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研究生:何郁姍
研究生(外文):Yu-Shan Ho
論文名稱:藉由貯鹽試驗及鹽霧加速劣化試驗探討高強度混凝土添加鋼纖維之耐久性
論文名稱(外文):Study of the Durability of High Strength Concrete with Steel Fiber by Ponding Test and Salt Spray Test
指導教授:廖文正廖文正引用關係
口試委員:詹穎雯楊仲家邱建國
口試日期:2016-07-20
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:土木工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:197
中文關鍵詞:鋼纖維高強度混凝土貯鹽試驗鹽霧加速劣化試驗氯離子擴散係數
外文關鍵詞:Steel-fiber concretePonding testSalt spray testChloride iondiffusion coefficient
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使用高強度材料能縮減梁柱斷面的尺寸,使結構物輕量化,並增加建築物的使用空間,亦可減少材料用量,但高強度混凝土極為脆性,韌性甚差,所以藉由添加鋼纖維改善脆性破壞行為。相關研究已顯示添加鋼纖維能增加高強度混凝土的韌性,抑制早期保護層的剝落及紓解橫向鋼筋密集配置的問題。
鋼纖維對高強度混凝土的力學行為有顯著幫助,但台灣處於高溫高濕的環境,且大氣中帶有鹽分,鋼纖維和水泥漿體的界面層(interfacial transition zone, ITZ)恐形成外界污染物侵入的通道,降低建物的耐久性,尤其當鋼纖維因為外界氯離子侵入而鏽蝕時,會加速結構的劣化。
本研究透過添加不同體積取代率的鋼纖維,來探討高強度混凝土添加鋼纖維的耐久性影響。其中試驗分成兩大部分,一為鹽霧加速劣化試驗,一為貯鹽試驗。鹽霧加速劣化試驗模擬外界環境經過多年鹽害乾濕交替曝曬行為後,進行抗壓、抗彎、直拉、劈裂等力學試驗來評估劣化處理後試體的力學行為;由試驗結果顯示,在水膠比較低之高強度混凝土中,劣化處理後僅有表面鋼纖維產生嚴重鏽蝕,故鋼纖維的添加對劣化處理前後的整體力學性質無顯著影響。另外,由貯鹽試驗結果發現,擴散係數沒有顯著差異,所以ITZ 的存在不會影響整體孔隙結構的連通性。綜上所述,於高強度混凝土中添加鋼纖維不會影響結構的耐久性。


High strength materials have been widely used because using high strength concrete and reinforcement can further reduce the member section, which lights the weight of the elements and increases the available space of buildings, and save materials. To solve the brittleness of high strength concrete, the addition of the steel fibers can provide more confinement and shear capacity to enhance the ductility and toughness. It also prevents the early cover spalling and solves the congestion of the transverse reinforcements in the plastic hinge region of buildings.
Although the addition of the steel fibers provides good benefit on mechanical behavior of high strength concrete, Taiwan is an island surrounded by sea with the subtropical climate, made the structures easily deteriorated by salt damage. Worried about the chloride ion may penetrate into the concrete from the interfacial transition zone (ITZ) between the steel fibers and cement paste, and therefore reduce the durability of the structures. The other hesitation is the steel fibers may easily corrode so that the steel fibers lose its advantage, inducing the steel-fiber concrete structures become weaker.
This study investigates the addition of the steel fibers influencing the durability of the high strength concrete. The experiment divides into two parts. One is using the ponding test to discuss the ITZ of the materials. According to the result, the diffusion coefficient doesn’t change between the content of steel fibers. The other is using salt spray test to simulate the structures exposing outside several years. Finally, doing mechanical experiments, such as compressive test and flexural test to evaluate the mechanical behavior after the deterioration process. According the result of the mechanical test, the strength doesn’t worsen after the deterioration by the salt spray test.
In summary, the addition of the steel fibers doesn’t reduce the durability of high strength concrete.


