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研究生:周怡
研究生(外文):Chou Yi
論文名稱:世界貿易組織主席版漁業補貼草案之研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study on the Draft Consolidated Chair Texts of the AD and SCM Agreement Annex VIII of the World Trade Organization
指導教授:歐慶賢歐慶賢引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ching-Hsiewn Ou
口試委員:翁永和張靜貞徐世勳姜皇池李國添
口試日期:1050118
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:環境生物與漁業科學學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:漁業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:281
中文關鍵詞:漁業補貼主席版漁業補貼草案泛太平洋戰略經濟夥伴關係協議漁業法漁港建設
外文關鍵詞:fisheries subsidiesthe Chair draft textTrans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreementthe Fisheries Actport infrastructure
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主席版漁業補貼草案,為世界貿易組織會員討論以國際法法源介入國內漁業補貼管理制度的基礎文本。其內容有關漁業補貼的分類、管理標準、透明化等規定一旦正式生效後,將成為世界貿易組織會員管理其國內漁業補貼的基本標準。惟受限於規則協商的既定模式及各會員不同的漁業條件與利益考量,此草案迄今仍未成為正式文本。

由於該草案內容是會員在規則協商過程中,用於討論的唯一法律文本。其內容與締約目的,未來勢必影響各會員海洋捕撈漁業的發展。因此我國有必要保持高度的關切,並擬定未來因應方案。建議我國應在規則協商階段,就八項禁止補貼項目中之於我國漁業發展有根本影響的項目,提出符合國情的法律意見,以改變現有草案的內容。例如:積極挑戰補貼漁民保險費用、漁民所得支持及漁港建設列於禁止補貼項目的可行性,以確保我國照顧漁民之一貫目標。同時,可參考國外法制,預先將我國現有關漁業動力用油補貼及其免稅法令,轉變為限制金額與補貼期限的非常態性行政計畫,防患於未然。

我國應同時密切注意草案部分內容,成為區域自由貿易協定之具體規定的可能性,由於《關稅與貿易總協定》第24條提供區域自由貿易協定內具體規範漁業補貼的法律依據,而在世界貿易組織《峇里島部長會議》後,已有將漁業補貼列為區域自由貿易協定專章的實踐。雖說《泛太平洋戰略經濟夥伴關係協議》之具體內容與主席版漁業補貼草案有些許不同,但禁止漁業補貼之目的、消除有助於非法、未報告、不受規範捕魚行為與造成漁撈能力過剩的漁業補貼方向並未改變。且有部分會員在《泛太平洋戰略經濟夥伴關係協議》生效後,仍表示將透過規則協商程序,建立全球化的漁業補貼規範,不排除未來發展為雙軌規範漁業補貼的法律模式。在這樣的趨勢下,我國更應預先就主席版漁業補貼草案的內容作成法律應對,減少未來對我國現行法制的衝擊。

The Chair draft text is the only legal text for rule negotiation since 30 November 2007. The catagories of fisheries subsidies, principles, prerequisites, procedures of fisheries management, transparency and legal obligations generalized for all WTO members to discipline their domestic fisheries subsidies had been negotiating till now. Be limited by differences of fishing capacity, municipal legal system, trade and diplomacy interests, and basic pattern of rule negotiation which set up by the Doha Ministrial Declaration and Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, the draft text still not be a legal binding document.

Due to the legal purpose set for the Chair draft text and the effect to marine wild fishing sector, our governmental authories have to deeply concern the development. Thus, in the rule negotiation, Competent Authorities should submitt legal opinions to argue some items listed in Article I, especially insurance of Article I.1(a), port infrastructures of Article I.1(d), income support of Article I.1(e). In the meantime, governmental authories have to assess the possibility of the any articles listed in the Chair draft text will transfer into regional trade agreement. After WTO Bali Ministrial Coference, the presentatives engaged some consensus and made some regulations to discipline harmful fisheries subsidies. Under this trend, Competent Authorities should sincerely consider relevant regulations and set up the strategies in advance.

