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研究生:蘇友寬
研究生(外文):Su, Yu-Kuan
論文名稱:臺灣東北角沿岸仔稚魚季節性組成結構之變化探討
論文名稱(外文):The study of seasonal occurrence of larval fish fauna in the coastal waters of northeast Taiwan
指導教授:陳義雄陳義雄引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chen, I-Shiung
口試委員:王義仲陳鴻鳴
口試委員(外文):Wang, I-ChungChen, Hong-ming
口試日期:2016-07-11
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:海洋生物研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:海洋科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:113
中文關鍵詞:仔稚魚形態沿岸魚類相生態調查DNA分子鑑定
外文關鍵詞:Larval fish morphologyCoastal fishEcological surveyDNA molecular identification
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本研究於2013年8月到2014年8月期間,在台灣東北部沿海的碧砂漁港和望海巷漁港,利用燈光誘捕器(light trap)進行仔稚魚的採集,分析沿岸仔稚魚類群聚的組成及季節變化。共採集到504尾仔稚魚,採集到之仔稚魚並在95 %的酒精中保存,先以形態特徵將這些仔稚魚區分出26個形態類型 (morpho - types),並以生命條碼方式以其粒線體DNA之COI基因序列片段作鑑別及比對,分析結果共計發現12科13屬15種魚類。此外使用生命條碼方式鑑定物種,不但可以解決仔稚魚相似形態之不同物種的問題,更能檢視以前以初步形態鑑定之物種正確性。由數據得知,整年度仔稚魚群聚中前五大優勢種為刺公鯷仔稚魚 (25.99 %)、線紋蛙鳚仔稚魚 (16.27 %)、刺蓋塘鳢仔稚魚 (16.27 %)、杜氏蛙鳚仔稚魚 (14.68 %) 及異葉公鯷 (4.56 %)。大洋性的魚類佔了總量的31.80%,沿岸性的魚類佔了總量的68.20%。平均每個月捕獲38.76尾,春天、夏天和秋天每月平均捕獲量分別為39.01、43.00和42.75尾,冬季每月平均捕獲29.13尾明顯低於其它季節,在6月及9月達最高峰分別為59尾及72尾,11月最低僅9尾;平均每個月採捕到3.69種仔稚魚,春天、夏天和秋天每月平均捕獲3.67種、4.33種和4.50種,冬天每月平均捕獲2.00種,9月份仔稚魚為最高捕獲魚種數達7種,11月時最低僅捕獲1種。大多數魚種繁殖期有明顯季節變化,種類和數量有顯著相關性(P <0.05)。在採樣站的群集分析則發現,靠近港灣出口的採樣站,其豐富度和歧異度皆比深入港灣內側的採樣站高。由此可見台灣東北角沿岸海域的仔稚魚季節性結構變化非常顯著。
From August 2013 to August 2014, we conducted the fish samplings via light trap in Bisha fishing port and Wanghaisiang fishing ports of northeastern Taiwan. The total 504 individuals of larval fish community were collected and were recognized into 26 morphotypes. All larval fish were identified via DNA barcoding technology employing mtDNA COI gene sequences and they belong to 12 families 13 genera 15 species. By using these technology, not only can we solve the problem of identifying two different species with similar morphology, but also confirm the accuracy of morphological identification in the previous studies. The highest percentage of total appearance would be Encrasicholina punctifer (25.99 %), Istiblennius lineatus (16.27%), Eleotris acanthopoma (16.27%), Istiblennius dussumieri (14.68%) and Encrasicholina heteroloba (4.56%). The composition and abundance of larval fish were affected by seasonal changes with abundance in winter much lower. About 38.76 individuals and 3.69 species were recorded per month in average. Individuals catches in each month were 39.01 in spring, 43.00 in summer, 42.75 in autumn, and 29.13 in winter. Abundance were highest in June and September with 59 and 72 individuals catches in each month, and species number was highest in September and reached to 7 species. Species number in each month were 3.67 in spring, 4.33 in summer, 4.50 in autumn, and 2.00 in winter. Abundance and species number were lowest in November with 9 individuals catches and 1 species. Species number and abundance were in significant correlation (P <0.05). Abundance and diversity were higher in sampling stations near the port. Therefore, seasonal occurrence of larval fish fauna in the coastal waters of northeast Taiwan was in evidence.
謝辭 i
摘要 ii
Abstract iii
目錄 iv
表次 vi
圖次 vii
壹、前言 1
一、仔稚魚的定義與重要性 1
二、台灣東北角海域的簡介 3
三、台灣周圍海域仔稚魚的研究 4
四、利用生命條碼進行仔稚魚鑑定 6
五、研究動機與目的 7
貳、材料與方法 9
一、採集區域概述 9
二、採樣設計 9
三、樣本處理 9
四、樣本分析 10
(一) 形態型分類與鑑定種類 10
(二) DNA萃取及粒線體DNA之處置 10
(三) 魚類資料庫比對種類 14
參、結果 17
一、東北角沿岸仔稚魚魚種組成與不同形態特徵、基因型分類及標本編號 17
(一) 仔稚魚形態分類與鑑定結果 17
(二) 仔稚魚標本之建置 29
(三) 基因型分類 29
二、東北角沿岸仔稚魚魚種組成 31
三、仔稚魚數量之月別及樣站變化 33
四、生物多樣性指數 34
五、仔稚魚組成之群聚分析 35
肆、討論. 37
一、水溫與捕獲的仔稚魚種類及數量之探討 37
二、東北角沿岸仔稚魚豐度、歧異度及季節變化之探討 38
三、東北角沿岸仔稚魚物種之採樣方式及採樣站與捕獲量之探討 39
四、東北角沿岸仔稚魚物種之生理與生殖特性及捕獲量之探討 41
五、生命條碼 43
六、採樣及實驗誤差 43
七、捕獲仔稚魚魚種與當地成魚名錄的再現性 44
八、未來展望 44
伍、結論 47
陸、參考文獻 49
表 63
圖 81
附錄一、潮境地區水域成魚名錄總表 99
附錄二、仔稚魚各基因型對照 107
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