誌謝 i
中文摘要 iii
ABSTRACT iv
目錄 vi
表目錄 xi
圖目錄 xiv
照片目錄 xix
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 動機與目的 1
1.2 研究範圍與內容 3
1.3 研究流程 4
第二章 文獻回顧 5
2.1 高強度鋼筋混凝土介紹 5
2.1.1 高強度混凝土 5
2.1.2 高強度鋼筋 7
2.2 鋼纖維混凝土力學性質 7
2.2.1 鋼纖維添加至混凝土的基本力學影響 8
2.2.2 韌性評估方式 16
2.2.3 端鉤型鋼纖維拉拔機制 19
2.2.4 端鉤型鋼纖維拉拔能量預測模型 21
2.2.5 等效握裹強度 28
2.2.6 鋼纖維混凝土應變硬化行為 29
2.3 鋼纖維混凝土的耐久性 32
2.4 孔隙結構 34
2.4.1 混凝土的孔隙結構 34
2.4.2 纖維與基材之介面微觀結構 35
2.4.3 水灰比與齡期對孔隙結構的影響 36
2.4.4 卜作嵐材料對孔隙結構的影響 37
2.5 氯離子在混凝土中 38
2.5.1 氯離子的來源與存在型態 38
2.5.2 氯離子的傳輸途徑及機制 40
2.5.3 粒料及纖維對混凝土中氯離子傳輸之影響 41
2.6 氯離子在混凝土中之擴散行為 42
2.6.1 擴散方程式與擴散係數 42
2.6.2 水灰比對擴散係數之影響 44
2.6.3 水化時間對擴散係數之影響 46
2.6.4 卜作嵐材料對擴散係數之影響 47
2.7 腐蝕機理 48
2.7.1 鋼筋的腐蝕 49
2.7.2 影響混凝土中鋼筋腐蝕的因素 51
2.8 混凝土中鋼筋腐蝕之檢測 53
2.8.1 腐蝕電位(Corrosion Potential) 53
2.8.2 腐蝕電流密度(Corrosion Current Density) 55
2.8.3 混凝土電阻係數(Electrical Resistance) 59
2.8.4 鋼纖維添加對鋼筋腐蝕的影響 61
2.9 鹽霧試驗 67
2.9.1 鹽霧試驗的介紹 67
2.9.2 混凝土在鹽霧加速試驗下的行為 68
2.10 大氣腐蝕 75
2.10.1 大氣腐蝕劣化機理 75
2.10.2 大氣腐蝕劣化影響因子 77
2.10.3 大氣腐蝕環境分類 77
2.10.4 大氣腐蝕金屬試片腐蝕速率量測 80
2.11 比色法 82
第三章 實驗計畫 84
3.1 實驗內容 84
3.1.1 實驗背景 84
3.1.2 實驗架構 84
3.2 試驗材料與配比設計 86
3.2.1 試驗材料 86
3.2.2 配比設計 87
3.3 試驗儀器設備 94
3.4 試體之製作 101
3.4.1 混凝土拌和流程 101
3.4.2 坍流度試驗 102
3.4.3 混凝土試體製作 102
3.4.4 試體養護 103
3.4.5 大氣腐蝕性測定標準試片製作 103
3.5 鹽霧加速劣化試驗 108
3.6 金屬試片重量損失法 111
3.7 力學試驗 112
3.7.1 抗壓試驗 112
3.7.2 抗彎試驗 114
3.7.3 直接拉力試驗 116
3.7.4 劈裂試驗 117
3.8 貯鹽試驗 118
3.8.1 試驗方法 118
3.9 比色法 120
3.10 氯離子分層含量滴定試驗 121
3.10.1 取樣 121
3.10.2 電位滴定法 122
3.10.3 水溶法 123
3.11 混凝土酸鹼值測定 125
3.11.1 測定儀校正 125
3.11.2 試驗方法 125
3.12 腐蝕電流量測 125
第四章 實驗結果 127
4.1 28天抗壓試驗 127
4.2 鹽霧試驗 132
4.2.1 鹽霧試驗氯離子濃度 132
4.2.2 鹽霧室環境腐蝕程度 132
4.2.3 對照組環境 135
4.2.4 鹽霧加速劣化試驗氯離子含量分佈 135
4.2.5 抗壓試驗 139
4.2.6 抗彎試驗 142
4.2.7 直接拉力試驗 148
4.2.8 劈裂試驗 154
4.3 貯鹽試驗 157
4.3.1 抗壓試驗 157
4.3.2 pH值 158
4.3.3 比色法 159
4.3.4 鋼纖維分層氯離子試驗 161
4.3.5 混凝土氯離子分佈及擴散係數 164
4.3.6 鋼筋腐蝕電流密度量測 172
第五章 結果與討論 174
5.1 鹽霧加速劣化試驗的效用 174
5.2 鋼纖維的腐蝕及力學試驗整體結果 177
5.3 比色法和自由氯離子含量 177
5.4 鋼筋腐蝕電流和氯離子分佈 178
第六章 結論與建議 180
6.1 結論 180
6.2 建議 181
參考文獻 183
簡歷 197


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