目次
摘要 I
ABSTRACT II
第一章 緒論 1
第二章 主席版漁業補貼草案的形成背景與基本架構 9
第一節 補貼的歷史背景 10
壹、補貼的定義 10
一、補貼在國際貿易法的定義 10
二、在《補貼暨平衡稅措施協定》之補貼定義下描述漁業補貼 11
貳、國際社會討論以全球性專門國際協定規範國內漁業補貼的必要性 13
一、反對意見 14
二、肯定意見 16
參、手段的選擇 21
一、以全球性條約為新協定的首選 21
二、新協定應以國際貿易協定為主 22
三、新協定的內容無須完全借鏡既有的《農業協定》 24
第二節 主席版漁業補貼草案的基本架構 28
壹、建立法律架構前應釐清的前提事項 28
貳、法律架構 30
一、分類漁業補貼的方式 31
二、會員管理漁業補貼應有的內涵 33
三、低度開發會員之特殊與差別待遇 35
參、法律架構所欲達成之締約目的 37
一、基本目的 37
二、特殊目的 38
第三節 我國對漁業補貼議題與主席版漁業補貼草案的立場 44
壹、2001年至2007年之議題階段 44
貳、2008年迄今之草案階段 46
參、我國對漁業補貼議題與主席版漁業補貼草案的整體立場 48
第四節 本研究的基本看法 51
壹、法律結構所要傳達的訊息 51
一、國家是自私的 51
二、國家的自私行為對國際共有資源造成影響 51
三、國際社會建立解決問題的共識 52
四、以新貿易協定作為解決問題的對策 52
貳、法律結構的要素 54
一、新協定應保護會員的共同利益 54
二、新協定應禁止影響共同利益之行為 54
三、新協定應保障國力欠佳的會員 54
四、新協定之基本目的是保護共同利益並調和個別利益衝突 55
五、新協定應維持會員的合法判斷空間並制裁破壞共同利益者 55
參、法律架構忽略的現狀 57
第三章 主席版漁業補貼草案分類漁業補貼的方式
與管理漁業補貼制度應具備的內涵 59
第一節 漁業補貼的分類方式 60
壹、《補貼暨平衡稅措施協定》分類補貼方法 60
一、《補貼暨平衡稅措施協定》以三分法分類補貼 60
二、國際組織以《補貼暨平衡稅措施協定》為基礎所進行的研究 64
三、轉換:交通號誌法 73
貳、主席版漁業補貼草案採取二分法 75
一、列舉原則禁止與例外允許之補貼項目 75
二、二分法所要達成之締約目的 77
三、二分法在規則協商過程所引發的爭論與考驗 79
參、本研究的看法 81
一、仍未明確說明漁業補貼所指之作業區域 81
二、未明確說明原則與例外規定欲達成之目的 83
三、忽略補貼之於會員的重要性 84
第二節 會員管理漁業補貼應有的內涵 89
壹、締約目的 89
一、以統一立法行動改善國際漁業管理標準分散的現況 91
二、以統一立法行動將國際漁業管理標準引入會員國內法 93
貳、例示會員國內漁業管理法制應具備的內容作為實現締約目的之手段 98
一、會員國內漁業管理法制應具備的基本原則 98
二、會員國內漁業管理法制應具備科學評估程序 104
參、會員的意見 108
一、支持由上而下的管理模式 108
二、支持由下而上的管理模式 111
三、未明確表態 113
肆、本研究的看法 116
第三節 以義務規定加強會員有效管理國內漁業補貼 118
壹、形成再加強國內漁業補貼內容透明化之共識 118
一、《多哈宣言》至香港部長會議前 119
二、《香港部長會議宣言》至世界貿易組織規則協商小組
提出主席版漁業補貼草案前 123
貳、再加強國內漁業補貼內容透明化之締約目的 125
一、維持與其他協定的一致性 125
二、以法律義務確保通知的品質 127
參、具體實現國內漁業補貼內容透明化之手段 130
一、多方通知補貼的義務 130
二、確保通知內容的手段 132
肆、本研究的看法 133
一、擴大通知對象卻沒有搭配制裁機制 133
二、《補貼暨平衡稅措施協定》委員會外之專業意見的法律地位 134
第四章 主席版漁業補貼草案在國際法的未來及對我國《漁業法》的影響139
第一節 主席版漁業補貼草案在國際法的未來 140
壹、規則協商文本成為正式法律文件之必經程序 140
一、草案成為正式文本的必經程序之一:共識決 140
二、草案成為正式文本的必經程序之二:單一認諾 141
貳、突破現狀的嘗試 143
一、跳出規則協商模式 143
二、在現有模式內建立突破的基礎 145
參、漁業補貼規範在區域貿易協定可能的模式
--以《泛太平洋戰略經濟夥伴關係協議》為例 151
一、可行性 151
二、作法 156
三、最新實踐 160
第二節 對我國《漁業法》的影響 166
壹、我國《漁業法》有關補貼的規定 166
貳、我國《漁業法》補貼漁撈作業成本的有關規定與因應 168
一、漁船動力用油免稅 168
二、漁民免除支付部分社會保險費用 173
三、減免進口關稅 175
四、漁業貸款 176
第三節 漁港建設列為禁止項目對我國產生的影響及因應 178
壹、漁港在我國法制的地位 178
貳、漁港在主席版漁業補貼草案的定性 179
一、漁港列為禁止補貼的項目 179
二、會員的意見 180
三、近期發展 181
參、禁止會員補貼漁港建設對我國有關的漁港法制的影響與因應 182
一、預先以國內法將傳統之海洋漁撈功能轉型 182
二、未來的方向 186
第四節 漁民所得支持補貼列為禁止補貼項目對我國產生的影響與因應192
壹、漁民所得支持在主席版漁業補貼草案的定性 192
一、規則協商小組例示的態樣 192
二、會員的意見 193
貳、禁止提供所得支持對我國的影響 194
一、我國與漁民所得有關的法規 194
二、我國的因應措施 196
參、我國未來實施所得支持的可行性 199
一、以主席版漁業補貼草案的理念為漁民所得支持之基本原則 199
二、漁民所得支持結合小額補貼計畫 199
第五節 漁業補貼透明化對我國的影響及因應 203
壹、漁業補貼透明化的規定 203
一、漁業補貼透明化的規定 203
二、主席版漁業補貼草案對於補貼透明化的要求 204
貳、我國與補貼透明化之相關法規 204
參、我國有關漁業補貼透明化的因應 207
一、通知世界貿易組織 207
二、通知區域漁業管理組織 208
三、具體運用 208
第五章 結 論 211
參考文獻 216
附件一 主席版漁業補貼草案中英文對照 238
附件二 泛太平洋戰略經濟夥伴關係協議關於漁業補貼中英文對照 252
附件三 補貼暨平衡稅措施協定 259


中文
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〈行政院農業委員會漁業署2009年年報〉,中華民國99年09月。
〈2011年台澎金馬地區漁業統計年報〉,行政院農業委員會漁業署,中華民國100年。
〈2012年台澎金馬地區漁業統計年報〉,行政院農業委員會漁業署,中華民國101年。

聯合國糧農組織
2003年。漁業委員會第二十五屆會議報告糧農組織漁業報告第702號,2003年2月24-28日,羅馬。〈http://www.fao.org/fi/oldsite/eims_search/1_dett.asp?calling=simple_s_result&lang=en&pub_id=146772〉。
2012年。2012年世界漁業和水產養殖狀況,羅馬。〈http://www.fao.org/docrep/016/i2727c/i2727c.pdf〉。
2015年。糧食安全和扶貧背景下保障可持續小規模漁業自願準則,羅馬。〈http://www.fao.org/3/a-i4356c.pdf〉。

研究計畫
倪貴榮,《永續發展與環保國際合作-貿易與環境相關議題研究分析(計畫編號:EPA-92-U1U1-02-101)》,台北:行政院環保署,2003年。
洪志銘,《我國實施漁業所得支持政策之可行性研析》,台北:外交部/經濟部國際貿易局,2011年。

一般資料
胡興華,〈臺灣的漁港(4)〉,《漁業推廣月刊》,184期,2002年1月,頁18-35。
胡興華,〈臺灣的漁港(5)〉,《漁業推廣月刊》,185期,2002年3月,頁12-20。

