawa, M. & Iwasaki, K., 1999. Reduction of ultraviolet light-induced oxidative stress by amino acid-based iron chelators. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1473: 400-408.
Kochhar, S. P., & Rossell, J. B. (1990). Detection, estimation and evaluation of antioxidants in food systems. In Food antioxidants (pp. 19-64). Springer Netherlands.
Kong, F., Chang, S. K. C., Liu, Z., & Wilson, L. A. (2008). Changes of soybean quality during storage as related to soymilk and tofu making. Journal of Food Science, 73(3), S134-S144.
Liu, F., & Ng, T. B. (2000). Antioxidative and free radical scavenging activities of selected medicinal herbs. Life Sciences, 66(8), 725-735.
López, V., Akerreta, S., Casanova, E., García-Mina, J. M., Cavero, R. Y., & Calvo, M. I. (2007). In vitro antioxidant and anti-rhizopus activities of Lamiaceae herbal extracts. Plant foods for human nutrition, 62(4), 151-155.
Lu, Y. & Foo, Y.L., 2000. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of selected medicinal herbs. Journal of Life Science. 66: 725–735.
Magee, T.R.A. & Wilkinson, C.P.D. 1992. Influence of process variables on the drying of potato slices. Journal of Food Technology, 27, 541-549.
Majundar, A.S. 1980. Advances in drying Volume 1, pp.155-215. Washington: Hemisphere Publishing Corporation.
Matsuda, H., Ninomiya, K., Shimoda H. & Yoshikawa. M., 2003. Hepatoprotective principles from the flowers of Tilia argentea (linden): structure requirements of tiliroside and mechanisms of action. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry, 10(3), 707-712.
Mazza, G. & Lemaguer, M. 1980. Dehydration of onion: some theoretical and practical consideration. Journal of Food Technology, 15, 181-194.
Mckay, D. (2009). Can hibiscus tea lower blood pressure. Agro Food Industry Hi-Tech, 20, 40-42.
Mensor, L. L., Menezes, F. S., Leitão, G. G., Reis, A. S., Santos, T. C. D., Coube, C. S., & Leitão, S. G. (2001). Screening of Brazilian plant extracts for antioxidant activity by the use of DPPH free radical method. Phytotherapy Research, 15(2), 127-130.
Miraliakbari, H., & Shahidi, F. (2008). Antioxidant activity of minor components of tree nut oils. Food Chemistry, 111(2), 421-427.
Mohamed, R., Fernandez, J., Pineda, M., & Aguilar, M. (2007). Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) seed oil is a rich source of γ‐Tocopherol. Journal of food science, 72(3), S207-S211.
Mohd-Esa, N., Hern, F. S., Ismail, A., & Yee, C. L. (2010). Antioxidant activity in different parts of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) extracts and potential exploitation of the seeds. Food Chemistry, 122(4), 1055-1060.
Mojiminiyi, F. B. O., Dikko, M., Muhammad, B. Y., Ojobor, P. D., Ajagbonna, O. P., Okolo, R. U., & Anga, T. J. (2007). Antihypertensive effect of an aqueous extract of the calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa. Fitoterapia, 78(4), 292-297.
Mourtzinos, I., Makris, D. P., Yannakopoulou, K., Kalogeropoulos, N., Michali, I., & Karathanos, V. T. (2008). Thermal stability of anthocyanin extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. in the presence of β-cyclodextrin. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 56(21), 10303-10310.
Muhammad, T. B., & Shakib, A. B. (1995). Jus hibiscus: Bukan sekadar minuman biasa. Dewan Ekonomi, 12-14.
Nzikou, J. M., Bouanga-Kalou, G., Matos, L., Ganongo-Po, F. B., Mboungou-Mboussi, P. S., Moutoula, F. E., & Desobry, S. (2011). Characteristics and nutritional evaluation of seed oil from Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) in Congo-Brazzaville. Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences, 3(2), 141-146.
Peng, C. H., Chyau, C. C., Chan, K. C., Chan, T. H., Wang, C. J., & Huang, C. N. (2011). Hibiscus sabdariffa polyphenolic extract inhibits hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and glycation-oxidative stress while improving insulin resistance. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59(18), 9901-9909.
Potter, N. N. Food Science, 1978.
Potter, N.N. 1986. Food Science. pp. 323. The AVI Publishing Company, Inc. Westport, Connecticut. USA.
Prasongwatana, V., Woottisin, S., Sriboonlue, P., & Kukongviriyapan, V. (2008). Uricosuric effect of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) in normal and renal-stone former subjects. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 117(3), 491-495.
Re, R., Pellegrini, N., Proteggente, A., Pannala, A., Yang, M., & Rice-Evans, C. (1999). Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 26(9), 1231-1237.
