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研究生:陳怡雯
研究生(外文):Yi-Wen Chen
論文名稱:手機科技與隱私權保障──以手機內資訊之搜索為中心
論文名稱(外文):Cell Phone Technology Meets Privacy Protection: The Search of the Information on a Cell Phone
指導教授:林子儀林子儀引用關係
口試委員:邱文聰劉定基陳仲嶙李榮耕
口試日期:2016-01-27
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:法律學研究所
學門:法律學門
學類:一般法律學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:164
中文關鍵詞:隱私隱私權隱私保障手機手機科技手機資訊搜索
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本篇論文的研究主軸,係以手機科技為中心,試圖探討手機科技與現有隱私權概念的連結與互動,論述本文認為手機資訊應受憲法隱私權保護之理由。復引進美國法手機搜索案例作為借鏡,試圖對我國現行手機搜索扣押相關法制提出建議,盼於國家犯罪偵查需求與人民資訊隱私保障間求取平衡。
於今日資訊科技飛速進展的社會中,手機一方面使個人得以解放通訊所受地理限制,另方面亦作為個人遂行日常生活、管理親密領域之重要工具,儼然已成為現代人安身立命之媒介,地位有如精神上家宅。傳統隱私權對於「秘密空間」之解釋,係以物理空間為本位發展而來,恐與資訊科技社會的需求不盡貼合,或可適度擴張,涵蓋手機此一精神上秘密空間之保障。
此外,個人使用手機的同時,諸如通聯紀錄、簡訊文字、消費明細、瀏覽紀錄及照片影片等生活細節,也一併存放於手機之中,手機內資訊形同掌中大數據、鉅細靡遺,應受憲法隱私權之保障。復因打開手機前無法預知其內存有哪些資訊,故應將整支手機內所有資訊包裹視為一個標的給予同等保障,而不因個別資訊隱私程度高低有所差別待遇。考量到手機資訊有如完整個人檔案之特性,以及國家利用剖繪科技監控個人之風險,對於國家搜索扣押手機、取得其內資訊之規範,應採嚴格審查標準。
檢視我國現行實務作法並參酌美國法院實務判決及學說見解後,本文對我國現行手機搜索扣押法制提出以下建議:手機不得附帶搜索、手機搜索票應附加事後審查、手機密碼不受不自證己罪特權保護、手機資訊之附帶扣押及另案扣押應採重罪原則。如此既能顧及國家追訴犯罪之利益,亦讓人民適度保有一塊自由呼吸的空間,確保人格自由發展不受阻礙。
吾人解釋憲法時,應敏銳地覺察時代變化所導致之人民生活型態變遷而有所調整,力求於變遷的科技下,予人民不變的憲法保障,一再重新構築屬於當代的憲法意義,實踐保障人民權利的承諾。
This thesis is concerned with the interaction between cell phone technology and privacy protection.
People nowadays rely heavily on cell phones in their everyday lives. The mobile phones not only liberate communication from time and place, but also become an important instrument for calling, texting, reading, writing, taking photos and so on.
The information on a cell phone also offers a detailed picture about all aspects of a person''s life. By searching a cell phone, the Government can reconstruct someone''s life. Given the quantity and quality of information on cell phones and the risk of being profiled, people shall have self-control of such information, which should be protected under the right of information privacy of the Constitution.
When it comes to the judicial review of the search and seizure of cell phones, the court should apply strict scrutiny. Therefore, the Code of Criminal Procedure should be amended to be consistent with the principles of proportionality.
Technology might change over time, and the protection privacy should keep up with it. The court should be aware of the change and reconstruct the meaning of the Constitution again and again.
謝辭 I
中文摘要 III
Abstract V
1. 緒論 1
1. 1. 問題意識與問題之提出 1
1. 2. 研究範圍 3
1. 3. 研究方法 4
1. 4. 本文架構 5
1. 5. 本文見解 6
2. 手機科技之現況與影響 8
2. 1. 手機使用現況之實證研究 8
2. 2. 手機科技的正負面影響 12
2. 2. 1. 手機科技之正面影響 12
2. 2. 2. 手機科技之負面影響 17