網際網路
林祖嘉,〈加入WTO後 兩岸經貿互動趨勢之探討〉,《國家政策論壇》,第一卷第十期,民國九十年十二月,〈http://old.npf.org.tw/monthly/00110/theme-056.htm〉。
徐遵慈,〈WTO第九屆部長會議的成果與影響〉,《工商會務季刊》,103年1月15日,〈http://198.55.121.69/cgi-bin/big5/k/37a2?q1=dp1&q27=20140218231128&q35=&q65=2006003&q22=6 available at: http://198.55.121.69/cgi-bin/big5/k/37a2?q1=dp1&q27=20140218231128&q35=&q65=2006003&q22=6,〉
陳逸潔,〈在WTO規範下漁業所得支持措施之可能架構〉,〈http://web.wtocenter.org.tw/Page.aspx?pid=5611&nid=13325〉。
我國針對《多哈宣言》第31至第33段表示之立場,〈www.wtocenter.org.tw/SmartKMS/fileviewer?id=1823〉
《中華百科全書》,〈http://ap6.pccu.edu.tw/encyclopedia_media/main-soc.asp?id=5596〉。

英文
書籍
Boyle, Alan, and Freestone, David (ed.) 1999. International Law and Sustainable Development Law, Oxford:Oxford University Press.
Barbier, E. B., Burgess, Joanne C., Bishop, Joshua, Aylward, Bruce, 1994. The Economics of Tropical Timber, London : Earthscan.
Barston, R.P. and Birnie. Pactricia, 1980. The Maritime Dimension, London: Allen & Unwin.
Churchill, R. R. and Lowe, A. V.,1999. The Law of the Sea, (3rd ed.), Manchester University Press.
Craig, Paul. 2006. EU Administrative Law, London: Oxford.
Ellen, Hey, (ed.), 1999. Developments in International Fisheries Law, Hague: Kluwer.
Footer, Mary E., 2006. An Institutional and Normative Analysis of the World Trade Organization, Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff.
Gavounell, Maria, 2007. Functional Jurisdiction in the Law of the Sea, Netherlands : Martinus Nijhoff.
Herrmann, Christoph, and Terhechte, Jörg Philipp (ed.), 2012. European Yearbook of International Economic Law 2012, Netherland: Springer.
Hoekman, Bernard M. and Kostecki, Michael M., 2001. The Political Economy of the World Trading System: The WTO and Beyond, (2nd ed.), Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Jackson, John H. 1998. The World Trade Organization: Constitution and Jurisprudence , London: Royal Institute of International Affairs.
Jasanoff, Sheila, 1990. The Fifth Branch-Science Advisers as Policymakers, Boston: Harvard, 1990.
Marr, Simon, 2003. The Precautionary Principle in the Law of the Sea, Netherland: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
McDougal, Myers and Burke, William T., 1997. The Public Order of the Ocean: A Contemporary International Law of the Sea,(M. A. : Kluwer.
Moldan, Bedrich, (ed.), 1995. Economic Instruments for Sustainable Development , Prague : Ministry of the Environment of the Czech Republic.
Nordquist, Myron H. and Moore, John Norton (eds.) 2000, Current Fisheries Issues and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Netherlands : Springer.
Palma, Mary Ann E., Tsamenyi, Martin, Edeson, William R., 2010. Promoting Sustainable Fisheries: The International Legal and Policy, Leiden ; Boston : Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
Parkin, Michael, 2000. Economics, (7th ed.),New York: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.
Pinto, Daniela Diz Pereia, 2013. Fisheries Management in Areas beyond National Jurisdiction, Netherland: Martinus Nijhoff.
Rubini, Luca, 2010. The Definition of Subsidy and State Aid: WTO and EC Law in Comparative Perspective, Oxford:Oxford University.
Thomas, J. S. and Meyer, M. A., 1997. The New Rules of Global Trade: A Guide to the World Trade Organization, Toronto: Carswell.
Tarasofsky, R. G., 2003. Regional Fisheries Organizations and the World Trade Organization: Compatibility or Conflict? Cambridge:TRAFFIC International.
Tladi, Dire, 2007. Sustainable Development in International Law : An Analysis of Key Enviro-Economic Instruments, Cape Town:Pretoria University Press.
Wolfrum, Rüdiger, and Röben, Volker (eds.), 2005. Developments of International Law in Treaty Making , Berlin: Springer.
Van Dyke, Jon (ed.), 1999. Freedom of the Seas in the 21st Century, Washington D. C.: Island Press.
Van den Bossche, P. and Zdouc, Werner, 2013. The Law and Policy of the World Trade Organization-Texts, Cases and Materials, London: Cambridge.
Young, Margaret A., 2011. Trading Fishing, Saving Fish: The Interaction Between Regimes in International Law, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

