跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.235.56.11) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/08/04 08:19
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:高瑞宏
研究生(外文):Kao, Jui-Hung
論文名稱:台灣北部乾沉降之質量與主要成分相關性研究
論文名稱(外文):The study of the relationships between mass weight and major ions in atmospheric dry depositions over the northern Taiwan
指導教授:陳宏瑜陳宏瑜引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chen, Hung-Yu
口試委員:張章堂周文臣
口試委員(外文):Chang-Tang ChangChou, Wen-Chen
口試日期:2016-06-29
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:海洋環境資訊系
學門:自然科學學門
學類:海洋科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:136
中文關鍵詞:總懸浮微粒氯鹽硫酸鹽硝酸鹽主成份相關性
外文關鍵詞:Total Suspended Particulate (TSP)Cl-SO42-NO3-main ingredient
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:50
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
本研究以新北市環保局設置之空氣品質測站為基礎,探討台灣北部地區污染濃度變化及分布機制,分析自2007年1月至2014 年 12月,針對總懸浮微粒(Total Suspended Particulate, TSP) 2,991筆及TSP 中氯鹽、硝酸鹽及硫酸鹽等測項861筆,藉由多變量統計及各測站與測項之主成分及相關分析,說明新北市空氣品質污染及富集程度,並探討其主要影響因子。
總懸浮微粒濃度受到雨除作用的影響及明顯呈現季節性變化,一般類型測站平均質量濃度最高,可能影響來源除了受中國大陸所產生的陸源性物質外,與測站位於台灣北部地區西南側,受到來自區域污染的貢獻有相當程度之影響,上下風處的測站在5~7月份呈現不同的濃度走勢,顯示與季節性風向、氣象條件及區域性污染呈現高度的相關性。
風向族群分析(N/S)的結果顯示總懸浮微粒之離子以北風族群的濃度較大,大約是南風族群的1.1倍到1.6倍,海岸類型測站之氯鹽平均值量濃度高於其他測站;而硝酸鹽及nss-硫酸鹽(N/S)比值<1且很接近,顯示在主要受到南風影響,當西南方有較佳對流擴散發生時,東北方之測站如五股污水處理廠亦有高濃度值產生。
相關性分析結果發現,氯鹽受到測站位置與季風風向的影響有顯著的關聯,而其他的離子濃度除了受到季風影響外,也受到新北市地區本身污染影響所及;主成分結果顯示測項之TSP、nss-硫酸鹽、硫酸鹽及硝酸鹽彼此間有高度相關性;而測站間第一主成份為測站位置因子,第二主成份為海岸季風因子所影響,第三主成份為上下風反向因子;透過現有測站代表性評估及差異性測站之主成分分析結果顯示,明志國小、莒光國小及蘆洲國小呈現高度相關性,代表兩者測站有其重複之可能;興穀國小與五股污水處理廠測值呈現反差,受區域污染影響,有其長期累積監測之必要。
The research investigates the changes in consistency and in distribution of air pollution in northern Taiwan based on data collected by air quality investigative stations from the Environmental Protection Department of New Taipei City. 2991 records of Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) and 861 records of Cl-, SO42- and NO3- in TSP had been analyzed since January 2007 to December 2014. The research uses varied quantity statistics to examine the main affecting factors impacting air quality and pollution distribution.
The consistency of TSP has obvious seasonal changes because of the rainout effect. The general type of investigative stations has the highest average quality consistency. The possible affecting sources may be not only continental sources from China but also investigative stations located in the southwestern region of northern Taiwan. Investigative stations that experience windward and leeward conditions have varied consistency curves during May to July; these suggest high relevance with seasonal wind direction, weather condition, and pollution in these areas.
The wind group direction (N/S) analysis shows the north wind group has higher consistency of TPS ion. Seacoast type of investigative stations have higher averages of Cl- than other stations. The ratio of NO- and nss- SO42- is less than 1 but quite close, which demonstrates the ratio is mainly affected by the south wind. When conviction and diffusion happen in the southwest, stations in the northeast like Wugu sewage treatment plant have high consistency as well.
The relevant analyses show that amount of Cl- depends on the location of the investigative station locations and direction of the areas’ seasonal winds. The presence of other ions is affected by seasonal wind and pollution of New Taipei City itself. The test found the first main ingredient, TSP, nss- SO42-, SO42-, and NO3-, have high relevance. The result of main ingredient shows that the three contributing factors among the investigative stations are location of the investigative station, seacoast seasonal winds, and windward and leeward factor. Furthermore, the main ingredient factor shows that Ming, Juguang and Luzhou elementary school are highly relevant with each other, which indicates their investigative stations may be duplicated. Wugu sewage treatment plant and Xingu elementary school have quite different test records. Therefore, long-term monitoring and accumulation of data is important.
