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研究生:蔡明軒
研究生(外文):Ming-Hsuan Tsai
論文名稱:Android APP遙控即時影像追蹤自走車
論文名稱(外文):Autonomous Vehicle with Real-time Object Tracking Remote Control via Android APP
指導教授:容志輝
指導教授(外文):Chee-Fai Yung
口試委員:吳政郎黃皇男周永山林正凱容志輝
口試委員(外文): Chee-Fai Yung
口試日期:2016-07-05
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:52
中文關鍵詞:樹莓派追蹤影像處理自走車模糊PID理論Android遙控
外文關鍵詞:Raspberry Pitrackingimage processingAutonomous VehicleFUZZY PID controllerAndroidremote control
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本論文之研究目的是以樹莓派實現即時影像追蹤自走車,並具智慧型手機遙控及監視功能。首先以自走車上的攝影機拍攝影像,經由 OPENCV 進行影像處理,透過顏色篩選及形狀重心運算技術,可得知自走車到目標物的距離及角度。應用模糊控制、PID控制與模糊PID控制三種控制方法,找出自走車進行追蹤任務的控制訊號,並在追蹤時可以傳送即時影像給使用者監控,最後由實驗結果驗證此方法之有效性。
在遙控方面,本論文應用Android系統之智慧型手機作為遙控器,結合樹莓派控制板及Wi-Fi無線傳輸,實現遠端遙控功能。而樹莓派上裝有攝影模組,利用樹莓派建立了即時視頻流媒體伺服器傳送拍攝影像,令使用者可同時遙控與監控。

The purpose of this thesis is to implement an autonomous vehicle which is able to track a moving object. The autonomous vehicle can also be remotely controlled and monitored by smartphone. A camera module is placed on the car to capture images, which for image processing with OPENCV. Through color screening and shape centering technique, the distance and the angle between a car and a target object are estimated. Three control methods are FUZZY controller, PID controller, and FUZZY PID controller applied to generate tracking signal for the robot car to perform intercepting maneuver, and the car can transmit real-time video for users to monitor. Finally, experiment results verify the proposed methods.
In the case of remote control, the smartphone with Android system is used as the remote controller. The thesis create remote control system based on Raspberry PI and Wi-Fi. A camera module is placed on the Raspberry Pi, the user can remotely control and monitor based on Raspberry Pi building a live video streaming server.

第一章 緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 文獻回顧 1
1.3 研究動機與目的 2
1.4 論文架構 2
第二章 系統之軟硬體架構 3
2.1 系統架構 3
2.2樹莓派開發板 4
2.2.1樹莓派硬體規格 4
2.2.2樹莓派GPIO接腳 6
2.3影像處理系統 7
2.3.1樹莓派照相機模組 7
2.3.2照相機模組設定 8
2.3.3影像處理介面 8
2.4無線傳輸系統 9
2.5 結構與動力驅動系統 10
2.5.1 車體結構 10
2.5.2 直流馬達 10
2.5.3 L298N馬達驅動板 11
2.5.4 PWM脈波寬度調變 12
2.6 遠端遙控系統 13
2.6.1 Android 13
2.6.2 Android系統架構 13
2.6.3 Android開發平台(Android Studio) 14
2.6.4 Android Studio圖形用戶界面 15
第三章 影像處理 17
3.1 內容簡介 17
3.2影像擷取 17
3.3物體顏色偵測 18
3.4影像濾波 19
3.5影像侵蝕與膨脹 21
3.6重心座標與面積判斷 22
3.7影像傳送 23
第四章自走車控制器設計與實驗結果 25
4.1內容簡介 25
4.2 模糊控制器 25
4.2.1模糊化(Fuzzifier) 25
4.2.2模糊規則庫(Fuzzy Rule Base) 28
4.2.3模糊推論引擎(Fuzzy Interface engine) 28
4.2.4解模糊化(Defuzzifier) 29
4.3 PID控制器 30
4.4模糊PID控制器 30
4.4.1前後模糊PD控制器設計 31
4.4.2左右模糊PD控制器設計 33
4.5實驗結果 35
第五章ANDROID遙控 43
5.1 SOCKET簡介 43
5.2 ANDROID程式設計 44
5.3樹莓派端程式設計 46
5.4實驗結果 46
第六章 結論與未來展望 49
6.1 結論 49
6.2 未來展望 49


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[2] Tzuu-Hseng S. Li and Shih-Jie Chang, “Autonomous Fuzzy Parking Control of a Car-Like Mobile Robot,” IEEE Trans. On Fuzzy System, Vol.33, No.4, pp. 451-465, Jul. 2003.

