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研究生:謝華育
研究生(外文):Hsieh, Hua-Yu
論文名稱:散裝航運市場現況及其船舶營運模式之分析
論文名稱(外文):The Analysis of Shipping Markets and Operating Models in the Bulk Shipping Sectors
指導教授:鍾政棋鍾政棋引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chung, Cheng-Chi
口試委員:韓子健鍾易詩李選士蘇育玲鍾政棋
口試委員(外文):Han, Tzeu-ChenChung, Yi-ShihLee, Hsuan-ShihSu, Yuh-LingChung, Cheng-Chi
口試日期:2016-06-20
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:航運管理學系
學門:運輸服務學門
學類:運輸管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:84
中文關鍵詞:營運模式績效評估散裝航運市場資料包絡分析法
外文關鍵詞:Operating ModelsPerformance EvaluationBulk ShippingData Envelopment Analysis
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散裝航運近乎於完全競爭市場,現今全球散裝航運市場與運價低迷,貨物需求不如以往。本研究基於航運公司立場,針對散裝航運現況、散裝營運模式以及煤炭運輸業務實證分析等三大主軸進行探討。本研究透過聯合國貿易暨發展委員會(UNCTAD)、德國航運經濟與物流研究中心(ISL),及Clarkson研究機構等近年資料,分析散裝航運市場船噸供給、貨源需求與市場運價之現況。並以學理角度,針對散裝船舶營運模式分為論程傭船(V/C)、論時傭船(T/C)以及船舶租賃(B/C)三部分進行探討,藉以了解各營運模式於不同市場概況下之優劣勢。並藉由煤炭運輸實際案例進行實證分析,研究方法則採用資料包絡分析法(DEA)進行分析,基於無明確產出(WEO)模式,整合各項投入變數,計算印尼與澳洲共八個主要裝貨港之營運績效,探討於現行市場上,如何提升煤炭運輸業務營運績效。本文研究發現如下:

1. 散裝航運市場現況分析發現,現今貨量成長仍不及船噸成長,顯示船舶噸位供給過剩,整體航運景氣氛圍低迷,航運公司市場營運較為艱困。運價市場方面,近年來波動程度大,以大型船舶如海岬型及巴拿馬極限型最為嚴重,因此,於現今航運環境艱困下,船東更需掌握現今航運市場之船貨供需與運價市場,保有其競爭力。

2. 散裝航運營運模式分析不同的營運模式有不同的風險、成本與責任,對船東與傭船人而言,亦各有其優勢與劣勢,航運公司可依市場運價波動,於不同時期採取不同的營運模式。航運為風險管理高度相關之行業,於船東市場時,可洽談論程傭船契約,把握運價高漲時機,增加公司利潤。於傭船人市場時,可洽談論時傭船契約,以避免於市場氛圍不佳時,無法將船舶出租之持有成本。而論時傭船租期之長短與否,亦會影響船東利益,若還船點於運價上漲時,船東擁有更佳之談判優勢,此時船東可洽定單一航次論時傭船(Trip T/C),或是租期較短之論時傭船,以增加不同傭船契約之洽訂,藉以增加收入,相對而言,於運價下跌時,船東反居談判劣勢,此時船東可簽訂較長期論時傭船(Period T/C),此舉可將船舶營運成本移轉至傭船人手中。

3. 煤炭運輸業務實例分析結果發現,於受評港口中,以印尼港口效率值較澳洲更有效率,印尼四個港口中以D港為最高。為提升裝貨港績效,散裝航運A公司在選擇裝貨港時,可多選擇印尼的A港、B港與D港,而為尋求品質較佳之煤源,澳洲港口可選擇A港。而至澳洲之航程海上時間長,若至澳洲承載貨物,可減少單位燃料成本,船員亦可於放大洋期間進行船舶保養與維修工作。

Bulk shipping market is alomost competitive. Due to the drop of demand, the freight and hire are taking a downturn now. This study is based on the carrier’s position, focuses on three aspects in bulk shipping status, operation model and the empirical analysis of bulk coal transport business, etc. In order to analyze the current supply of ship tonnages, the demand of cargoes and the market freights statement in the bulk shipping market, we use the latest data from United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), Institute of Shipping Economics and Logistics (ISL), and Clarkson Research Services. While focusing on bulk shipping markets, these operation models are divided into Voyage Charter (V/C), Time Charter (T/C) and Bareboat Charter (B/C) to discuss, in order to understand the advantages and disadvantages in different operation model of markets. We conduct empirical analysis by case study, and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is the methodology of this study based on Without Explicit Outputs (WEO) model to integration of the various input variables. We discuss how the current market enhancing its coal transportation and operating performance by input variables from real case and real company, which from eight ports in Indonesia and Australia. In this study, result as follow:

1. The bulk shipping market situation analysis found that the current cargo volume growth is still slower than ship tonnages, which shows that ship tonnage supply are overflow. Due to the overall shipping markets are still in doldrums, shipping companies are in the hard time. In recent years, it’s volatility in freight market, especially to large vessels such as Capesize and Panamax are more serious. Therefore, in order to maintain their competitiveness under the hardship, Ship owners have to master cargo demand, shipping supply and freight market in recent days.

2. Bulk shipping business model analysis of different operating models have different risks, costs and responsibilities to ship owners and charterers, but they have their own advantages and disadvantages. According to the volatility of freights, shipping companies could respond to the market by operation model in different periods. Shipping industry are highly correlated with risk management. When there are owners’ market, the market freights are high, it’s better to be Voyage Charter (V/C) to enhance the profits. When there are charterers’ market, the market freights are low, so it’s better to be Time Charter (T/C) to avoid the cost which ships unable to lease in bad times.The length of the lease in time charter will also affect ship owner’s benefits, if the freight rise in redelivery point, the ship owner will have an advantage in negotiations. In order to increase revenue, ship owner could bargain Trip Time Charter, or Time Charter in a short term to increase the diversity of the contact. In the other hand, when tariffs goes down, it’s hard to negotiate for the ship owner, so bargaining a longer-term Period Time Charter is a good way to transfer the operating costs charterer.

3. In the case analysis, we found that Indonesian ports are more efficient than Australian port, especially the port D in Indonesia. In order to enhance the performance of loading, bulk shipping company A could select Indonesian Ports A, B and D to load more often. And for a better quality of coal source, Australian port A is selectable. If there are bulk cargos need to be loading from Australia, crews could do some maintenance and ship repairing during the voyage due to its long way, which also reduce the unit cost of bunker.

謝誌 I
摘要 II
ABSTRACT III
目錄 V
表目次 VII
圖目次 VIII

第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景與動機 1
1.2 研究問題與目的 5
1.3 研究內容與方法 6
1.4 研究之限制 7
1.5 研究架構與流程 7

第二章 文獻回顧與評析 9
2.1 散裝航運市場特性 9
2.2 散裝航運營運模式特性 12
2.3 績效評估方法 13

第三章 散裝航運市場現況分析 19
3.1 散裝船噸供給分析 19
3.2 散裝貨源需求分析 24
3.3 散裝航運市場運價分析 28
3.3.1 波羅地海運價指數分析 28
3.3.2 散裝運輸價格分析 31
3.4 本章小結 36

第四章 散裝航運船舶營運模式 38
4.1 船噸聯盟營運模式分析 38
4.1.1船噸聯盟營運模式特性分析 38
4.1.2 船噸聯盟營運模式優劣勢分析 39
4.2 論程傭船營運模式分析 39
4.2.1 論程傭船營運模式特性分析 39
4.2.2 論程傭船營運模式優劣勢分析 42
4.3 論時傭船營運模式分析 45
4.3.1 論時傭船營運模式特性分析 45
4.3.2 論時傭船營運模式優劣勢分析 46
4.4 船舶租賃營運模式分析 47
4.4.1 船舶租賃營運模式特性分析 48
4.4.2 船舶租賃營運模式優劣勢分析 49
4.5 本章小結 49

第五章 煤炭運輸績效評估實例分析 51
5.1 績效評估之背景 51
5.2 無明確產出分析法(DEA-WEO)之起源 52
5.3無明確產出分析法(DEA-WEO)模式計算 52
5.4 評估變數之選取 54
5.5 煤炭運輸實例分析 54
5.6 營運成本與營運績效分析 56
5.7 本章小結 57

第六章 結論與建議 58
6.1結論 58
6.2建議 59
參考文獻 60
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附件二、論時傭船NYPE 1946契約 68
附件三、論時傭船NYPE 1993契約 72
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