期刊論文
Ala'i, Padideh, 2011. Transparency and the Expansion of the WTO Mandate, American University International Law Review, Vol. 26, No. 4, 2011, pp. 1009-1029.
Allgeier, P. 2014. “A change in mindset: The case for addressing fisheries subsidies”, BIORES, Vol. 8, Issue 6, pp. 8-12.
Anthony, D'Amato, 1962. “Treaties As a Source of General Rules of International Law”, Northwestern University School of Law Faculty Working Papers, Paper 120,〈http://scholarlycommons.law.northwestern.edu/facultyworkingpapers/120〉.
Arnason R., 1993. “Ocean Fisheries Management : Recent International Developments”, Marine Policy, pp. 334-340.
Anyanova, E., 2008. “Rescuing the Inexhaustible, The Issue of Fisheries Subsidies in the International Trade policy”, Journal of International Commercial Law and Technology, Vol. 3, Issue 3, pp.147-156.
Bello, Walden, 2002. “Lack of Transparency in the WTO”, Development Dialogue, Vol.1, pp.121-123. 〈http://www.right2info.org/resources/publications/ai-in-southeast-asia-and-beyond〉.
Chang, S.W., 2003. “WTO Disciplines on Fisheries Subsidies: A Historic Step Towards Sustainability?”, Journal of International Economic Law, Vol. 6, No. 4, pp.879-921.
Chaisse, Julien, Chakraborty, Debashis, and Kumar, Animesh, “Analyzing the Disputes on Subsidy and Countervailing Measures Implications for the Current WTO Negotiations”, GEM Policy Brief, January 2011, 〈http://gem.sciences-po.fr/content/publications/pdf/Chaisse_Chakraborty_kumar_Subsidy_Negotiations012011.pdf〉(16 January 2015).
Churchill, Robin, 1998. “Legal Uncertainties in International High Seas Fisheries Management”, Fisheries Research, Vol. 37, 1998, pp. 225-237.
Davis, Peter G.G. and Redgwell, Catherine, 1996. “The International Legal Regulation of Straddling Fish Stock”, BYIL, Vol. 67, 1996, pp. 199-274.
Delvos, O., 2006. “Trade Special Issue : WTO Disciplines and Fisheries Subsidies - should the "SCM Agreement" be Modified ?”, Victoria University of Wellington Law Review, Vol. 37, pp.341-366.
Emslie, John J., 2005. “Labeling Programs as a Reasonably Available Least Restrictive Trade Measure under Article XX’s Nexus Requirement”, Brooklyn J. Int’l L., Vol.30, pp. 481-545.
Ellis, Jaye, 2008. “Sustainable Development as a Legal Principle: A Rhetorical Analysis”,〈 http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1319360〉.
Gallic B. L., Cox A., 2006. “ An Economic Analysis of Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) Fishing: Key Drivers and Possible Solutions”, Marine Policy, Vol. 30, Issue. 6, pp.689-695.
Gentile, Dominic A., 2009. “International Trade and the Environment:What is the Role of the WTO?”, Fordham Envtl. Law Rev., Vol.20, 2009, pp. 197-225.
Grynberg, R. and Tsamenyi, M., 1998. “Fisheries Subsidies, the WTO and the Pacific Island Tuna Fisheries”, Journal of World Trade, Vol. 32, Issue 6, pp.127-145.
Grynberg, R., 2003. “WTO Fisheries Subsidies Negotiations: Implications for Fisheries Access Arrangements and Sustainable Management”, Marine Policy, Vol. 27, pp.499-511.
Guruswamy, L., 1998. “The Promise of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS): Justice in Trade and Environment Disputes”, Ecology Law Quarterly, Vol. 25, Issue 2, March 1998, pp.190-226.
Hansen, Patricia Isela, 1999, “Transparency, Standards of Review, and the Use of Trade Measures to Protect the Global Environment”, Virginia Journal of International Law, Vol.39, 1999, pp. 1017-1068.
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Teh, L. and Sumaila, U. R., 2013, “Contribution of marine fisheries to worldwide employment”, Fish and Fisheries 2011, March 2013, 14(1): 77–88, DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-2979.2011.00450.x.〈 http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Rashid_Sumaila2/publication/230480387_Contribution_of_marine_fisheries_to_worldwide_employment/links/543a45e50cf24a6ddb95ee3e.pdf〉.
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官方文件
FAO
1945. FAO Constitution. 〈http://www.fao.org/docrep/x5584e/x5584e0i.htm〉.
1992. Cancun Declaration on Responsible Fishing , 1992, Supplement, Annex II.
2001. Report of and Papers Presented at the Expert Consultation on Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing, Report 666, Rome: FAO.
2001. International Plan of Action to prevent, deter and eliminate illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing, Rome: FAO.
2004. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2004, part II , Rome:FAO.
2004. Guide for Identifying, Assessing and Reporting on Subsidies in the Fisheries Sector, Rome:FAO.
2006. FAO-CITES Agreement Promotes Sustainable Fish Trade: Collaborative Relationship Formalized in MOU, FAO Newsroom release dated 3 October 2006, 〈http://www.fao.org/newsroom/en/news/2006/1000410/index.html〉.
2009. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2008, Rome: FAO.
2012. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2012, Rome:FAO.

OECD
2002. Cox, A. and Schmidt, C., Subsidies in the OECD Fisheries Sector: A Review of Recent Analysis and Future Directions, Paris: OECD. 〈http://www.oecd.org/tad/fisheries/2507604.pdf〉.
2005. Subsidies: A Way Towards Sustainable Fisheries? Paris : OECD.
2012. OECD-FAO, Agricultural Outlook 2012, 〈http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/agriculture-and-food/oecd-fao-agricultural-outlook-2012_agr_outlook-2012-en〉.

Permanent Court of International Justice
1923. Nationality Decrees Issued in Tunis and Morocco, Advisory Opinion, P. I. C. J. B. 4.〈http://legal.un.org/PCIJsummaries/documents/english/PCIJ_FinalText.pdf〉.

United Nations
1927/7/26. Case Concerning the Factory at Chorzow, series A. No. 9,〈http://www.icj-cij.org/pcij/serie_A/A_17/54_Usine_de_Chorzow_Fond_Arret.pdf〉
1938/4/16. Trail smelter case (United States, Canada), Vol. III, pp. 1905-1982.〈http://legal.un.org/riaa/cases/vol_III/1905-1982.pdf〉.
1969/2/20. North Sea Continental Shelf, Judgment, (Federal Republic of Germany / Denmark; Federal Republic of Germany / Netherlands ), para.42〈http://www.icj-cij.org/docket/files/52/5561.pdf〉.
1990/12/21. Large-scale pelagic driftnet fishing and its impact on the living marine resources of the world's oceans and seas, UNGA Resolution 45/197. 〈http://www.un.org/documents/ga/res/45/a45r197.htm〉.
1991/12/20. Large-scale pelagic drift-net fishing and its impact on the living marine resources of the world's oceans and sea, UNGA Resolution 46/215.〈http://www.un.org/documents/ga/res/46/a46r215〉.
1992/6/3-14. “Agenda 21”, Chapter 2, 〈https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/Agenda21.pdf〉.
1999/4/19-30. UN Commission on Sustainable Development, Report on the Seventh Session, E/CN.17/1999/20,〈http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=E/CN.17/1999/20&Lang=C〉.
2002/9/4. Johannesburg Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, A/CONF.199/20, Chapter 1, Resolution 2,〈http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/documents/WSSD_POI_PD/English/WSSD_PlanImpl.pdf〉.
2010/12/7. Sustainable fisheries, including through the 1995 Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks, and related instruments, A/RES/65/38.〈http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N10/514/82/PDF/N1051482.pdf?OpenElement〉.
2011/12/14, Oceans and the law of the sea, A/RES/66/231, 〈http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N11/472/68/PDF/N1147268.pdf?OpenElement〉.