[3] G. G Rigatos, S. G. Tzafestas, and G. J. Evangelidis, “Reactive Parking Control of Nonholonomic Vehicles Via a Fuzzy Learning Automaton,” IEEE Proc.-Control Theory Apply, Vol.48, No.2, pp. 169-179, Mar. 2001.

[4] Ching-Wen Cheng, Shih-Jie Chang, and Tzuu-Hseng S. Li, “Parallel-Parking Control of Autonomous Mobile Robot,” IECON Int. Conf., Vol.3, pp. 1305-1310, Nov. 1997.

[5] Kai-Tai Song and Liang-Hwang Sheen, “Fuzzy-nero control design for obstacle avoidance of a mobile robot,” IEEE Int. Conf. On Fuzzy System, Vol.12, No.4, pp. 447-465, Aug. 2004.

[6] Ching-Po Lin, Jen-Chao Tai, and Kai-Tai Song, “Traffic Monitoring Based on Real-Time Image Tracking,” IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, Vol.2, pp. 2091-2096, Sept. 2003.

[7] Henrry Andrian and Kai-Tai Song, “Embedded CMOS Imaging System for Real-Time Robotic Vision,” IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems, pp. 1096-1101, Aug. 2005.

[8] Simon X. Yang, Ho Li, Max Q.-H. Meng, and Peter X. Liu “An Embedded Fuzzy Cintroller for a Behavior-Based Mobile Robot With Guaranteed Performance,” IEEE Trans. On Fuzzy System, Vol.12, No.4, pp. 436-446, Aug. 2004.

[9] Tzuu-Hseng S. Li, Shih-Jie Chang, and Wei Tong, “Fuzzy Target Tracking Control of Autonomous Mobile Robots by Using Infrared Sensors,” IEEE Trans. On Fuzzy System, Vol.12, No.4, pp. 491-501, Aug. 2004.

[10] 朱文涛、袁勇 譯,Python計算機視覺編程,人民郵電出版社。

[11] B. D. Lucas and T. Kanade, “An Interative Image Registration Technique with An Application to Stereo Vision,” Proceedings of Imaging Understanding Workshop, pp. 121-131, 1981.

[12] Zedeh, L. A., “Fuzzy Sets”, Inform. Control, Vol.8, pp. 338-353, 1965.

[13] Mamdani, E. H, “An Experiment in Linguistic Synthesis with a Fuzzy Logic
Control,” Int. Journal of Human-Computer Studies, Vol.51, pp. 135-147, Aug. 1999.

[14] X. T. Peng and S. M. Liu, “Self-regulating PID controllers and its applications to a temperature controlling process,” Fuzzy Computing, pp. 355-363, 1988.

[15] C. S. Chao, T. Z. Wu and Y. T. Juang, “Weighted Fuzzy-PID controllers, “Proceeding of 2004 Automatic Control Conference, Chung-Li, Taiwan, 2004.

[16] S. C. Hsu, C. H. Liu, and N. J. Wang, “Fuzzy PI controller turning for a linear permanent magnet synchronous motor drive,” IECON’01, Proc. Of the 27th Annual Conf. of IEEE Indus. Elect., vol.3, pp. 1661-1666, 2001.

[17] 黃彬華,Android 4.X App開發教戰手冊,碁峰出版社。

[18] 王仁甫,基於樹莓派開發板以Android APP遙控載具之實現,國立臺灣海洋大學電機工程學系碩士論文,2015。

[19] 柯博文,Raspberry Pi超炫專案與完全實戰,碁峰出版社。

[20] L298N 馬達驅動板模組接線圖,Download by: http://bugworkshop.blogspot.tw/2013/02/diy-l298n.html

[21] Android系統介紹
https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/Android

[22] OpenCV教學
http://monkeycoding.com/?page_id=12

[23] PID控制器
https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/PID%E6%8E%A7%E5%88%B6%E5%99%A8

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