摘要 1
ABSTRACT 2
目次 3
表目錄 5
圖目錄 6
第一章 前言 7
1.1 研究背景 7
1.2 研究動機 7
1.3 研究目的 8
第二章 文獻回顧 9
2.1 懸浮微粒 9
2.1.1 生成原因 9
2.1.2 組成特性 11
2.1.3 主要污染來源 12
2.1.4 對人體的危害 14
2.1.5 季節性濃度變化 15
2.2 懸浮微粒之離子 16
2.2.1 非海鹽硫酸鹽 17
2.2.2 硝酸鹽 18
第三章 研究區域與方法 21
3.1 採樣作業 21
3.1.1 採樣地點及時間 21
3.1.2 測定項目 24
3.1.3 採樣步驟 24
3.1.4 分析步驟 24
3.1.5 分析方法之品保與品管 24
第四章 結果與討論 27
4.1 研究區域之氣象資料 27
4.1.1 氣候統計 27
4.1.2 風向圖 28
4.2 總懸浮微粒 33
4.2.1 濃度變化 33
4.2.2 區域變化 35
4.2.3 時序變化 37
4.3 總懸浮微粒之離子 43
4.3.1 濃度變化 43
4.3.2 區域變化 46
4.3.3 時序變化 51
4.3.4 季風對離子分佈之影響 58
4.4 研究期間的相關性 60
4.4.1 相關性分析 60
4.4.2 測項主成分分析 61
4.4.3 測站主成分分析 63
4.4.4 差異性測站分析 65
4.5 現有測站代表性評估 71
第五章 結論與建議 74
5.1.1 結論 74
5.1.2 建議 76
參考文獻 77
附錄一 空氣品質監測數據 81
Ayers, G.P., Gillett, R.W., Cainey,J.M. and Dick, A.L. (1999), " Chloride and bromide loss from sea-salt particles in southern ocean air. " J. Atmos. Chem., 33,299–319, doi:10.1023/A:1006120205159
Carmichael, Gregory, R., 1996,“Seasonal variation of aerosol composition at Cheju, Korea”, Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 30, No. 13, pp. 2407-2416
Chen C.L., Shu C.M., Fang H.Y. 2006, Location and characterization of emission sources forairborne volatile organic compounds insid a refinery in Taiwan. Environmental Monitoringand Assessment 120: 487-498
Chen, H.Y. and Chen, L.D. 2008, " Importance of anthropogenic inputs and continental-derived dust for the distribution and flux of water-soluble nitrogen and phosphorus species in aerosol within the atmosphere over the East China Sea. " Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, D11, doi:10.1029/2007JD009491.
Chen, H.Y., Chen, L.D., Chiang, Z.Y., Hung, C.C., Lin, F.J., Chou, W.C., Gong, G.C. and Wen, L.S. (2010), " Size fractionation and molecular composition of water-soluble inorganic and organic nitrogen in aerosols of a coastal environment. " Journal of Geophysical Research, 115, D22307, doi:10.1029/2010JD014157.
Chen, H.Y., Fang, T.H., Preston, M.R. and Lin, S. (2006), " Characterization of phosphorus in the aerosol of a coastal atmosphere: using a sequential extraction method and the implications for marine nutrient cycles. " Atmospheric Environment, 40, 279–289, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.09.051.
Cheng, Z.L., Lam, K.S., Chan, L.Y., Wang, T., and Cheng, K.K., “Chemical characteristics of aerosols at coastal station in Hong Kong. I. Seasonal variation of major ions, halogens and mineral dusts between 1995 and 1996,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 34, pp. 2771-2783 (2000).
Chester, R, Nimmo, M, Preston, M R. 1999. The trace metal chemistry of atmospheric dry deposition samples collected at Cap Ferrat: a coastal site in the Western Mediterranean. Mar. Chem., 68:15-30
Chester, R., 2000. Marine Chemistry. London, Blackwell Science, 506 pp.
Erickson, D J, Merrill, J T, Duce, R A. 1986. Seasonal estimates of global atmospheric sea-salt distributions. J. of Geophys. Res., 91(D1):1067-1072.
J.C. Cabada, S. Rees, S. Takahama, A. Khlystov, S.N. Pandis (2004) Mass size distributions and size resolved chemical composition of fine particulate matter at the Pittsburgh supersite. Atmos Environ 38:3127–3141
Jickells, T., Baker,A.R., Cape, J.N., Cornell, S.E. and Nemitz, E. (2013), " The cycling of organic nitrogen through the atmosphere. " Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 368,1621, doi:10.1098/rstb.2013. 0115.
