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研究生:李明倫
研究生(外文):Lee, Ming-Lun
論文名稱:照相浮水印之研究與設計
論文名稱(外文):Research and Design of Photograph Watermarking
指導教授:吳宗杉吳宗杉引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wu, Tzong-Sun
口試委員:李仁鐘許建隆丁培毅林秀芬吳宗杉
口試委員(外文):Lee, Zne-JungHsu, Chien-LungTing, Pei-YihLin, Hsiu-FenWu, Tzong-Sun
口試日期:2015-12-10
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:資訊工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:103
中文關鍵詞:資訊隱藏離散傅立葉轉換離散餘弦轉換列印照相程序
外文關鍵詞:Information HidingDiscrete Fourier TransformDiscrete Cosine TransformPrint-and-photo Process
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在數位世界中,資料很容易複製、竄改且廣泛地傳播,因此資訊的保護是一個非常重要的課題,其中一種普遍用來保護數位資訊的方法稱為數位浮水印。一般常見的數位浮水印系統,所處理的圖片皆為數位化形式。很多學者致力於研究如何藉由掃描器,從列印出來的圖片中萃取浮水印。這些方法都可以抵抗列印掃描程序 (Print-and-Scan Process),然而這些方法在作圖片認證時都有一些限制和缺點,特別是圖片不容易被掃描的情況。本研究之照相浮水印不僅限制較少,且可以應用的空間更廣,特別是在掃描器不可使用的情況下,例如圖片是印在移動中的公車上。照相浮水印所面臨的問題是列印照相程序 (Print-and-Photo Process),這些經過列印照相程序而擷取下來的圖片可能會有旋轉、縮放、色調改變的問題,甚至會有視角變形和桶狀變形等失真。本研究主要目標是定義和建構列印照相程序的模型,提供可抵抗列印照相程序的照相浮水印系統之架構,並討論此系統的未來發展以及可能限制。列印照相程序中,像素失真的模型是用倒傳遞類神經網路演算法來建構。此模型可避免幾何失真,並可促進頻率域係數經過列印照相程序後的特性分析。此外,本論文從既有研究中整理出滿足照相浮水印架構的方法,依其應用技術,可分為二類,基於離散傅立葉轉換 (DFT) 的方法和基於離散餘弦轉換 (DCT) 的方法。本論文實作並比較這些方法,實驗結果顯示基於DFT方法的抵抗程度最好,但容量較少;反觀基於DCT的方法則有很高的嵌入容量與強韌性。在這些方法中,基於相同PSNR值的標準下,Lee等學者的作法優於其他方法。
The protection of information integrity and copyright ownership is a very important issue in the digital world where the data can be easily copied, altered and transmitted. One of the well known ways to protect the multimedia is digital watermarking. For a common watermarking system, the test image is processed in digital form. Many researchers have devoted themselves to the studies of extracting watermarks from scanned-image. These schemes can resist the print-and-scan (PS) process. However, these schemes have some restrictions and weakness when they are applied to image authentication in which images can not be scanned easily. The photograph watermarking system discussed in this thesis has not only less restrictions, but also more flexible applications especially in those cases where the image can not be scanned, e.g., a picture on some moving bus. The problem that the photograph watermarking system faced is the print-and-photo (PP) process. These captured images might be rotated, scaled or chroma distorted after the PP process, and even have perspective and barrel distortions. The goal in this thesis is to define and construct the model of PP process, provide a framework of the photograph watermarking system that can resist the PP process, and discuss the future development and possible restrictions of the system. The pixel distortion of PP process is modeled by utilizing the Back Propagation Neural Network algorithm. The constructed model can avoid the geometric distortions and facilitate the analysis of coefficient characteristics after PP process in frequency domain. Furthermore, this thesis summarizes the existing studies that satisfied the framework of photograph watermarking system, and then classifies these existing schemes into two categories, DFT-based and DCT-based methods, according to the applied techniques. All these schemes are implemented and compared in the thesis. Experimental results show that the DFT-based methods have the best robustness, but limited embedding capacity. In contrast, the DCT-based methods hold both the properties of high embedding capacity and robustness. Among these methods, Lee et al.’s scheme is the one that outperforms related works under the basis of maintaining the same PSNR values.
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景與動機 1
1.2 研究目的與貢獻 6
1.3 研究方法與論文組織 8
第二章 背景知識 10
2.1 離散傅立葉轉換 (Discrete Fourier Transform) 10
2.2 離散餘弦轉換 (Discrete Cosine Transform) 16
2.3 峰值信噪比 (Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio) 20
2.4 正規互關聯 (Normalized Cross-Correlation) 24
第三章 抵抗列印掃描程序之浮水印方法 28
3.1 列印掃描程序 (Print-and-Scan Process) 28
3.2 抵抗列印掃描攻擊的相關文獻介紹 36
第四章 列印照相程序之分析與模擬 44
4.1 列印照相程序 (Print-and-Photo Process) 44
4.2 列印照相模型之建構與模擬 47
4.3 列印照相程序對中頻DCT係數平均之影響 51
第五章 照相浮水印系統 54
5.1 基於DFT的照相浮水印方法 54
5.2 基於DCT的照相浮水印方法 64
5.3 比較分析 82
5.4 其他測試 83
第六章 討論與結論 91
6.1 討論 91
6.2 結論 92
6.3 未來研究 93
參考文獻 94

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