Rodríguez‐Medina, I. C., Beltrán‐Debón, R., Molina, V. M., Alonso‐Villaverde, C., Joven, J., Menéndez, J. A., & Fernández‐Gutiérrez, A. (2009). Direct characterization of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa using HPLC with diode array detection coupled to ESI and ion trap MS. Journal of Separation Science, 32(20), 3441-3448.
Sakagami, H., Satoh, K., Hatano, T., Yoshida, T. & Okuda. T., 1997. Possible role of radical intensity and oxidation potential for gallic acid-induced apoptosis. Anticancer Research, 17(1A), 377-380.
Salatino, A. & R. Woisky., 1998. Analysis of propolis : some parameters and procedures for chemical quality control. Journal of Apicultural Research. 37(2): 99-105.
Salazar-González, C., Vergara-Balderas, F. T., Ortega-Regules, A. E., & Guerrero-Beltrán, J. Á. (2012). Antioxidant properties and color of Hibiscus sabdariffa extracts. Ciencia e Investigación Agraria, 39(1), 79-90.
Shibata, M., & Furukawa, M. (1969). Reexamination on the structure of so-called “Hiviscin”. 植物学雑誌, 82(974-975), 341-347.
Shimada, K., Fujikawa, K., Yahara, K. & Nakamura. T., 1992. Antioxidative properties of xanthan on the autoxidation of soybean oil in cyclodextrin emulsion. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 40: 945-948.
Singh, G., Kapoor, I. P. S., Singh, P., de Heluani, C. S., de Lampasona, M. P., & Catalan, C. A. (2008). Chemistry, antioxidant and antimicrobial investigations on essential oil and oleoresins of Zingiber officinale. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 46(10), 3295-3302.
Stoilova, I., Krastanov, A., Stoyanova, A., Denev, P., & Gargova, S. (2007). Antioxidant activity of a ginger extract (Zingiber officinale). Food Chemistry, 102(3), 764-770.
Suarez, C., Viollaz, P. & Chirife, J. 1980. Diffusional analysis of air drying of grain sorghum. Journal of Food Technology, 15, 523-531
Taira, J., Miyagi, C. & Aniya, Y., 2002. Dimerumic acid as anantioxidant from the mold, Monascus anka: the inhibition mechanisms against lipid peroxidation and hemeprotein-mediated oxidation. Biochemical Pharmacology, 63(5), 1019-1026.
Tsai, P. J., & Huang, H. P. (2004). Effect of polymerization on the antioxidant capacity of anthocyanins in Roselle. Food Research International, 37(4), 313-318.
Tsai, P. J., McIntosh, J., Pearce, P., Camden, B., & Jordan, B. R. (2002). Anthocyanin and antioxidant capacity in Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) extract. Food Research International, 35(4), 351-356.
Tseng, T. H., Hsu, J. D., Lo, M. H., Chu, C. Y., Chou, F. P., Huang, C. L., & Wang, C. J. (1998). Inhibitory effect of Hibiscus protocatechuic acid on tumor promotion in mouse skin. Cancer Letters, 126(2), 199-207.
Tseng, T. H., Kao, T. W., Chu, C. Y., Chou, F. P., Lin, W. L., & Wang, C. J. (2000). Induction of apoptosis by hibiscus protocatechuic acid in human leukemia cells via reduction of retinoblastoma (RB) phosphorylation and Bcl-2 expression. Biochemical Pharmacology, 60(3), 307-315.
Williamson, E. M., Driver, S., & Baxter, K. (Eds.). (2009). Stockley's herbal medicines interactions (Vol. 172). London: Pharmaceutical Press.
Xu, G. Ye, X., Chen, J. & Liu, D., 2007. Effect of Heat Treatmeat on the Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Citrus Peel Extract. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 55(2): 330–335.
Yamamoto, R., & Oshima, Y. (1936). Coloring matter of Hibiscus sabdariffa L.(Hibiscin). Sci Papers Inst Phys Chem Res (Tokyo), 30, 258-262.
Yamamoto, R., & Osima, Y. (1932). On the Red Colouring Matter of Hibiscus Sabdariffa L: (A New Glycoside Hivistin.). Journal of the Agricultural Chemical Society of Japan, 8(10-12), 142-149.
Yang, L., Gou, Y., Zhao, T., Zhao, J., Li, F., Zhang, B., & Wu, X. (2012). Antioxidant capacity of extracts from calyx fruits of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). African Journal of Biotechnology, 11(17), 4063-4068.
Zhen, J., Villani, T. S., Guo, Y., Qi, Y., Chin, K., Pan, M. H., & Wu, Q. (2016). Phytochemistry, antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and anti-inflammatory activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa leaves. Food Chemistry, 190, 673-680.

連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top