WTO
1981/12/22. Panel Report, United States Prohibitions of Imports of Tuna Products from Canada, (L/5198 - 29S/91), 〈https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/dispu_e/80tuna.pdf〉.
1987/11/20. Panel Report, Canada Measures Affecting Exports of Unprocessed Herring and Salmon, (L/6268 - 35S/98) ,〈https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/dispu_e/87hersal.pdf〉.
1988/2/2. Panel Report, Japan-Restrictions on Imports of Certain Agricultural Products, L/6253 - 35S/163,〈https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/dispu_e/86agricl.pdf.〉.
1991/9/3. Panel Report, United States-Restrictions on Imports of Tuna, DS21/R, 〈https://www.wto.org/gatt_docs/English/SULPDF/91530924.pdf〉.
1994/6/16. Panel Report, United States - Restrictions on Imports of Tuna from the EEC, DS29/R, 〈https://www.wto.org/gatt_docs/English/SULPDF/91790155.pdf〉.
1997/2/10. Appellate Body Report, United States-Restrictions on Cotton and Man-made Fiber Underwear, WT/DS24/AB/R,〈https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/dispu_e/24abr.pdf〉.
1998/1/16. Appellate Body Report, EC Measures Concerning Meat and Meat Products (Hormones), WT/DS26/AB/R.
1998/3/9. Committee on Trade and Environment, Note by the Secretariat, GATT/WTO Rules on Subsidies and Aids Granted in the Fishing Industry, WT/CTE/W/80.
1998/7/16. Committee on Trade and Environment, Communication from the Secretariat of the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas, WT/CTE/W/87.
1999/4/14. Appellate Body Report, Canada - Measures Affecting the Export of Civilian Aircraft, WT/DS70/R,〈https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/dispu_e/70r.pdf〉.
1999/4/14. Panel Report, Brazil Export Financing Programme for Aircraft, Brazil-Aircraft (1999), WT/DS46/R.〈https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/dispu_e/46r.pdf〉.
1999/6/28. Submission by New Zealand, Benefits of Eliminating Trade Distorting and Environmentally Damaging Subsidies in the fisheries Sector, WT/CTE/W/121.
2000/7/4. Communication from the United States, Environmentally Harmful and Trade-Distorting Subsidies in Fisheries, WT/CTE/W/154.
2000/10/23. Submission by Japan, Japan's Basic Position on the Fishery Subsidy Issue, Item 6, WT/CTE/W/173.
2001/6/19. Committee on Trade and Environment, Item 6 of the Work Programme, Note by the Secretariat, Addendum, Environmental Benefits of Removing Trade Restrictions and Distortions: The Fisheries Sector, WT/CTE/W/167/Add. 1.
2001/10/22. Appellate Body Report, United States – Import Prohibitions of Certain Shrimp and Shrimp Products, WT/DS58/AB/RW,〈https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/dispu_e/58abrw_e.pdf〉.
2001/11/11. Report of the Working Party on the Accession of the Separte Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu, WT/MIN(01)/4.
2001/11/20. Doha Ministrial Declaration, WT/MIN(01)/DEC/1.
2002/4/24. Submission from Australia, Chile, Ecuador, Iceland, New Zealand, Peru, Philippines and the United States, The Doha Mandate to Address Fisheries Subsidies: Issues, TN/RL/W/3.
2002/5/8. Contribution by UNEP, UNEP Workshop on the Trade-Related Policies on Fisheries and Measures Require for their Sustainable Management, 15 March 2002, Geneva, Chairman's Summary, WT/CTE/W/205.
2002/5/29. Panel Report, European Communities - Trade Description of Sardines, WT/DS231/R.〈https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/dispu_e/231r_e.pdf〉.
2002/6/4. Submission from New Zealand, Fisheries Subsidies: Limitations of Existing Subsidy Disciplines, TN/RL/W/12.
2002/6/11. Note by Secretariat, Summary Report of the Meeting Held on 6 and 8 May 2002, TN/RL/M/2.
2002/6/20. Report of the Committee on Trade and Environment to the General Council, TN/RL/W/9.
2002/7/2. Japan's Basic Position on the Fisheries Subsidies Issue, TN/RL/W/11.
2002/9/20. Penal Report, United States — Preliminary Determinations with Respect to Certain Softwood Lumber from Canada, US-Softwood Lumber III (2002), WT/DS236/R, 〈https://docs.wto.org/dol2fe/Pages/FE_Search/FE_S_S006.aspx?Query=(@Symbol=%20wt/ds236/*)&Language=ENGLISH&Context=FomerScriptedSearch&languageUIChanged=true#〉.
2002/10/2. Korea's Views on the Doha Development Agenda Discussion on Fisheries Subsidies, TN/RL/W/17.
2002/10/15. Communication from the United States, Adverse Trade and Conservation Effects of Fisheries Subsidies, TN/RL/W/21.
2003/2/6. Japan's Contribution to Discussion on Fisheries Subsidies Issue, TN/RL/W/52.
2003/3/18. Korea's Views on the Suggested Categorization on Fishery Subsidies, TN/RL/W/69.
2003/3/19. Communication from the United States, Possible Approaches to Improved Disciplines on Fisheries Subsidies, TN/RL/W/77.
2003/3/25. Submission from Korea, Comment on the Submission from United States of America(TN/RL/W77), TN/RL/W/97.
2003/4/23. Submission of the European Communities to the Negotiating Group on Rules - Fisheries Subsidies, TN/RL/W/82.
2003/4/24. Submission by Japan to the Committee on Trade and Environment, Analysis on the Relationship between Fisheries Subsidies and Over-Exploitation, WT/CTE/W/226.
2003/6/10. Submission from Chile, Possible Approaches to Improved Discipline on Fisheries Subsidies, TN/RL/W/115.
2003/7/2. Negotiating Group on Rules, Report by the Chairman to the Trade Negotiations Committee, TN/RL/6.
2003/7/4. Submitted by Antigua and Barbuda, Belize, Fuji Islands, Guyana, the Maldives, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and St. Kitts and Nevis, Fisheries Subsidies, TN/RL/W/136.
2003/7/11. Committee on Trade and Environment, Report of the Committee on Trade and Environment to the General Council, WT/CTE/9.
2003/8/11. Compilation of Issues and Proposals Identified by participants in the Negotiating Group on Rules, TN/RL/W/143.
2004/4/24. Submission from Australia, Chile, Ecuador, Iceland, New Zealand, Peru, Philippines and the United States, The Doha Mandate to Address Fisheries Subsidies: Issues, TN/RL/W/3.
2004/6/4. Communication from Japan to the Negotiating Group on Rules, Fisheries subsidies: Proposed Structure on Discussion, TN/RL/W/159.
2004/6/17. UNEP Workshop on Fisheries Subsidies and Sustainable Fisheries Management, 26-27 April 2006, Geneva, Summary of the Chairman, WT/CTE/W/236.
2004/8/11. Appellate Body Report, United Stares-Final Dumping Determination on Softwood Lumber from Canada, US-Softwood Lumber IV, WT/DS264/AB/R 11.〈http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2004/august/tradoc_118473.pdf〉.
2004/9/27. Paper by Japan, Proposal on Fisheries Subsidies, TN/RL/W/164.
2004/11/2. Communication from Argentina, Chile, Ecuador, New Zealand, Philippines, Peru, Fisheries Subsidies, TN/RL/W/166.
2005/2/8. Colombia; Paper from Costa Rica; Hong Kong, China; Israel; Japan; Korea, Rep. of; Norway; Singapore; Switzerland; the Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu; Thailand; and Turkey, Proposal on de minimis Margins of Dumping, TN/RL/GEN/30.
2005/2/14. Colombia; Paper from Costa Rica; Hong Kong, China; Israel; Japan; Korea, Rep. of; Norway; Singapore; Switzerland; the Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu; Thailand; and Turkey, Proposal on de minimis Margins of Dumping, Revision, TN/RL/GEN/30 Rev.1.
2005/2/22. Communication from Japan; the Republic of Korea; and the Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu, Contribution to the Discussion on the Framework for the Disciplines on the Fisheries Subsidies, TN/RL/W/172.