Kaneyasu, N., Ohta, S., and Murao, N., “Seasonal Variation in the Chemical Composition of Atmospheric Aerosols and Gaseous Species in Sapporo, Japan,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 29, pp. 1559-1568 (1995).
Kocak, M., Kubilay, N. and Mihalopoulos, N. (2004), " Ionic composition of lower tropospheric aerosols at a Northeastern Mediterranean site: Implications regarding sources and long-range transport. " Atmospheric Environment, 38, 2067–2077, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2004.01.030.
Li, F. and Okada, K., “Diffusion and modification of marine aerosol particles over the coastal areas in china: A case study using a single particle analysis”, Journal of Atmospheric. Science, Vol. 56, pp. 241-248 (1999).
McInnes, L.M., Covert, D.S., Quinn, P.K., Germani, M.S., “Measurements of chloride depletion and sulfur enrichment in individual sea-salt particles collected from the remote marine boundary layer,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 99, pp. 8257-8268 (1994)
Seinfeld J.H., “Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics of Air pollution”. John Wiley & Sons Inc, USA, 1-193 (1986).
Seinfeld, J. H., Pandis, S. N., 1998. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics From Air Pollution to Climate Change. Wiley, New York.
Wall, S. M. , John, W. and Ondo, .J.L. “Measurement of aerosol size distribution for nitrate major ionic species”, Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 22, pp. 1649-1656 (1988)
Whitby, K. T., Cantrell, B., 1976. Fine particles, in International Conference on Environmental Sensing and Assessment, Las Vegas, NV, Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers.
王明星,1999,大氣化學,氣象出版社,ISBN:7-5029-2655-0.
王弼正、李崇德,2007,臺灣地區懸浮微粒空氣污染防制及問題研究-東北季風影響下臺北地區細微粒及其氣體前驅物特性分析
行政院環境保護署,104年10月,認識細懸浮微粒
余嘉裕、陳永祺、劉廣英,1997,台灣地區空氣品質監測與東亞沙暴關係之氣候與地球化學分析
吳政鴻,1997,彭佳嶼海域大氣懸浮微粒之化學研究,國立台灣大學海洋研究所碩士論文
李育明、黃景祥、葉俊毅、葉欣誠、潘德明,1998,「空氣品質監測站代表性評估(北部地區)期末報告」,國立中興大學法商學院資源管理研究所
李展昌,2006,臺灣北部海域乾沉降主成份分析之研究,國立臺灣海洋大學碩士學位論文
周武雄、莊桓齊、曠永銓、習良孝, 2008,台北盆地臭氧光化學污染現象之探討分析
柳中明、張修武、劉紹臣,1999,蘭嶼背景大氣監測初析,大氣科學
袁中新、洪崇軒、王宏恩、劉山豪,1999,「台灣地區懸浮微粒物化特徵及生成機制探討」
袁中新、羅金翔、邱宏城, 2009,都會區視覺空氣品質管理,空氣品質管理
張雲麗,1995,海水飛沫產生源的穩定性及其受局部環流氣響之研究,國立中央大學環境工程研究所碩士論文
張順欽、吳權芳,2001,大陸沙塵暴對台灣地區空氣品質之影響,大陸沙塵暴對台灣地區空氣品質之影響與預測研討會
張順欽、李崇德,2001,大陸沙塵暴影響空氣中懸浮微粒濃度之評估,第九屆中華民國氣膠科技研討會
許家綺,2015,2011-2015年台灣都會區細懸浮微粒(PM2.5)成分濃度變化、污染來源推估及對能見度影響,國立中央大學
陳昌煚,2005,交通空氣品質監測站污染特性探討及改善策略研擬-以苗栗公館測站為例,國立中山大學 環境工程研究所碩士論文
曾幀琳,2006,彭佳嶼海域大氣懸浮微粒中金屬元素及水溶性離子之化學特性研究,國立台灣大學理學院海洋研究所碩士論文
華梅英、鄧家基、張秀慧、陳建安、周佇靖、游秀芬,1999,新北市空氣品質之探討以2001-2010之監測資料為基礎,東南科技大學東南學報第三十六期,第153-166頁
詹長權,2014,中部空品區細懸浮微粒暴露評估及成因分析計畫,行政院環境保護署
蒙彥超,2004,季風及區外污染源對工業區空氣品質監測站網優選之影響分析,國立交通大學環境工程研究所碩士論文
蔡世源,2004,沙塵暴對台灣地區酸性乾濕沈降之影響,國立台灣大學環境工程學研究所碩士論文
鄭龍,2016,103年度新北市空氣品質監測計畫,新北市政府環境保護局
簡宏倫、李崇德,2003年,臺灣北部都會區氣懸微粒粒徑分布之污染特性分析
連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top