2005/4/11. Paper from the European Communities, Fisheries Subsidies, TN/RL/W/178.
2005/5/12. Paper from the European Communities, Paper on Fisheries, TN/RL/GEN/39.
2005/7/4. Paper from Brazil, Contribution to Discuss on the Framework for Disciplines on Fisheries Subsidies, TN/RL/GEN/56.
2005/8/5. Panel Report, EC – Countervailing Measures on DRAM Chips, WT/DS299/6, 〈http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2005/october/tradoc_125243.pdf〉.
2005/10/5. Committee on Trade and Environment, Environment-Related Issues in the Negotiations on WTO Rules, Update by the Rules Division, Paragraph 51, Supplement, WT/CTE/GEN/10 Suppl.1.
2005/10/14. Paper from New Zealand, Subsidies to Fisheries Infrastructure, TN/RL/GEN/70.
2005/11/22. Paper from Brazil; Chile; Colombia; Ecuador; Iceland; New Zealand; Pakistan; Peru and the United States, Fisheries Subsidies, TN/RL/W/196.
2005/12/18. Hong Kong Ministerial Declaration, WT/MIN(05)/DEC, Annex D.
2005/12/22. Doha Work Programme, Ministerial Declaration, Adopted on 18 December 2005, WT/MIN(05)/DEC.
2006/3/3. Paper from New Zealand, Fisheries Subsidies Framework for Disciplines,TN/RL/GEN/100.
2006/3/6. Communication from the Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu, Fisheries Subsidies for Social Security and Welfare, TN/RL/W/202.
2006/4/21. Communication from Japan; the Republic of Korea; and the Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu, Fisheries Subsidies Framework for Disciplines, TN/RL/GEN/114.
2006/4/24. Submission of the European Communities, Fisheries Subsidies, TN/RL/GEN/134.
2006/6/16. Paper from New Zealand, Fisheries Subsidies Exhaustive List of Non-Prohibited Fisheries Subsidies, TN/RL/GEN/141.
2007/1/16. Note by the Secretariat, Existing form of Cooperation and Information Exchange between UNEP and the WTO, Revision, TN/TE/S/2/Rev.2.
2007/1/26. Proposal by Norway, Fisheries Subsidies, TN/RL/GEN/144.
2007/3/13. Paper from Brazil, Further Contribution to the Discussion on the Framework for Disciplines on Fisheries Subsidies, TN/RL/GEN/79/Rev.4.
2007/3/22. Proposal from the United States, Fisheries Subsidies: Proposed New Disciplines, TN/RL/GEN/145.
2007/4/2. Communication from New Zealand, Promoting Development and Sustainability in Fisheries Subsidies: An Informal Dialogue on Select Technical Issue, TN/RL/W/207.
2007/6/1. Communication from Japan; the Republic of Korea; and the Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu, Fisheries Subsidies: Framework for Disciplines, TN/RL/GEN/114/Rev.1.
2007/6/5. Communication from Japan; the Republic of Korea; and the Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu, Fisheries Subsidies: Framework for Disciplines, TN/RL/GEN/114/Rev.2.
2007/6/12. Panel Report, Brazil – Measures Affecting Imports of Retreaded Tyres (Brazil – Tyres), Panel Report WT/DS332/R.
2007/7/2. Proposal from the Republic of Indonesia, Fisheries Subsidies: Proposes New Disciplines, TN/RL/GEN/150.
2007/7/26. Proposal by Norway, Fisheries Subsidies, TN/RL/GEN/144.
2007/11/28. Appellate Body Report, Japan-Countervailing Duties on Dynamic Random Access Memories from Korea, Japan-DRAMs (Korea), WT/DS336/AB/R.〈http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2009/november/tradoc_145480.pdf〉.
2007/11/30. Draft Consolidated Chair Texts of the AD and SCM Agreements, TN/RL/W/213.
2007/12/3. Appellate Body Report, (Brazil – Tyres), WT/DS332/AB/R.
2008/4/24. Communication from Norway, Drafting Proposal on Issues Relating to Article V ("Fishery Management") of the Fisheries Subsidies Annex to the SCM Agreement as Propose by the Chair in TN/RL/W/213, TN/RL/W/231.
2008/5/2. Communication from Canada, Fisheries Subsidies - De Minimis Exemption, TN/RL/GEN/156.
2008/5/5. Communication from Canada, Fisheries Subsidies - De Minimis Exemption, TN/RL/GEN/156.
2008/5/28. Working Document from the Chairman, TN/RL/W/232.
2008/6/4. Communication from the Republic of Korea and the Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu, Relation between Article I and Article V of the Chair's Text, TN/RL/GEN/159.
2008/7/17. Communication from Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico and Peru , Statement on the Negotiation on Fisheries Subsidies, TN/RL/W/234.
2008/7/21. Communication from Australia, New Zealand and the United States, Fisheries Subsidies, TN/RL/W/235.
2009/10/7. Communication from Argentina, Australia, Chile, Colombia, the United States, New Zealand, Norway, Iceland, Peru and Pakistan, Fisheries Subsidies, TN/RL/W/243(7 October 2009).
2009/11/24. Communication from the Republic of Korea, Framwork of the Discipline on Fisheries Subsidies, TN/RL/W/245.
2010/2/11. Communication from Brazil, China, India and Mexico, Fisheries Subsidies: Special and Different Treatment, TN/RL/GEN/163.
2010/4/22. Communication from the United States, Fisheries Subsidies-Articles I.2, II, IV and V, TN/RL/GEN/165.
2010/9/20. Communication from Australia, Fisheries Subsidies-Articles I, II, V and VI, TN/RL/GEN/167.
2010/9/22. Communication from the Republic of Korea, Fisheries Subsidies-Articles I, II and IV, TN/RL/GEN/168.
2011/1/17. Communication from Japan, Fisheries Subsidies: New Proposal Regarding the Discipline, TN/RL/GEN/171.
2011/1/18. Communication from Canada, Fisheries Subsidies Article II De Minimis Exemption, Revision, TN/RL/GEN/156/Rev. 1.
2011/1/19. Communication from Ecuador and Peru, Proposal on Fisheries Subsidies Special and Differential Treatment Artisanal Fisheries- Article III. 2(A), TN/RL/GEN/172.
2011/3/1. Communication from Kenya on behalf of the ACP Group, Fisheries Subsidies: Articles III and V, TN/RL/GEN/176.
2011/3/10. Communication from the Republic of Korea, Fisheries Subsidies: Articles III, V AND X, TN/RL/GEN/178.
2011/4/21. Communication from the Chairman, TN/RL/W/254.
2011/5/18. Appellate Body Report, European Communities and Certain Member States- Measuring Affecting trade in Large Civil Aircraft, EC and certain Member States-Large Civil Aircraft, WT/DS316/AB/R, 〈https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/dispu_e/316abr_e.pdf〉.
2012/5/16. Appellate Body Report, US Measures Concerning the Importation Marketing and Sale of Tuna and Tuna Products, WT/DS381/AB/R. 〈https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/dispu_e/381abr_e.pdf〉.
2012/6/15. Panel Report, China — Countervailing and Anti-Dumping Duties on Grain Oriented Flat-rolled Electrical Steel from the United States, China-GOES , WT/DS414/R.〈https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/dispu_e/414r_e.pdf〉.
2013/11/25, Panel Report, European Communities - Measures Prohibiting the Importation and Marketing of Seal Products, EC – Seal Products (Canada), WT/DS400/R, WT/DS401/R.〈https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/dispu_e/400_401r_e.pdf〉.
2013/12/18. Ministerial Statement on behalf of Argentina, Australia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Iceland, New Zealand, Norway, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, United States, WT/MIN(13)/49.
2014/5/22. Appellate Body Reports, European Communities - Measure Prohibiting the Importation and Marketing of Seal Products, WT/DS400/AB/R, WT/DS401/AB/R, 〈https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/dispu_e/400_401abr_e.pdf〉 .

研究計畫
Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation
APEC Committee on Trade and Investment, 2000. Study Into the Nature and Extent of Subsidies in the Fisheries Sector of APEC Members Economies, Singapore: APEC.

European Union
EU Green paper, 2009. Reform of the Common Fisheries Policy, Brussels: EU, COM(2009)163 final. 〈http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2009:0163:FIN:EN:PDF〉
EU , 2011. A Comparison: EU and US Ocean Policy, 〈http://calamar-dialogue.org/sites/default/files/CALAMAR_1_Report.pdf〉.
U. Rashid Sumaila, Vicky Lam, Frédéric Le Manach, Wilf Swartz, Daniel Pauly, 2013. Global Fisheries Subidies, (Granted Number: IP/B/PECH/IC/2013-146) , Brussels: European Parliament, 2013.〈http://www.europarl.europa.eu/studies〉.
Bendini, Roberto, 2013/12/1. “WTO back on track after Bali”, EU Parliament, PE 522.314, 〈http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/briefing_note/join/2013/522314/EXPO-INTA_SP%282013%29522314_EN.pdf〉.

FAO
Greboval D. 1999. (ed.), Managing Fishing Capacity: Selected Papers on Underlying Concepts and Issues, FAO Technical Paper No.386, Rome: FAO.
Judith Swan, 2000. Regional Fishery Bodies and Governance: Issues, Actions and Future Directions. FAO Fisheries Circular No.959, Rome:FAO.〈ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/005/X7464E/X7464E00.pdf〉.

Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, Canada
Sumaila R., & Pauly, D., 2006. Catching More Bait: A Bottom-up Re-estimation of Global Fisheries Subsidies, (2nd version), Fisheries Centre Research Reports, Vol. 14, No 6, Canada : University of British Colombia.〈http://www.fisheries.ubc.ca/webfm_send/126〉.

Foundation Nationale des Science Politiques
Vos, E. (ed.), 2007. European Risk Governance: its science, its inconclusiveness and its effectiveness, Connex Report Series 2008, Paris: Foundation Nationale des Science Politiques.〈http://www.mzes.uni-mannheim.de/projekte/typo3/site/fileadmin/research%20groups/6/Activity%20report-Maastricht_June2007.pdf〉.

International Law Commission
International Law Commission, 2006. Fragmentation of International Law: Difficulties Arising from the Diversification and Expansion of International Law, A/CN.4/L.682. 〈http://legal.un.org/ilc/documentation/english/a_cn4_l682.pdf〉.

International Trade and Sustainable Development
Roheim, C. and Sutinen, Jon G., 2006/5/1. Trade and Marketplace Measures to Promote Sustainable Fishing Practices, Issue Paper No. 3, ICTSD Natural Resources, International Trade and Sustainable Development, Geneva:ICTSD.

Maribus
World Ocean Review, 2010, Hamburg: Maribus. 〈http://worldoceanreview.com/en/wor-1/〉.

OECD
OECD, 2002. Liberalizing Fisheries Markets : Scope and Effects, Paris:OECD.〈http://www.oecd.org/document/57/0,3343,en_2649_33901_17788601_1_1_1_1,00.html〉
Cox, Anthony & Schmidt, Carl-Christian, 2002. Subsidies in the OECD Fisheries Sector:A Review of Recent Analysis and Future Directions, Paris:OECD.
OECD, 2003. “Environmental Aspects of Fisheries Subsidies”, Background Paper Prepared for the OECD Technical Expert Meeting on Environmentally Harmful Subsidies, Paris, Paris: OECD.
OECD, 2005. Subsidies: A Way Towards Sustainable Fisheries? Paris : OECD.

UNEP
Porter, Gareth, 1998. Fisheries Subsidies and Overfishing and Trade, Geneva :UNEP.
UNEP, 2001. Fisheries Subsidies and Marine Resource Management: Lessons Learn from Studies in Argentina and Senegal, Vol. II, Geneva :UNEP.
UNEP, 2002/3. Workshop on the Impacts of Trade-Related Politics on Fisheries and Measures for Sustainable Fisheries Management, Geneva :UNEP.
Porter, Gareth, 2003. Fisheries Subsidies and Overfishing: Substantive Issue, Geneva :UNEP.
Porter, Gareth, 2003. Analyzing the Resource Impact of Fisheries Subsidies: A Matrix Approach, Geneva : UNEP.
UNEP, 2004/26-27.Workshop on Fisheries Subsidies and Sustainable Fisheries Management. 〈www.unep.ch/.../Fisheries%20Meeting/FinalChairsSummary〉.
UNEP/WWF, 2007. Sustainability Criteria for Fisheries Subsidies: Options for the WTO and Beyond, Geneva:UNEP.
UNEP, 2008. Fisheries Subsidies : A Critical Issue for Trade and Sustainable Development at the WTO, A Introductory Guide, Geneva : UNEP.
Anja von Moltke (ed), 2011. Fisheries Subsidies, Sustainable Development and the WTO, Geneva :UNEP.

USTR
The Office of the U.S. Trade Representative, 2012/3. “2012 Trade Policy Agenda and 2011 Annual Report, The Office of the U.S. Trade Representative , 〈https://ustr.gov/sites/default/files/FULL%20REPORT%20-%20PRINTED%20VERSION.pdf 〉
The Office of the U.S. Trade Representative, 2013/2. “2013 Report to Congress on Subsidies Enforcement, Joint Report of The Office of the United States Trade Representative and The United States Department of Commerce” , The Office of the U.S. Trade Representative ,〈http://enforcement.trade.gov/esel/reports/seo2013/seo-annual-report-2013.pdf〉.
The Office of the U.S. Trade Representative, 2011/12. “USTR Green Paper on Conservation and the Trans-Pacific Partnership”, The Office of the U.S. Trade Representative ,〈 http://www.ustr.gov/about-us/press-office/fact-sheets/2011/ustr-green-paper-conservation-and-trans-pacific-partnership〉.

WTO
Nordstrom, H. and Vaughan, S.,1999. Special Study 4:Trade and Environment, Geneva: WTO.
Robert Wolfe, 2013. Letting the sun shine in at the WTO: How transparency brings the trading system to life, Staff Working Paper ERSD-2013-03, Geneva: World Trade Organization Economic Research and Statistics Division.〈https://www.wto.org/english/res_e/reser_e/ersd201303_e.pdf〉.

World Bank
Millazzo, M., 1998. Subsidies in World Fisheries: A Re-examination, Technical paper No 406, Washington, DC : World Bank. 〈http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1998/04/01/000009265_3980624143705/Rendered/PDF/multi_page.pdf〉.
World Bank, 2008. The Sunken Billions: The economic Justification for Fisheries Reform, Washington, DC: The World Bank.〈https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/2596/476060PUB0Sunk101Official0Use0Only1.pdf?sequence=1〉.

World Wild Foundation
W.W.F., 2002. Turning the Tide of Fishing Subsidies : Can the World Trade Organization Play a Positive Role?, Issue Brief, Switzland:WWF.
Shorr, David K., 2004. Healthy Fisheries, Sustainable Trade : Crafting New Rules on Fishing Subsidies in the World Trade Organization, Switzland:WWF.

Worldwatch Institute
Weber, Peter, 1994. Net Loss: Fish, Jobs, and the Marine Environment, Worldwatch Paper no. 120, Table 2, Washington, D.C.: Worldwatch Institute.〈http://infohouse.p2ric.org/ref/39/38974.pdf〉.

網際網路
History : 30 years of Trade and Environment in GATT / WTO, 〈http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/envir_e/envir_e.htm#history〉.
Early years: emerging environment debate in GATT/WTO, available at : 〈http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/envir_e/hist1_e.htm〉.
2011/ 3. Campling, Liam, Havice, Elizabeth , Hamilton, Amanda and Dugal, Manleen,“FFA FISHERIES TRADE NEWS”, FFA FISHERIES TRADE NEWS , Vol. 4, Issue 3,〈http://www.ffa.int/trade_industry?page=1〉.
2010/7/19. Tsui, Amy, “ USTR Hopes to Use Doha WTO Talks, TPP To Eliminate Fish Subsidies, Support Oceans”, WTO Reporter,〈 http://usa.oceana.org/sites/default/files/oceana_in_the_news/BNA_USTR_Hopes_to_Use_Doha_WTO_Talks_TPP_to_Eliminate_Fish_Subsidies_Support_Oceans_07.19.10.pdf〉.
2011/12. 〈挪威漁業合理化發展之路〉,《中國水產科學研究院黃海水產研究所》,〈 http://www.ysfri.ac.cn/Newshow.asp-showid=1342&signid=26.htm〉
2013/6/9. “Japan to oppose fishing subsidies ban in TPP trade negotiations”, Japan Times,〈http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2013/06/09/business/japan-to-oppose-fishing-subsidies-ban-in-tpp-trade-negotiations/#.Uv2F3fmSySq〉.

日文
八木信行,2009/9。“環境的関心事項の分析視角から見たWTO 漁業補助金交渉”,RIETI Policy Discussion Paper Series 09-P-001,独立行政法人経済産業研究所。〈http://www.rieti.go.jp/jp/publications/pdp/09p001.pdf〉.
猪又秀夫,2012/1。“WTO漁業補助金交渉の経緯と論点:2009年2月~2011年4月を中心に”,農林水產政策研究,頁1-23。〈http://www.maff.go.jp/primaff/pdf/seisakukenkyu2012_s1.pdf〉.
中田達也,2013/2。“漁業補助金協定草案交渉過程における「過剰能力」および「過剰漁獲」と補助金の関係をめぐる各国の発想と展開―2001(交渉開始)~ 2007年(議長テキスト発出)に焦点をあてて”,湘南フォーラム, No.17,頁83-106。

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