2. 3. 小結:手機引發的生活變革與監控風險 23
3. 手機科技引發的隱私權思考 25
3. 1. 隱私權之概念與發展 25
3. 1. 1. 隱私權於美國之發展 25
3. 1. 2. 隱私權於我國之發展 40
3. 2. 手機科技與隱私 49
3. 2. 1. 手機科技與隱私 49
3. 2. 2. 手機資訊與隱私 53
3. 3. 手機科技引發的隱私權思考 58
3. 3. 1. 秘密空間之擴張解釋 58
3. 3. 2. 剖繪科技之監控風險 61
3. 3. 3. 手機資訊與隱私權保障 67
4. 手機資訊隱私之保障──以美國法手機搜索案件為借鏡 79
4. 1. 我國手機搜索實際情況之介紹分析 82
4. 1. 1. 手機之附帶搜索 82
4. 1. 2. 手機搜索票之核發 84
4. 1. 3. 手機密碼之提出 85
4. 1. 4. 手機資訊之附帶扣押與另案扣押 88
4. 2. 美國法院對於手機搜索之見解 89
4. 2. 1. 手機豁免於附帶搜索之適用:Riley v. California 91
4. 2. 2. 手機搜索票應明確特定:United States v. Winn 102
4. 2. 3. 手機密碼受不自證己罪保障:Virginia v. Baust 107
4. 2. 4. 手機搜索不適用一目瞭然法則:People v. Herrera 118
4. 3. 反思與建議 129
4. 3. 1. 美國判決帶來的省思 129
4. 3. 2. 我國手機搜索制度之檢討與建議 141
4. 3. 3. 動態的隱私權保障 150
5. 結論 154
附錄:參考文獻 155
1. 中日文部分
1. 1. 書籍
Ellen Alderman、Caroline Kennedy著,吳懿婷譯(2001),隱私的權利,台北:商周。
Richard A. Posner著,李忠謙譯(2010),法官如何思考,台北:商周。
Tim Wu著,顧佳、陳正芬、周佳欣譯(2013),誰控制了總開關?,台北:行人。
王兆鵬(2010)。《刑事訴訟講義》,5版。台北:元照。
王旭正、柯永瀚(2007)。《電腦鑑識與數位證據:資安技術、科技犯罪的預防、鑑定與現場重建》,初版。台北:博碩文化。
王佳煌(2005)。《手機社會學?》,初版。台北:學富文化。
王浩威(2003)。《我的青春,施工中───台灣少年記事》,初版。台北:心靈工坊。
林子儀、葉俊榮、黃昭元、張文貞(2009)。《憲法權力分立》,2版。台北:新學林。
林鈺雄(2008)。《干預處分與刑事證據》,初版。台北:元照。
林鈺雄(2010)。《刑事訴訟法(上)》,6 版。台北:自刊。
1. 2. 專書論文
小倉利丸(2003)。〈日本型監視社会に対抗するために〉,收於:白石孝、小倉利丸、板垣竜太等編,《世界のプライバシー権運動と監視社会》,頁13-
49。東京:明石書店。
王兆鵬(2008)。〈不自證己罪保護之客體〉,收於:《一事不再理》,頁223-237。台北:元照。
王兆鵬(2003)。〈論附帶搜索〉,收於:《搜索扣押與刑事被告的憲法權利》,頁167-197。台北:元照。
林子儀(2015)。〈公共隱私權〉,收於:《第五屆馬漢寶講座論文彙編》,頁7-62。台北:馬氏思上文教基金會。
林子儀(2015)。〈隱私權法制的新議題:監控與隱私自我管理〉,收於:《第五屆馬漢寶講座論文彙編》,頁65-115。台北:馬氏思上文教基金會。
陳仲嶙(2002)。〈隱私權概念的理解與充填〉,收於:《台灣憲法之縱剖橫切》,頁637-661。台北:元照。
1. 3. 期刊論文
王兆鵬(1999)。〈論附帶搜索〉,《月旦法學雜誌》,第55期,頁118-131。
李榮耕(2015)。〈科技定位監控與犯罪偵查:兼論美國近年GPS追蹤法制及實務之發展〉,《國立臺灣大學法學論叢》,第44卷第3期,頁871-969。
李榮耕(2012)。〈電磁紀錄的搜索及扣押〉,《國立臺灣大學法學論叢》,第41卷第3期,頁1055-1116。
李震山(2005)。〈來者猶可追,正視個人資料保護問題─司法院大法官釋字第六○三號解釋評析〉,《台灣本土法學雜誌》,76期,頁222-234。
邱文聰(2009)。〈從資訊自決與資訊隱私的概念區分⎯⎯評「電腦處理個人資料保護法修正草案」的結構性問題〉,《月旦法學雜誌》,第168期,頁172-189。
林鈺雄(2001)。〈拘提證人與附帶搜索〉,《月旦法學雜誌》,第75期,頁14-15。
法思齊(2011)。〈美國法上數位證據之取得與保存〉,《東吳法律學報》,第22卷第3期,頁95-147。
徐仕瑋(2013)。〈數位證據與現行搜索、扣押法制間之適用問題──以硬碟等儲存媒介之搜索、扣押為中心〉,《檢察新論》,第13期,頁29-46。
黃厚銘(2002)。〈網路上探索自我認同的遊戲〉,《教育與社會研究》,第3期,頁65-106。
劉定基(2014),〈雲端運算與個人資料保護-以台灣個人資料保護法與歐盟個人資料保護指令的比較為中心〉,《東海大學法學研究》,第43期,頁53-106。
劉靜怡(2002),〈網際網路時代的資訊使用與隱私權保護規範:個人、政府與市場的拔河〉,《資訊管理研究》,第4卷第3期,頁137-161。
1. 4. 網路文獻
曹乙帆,〈雲端運算的儲存基礎架構 揭開雲端儲存的面貌〉,雲端運算智庫,http://www.runpc.com.tw/content/cloud_content.aspx?id=105324
(最後瀏覽日:2017年11月5日)。
黃重憲,〈淺談雲端運算〉,臺灣大學計算機及資訊網路中心電子報,2009年3月20日,http://www.cc.ntu.edu.tw/chinese/epaper/0008/20090320_8008.htm(最後瀏覽日:2016年1月12日)。
1. 5. 學位論文
李明勳,合理隱私期待之研究──以定位科技為例,政治大學法律學研究所碩士論文,2013年。
林一德,電子數位資料於證據法上之研究,台灣大學法律學研究所碩士論文,2000年。
詹文凱,隱私權之研究,台灣大學法律學研究所博士論文,1998年。
劉秋伶,數位證據之刑事證據調查程序,政治大學法律學研究所碩士論文,2010年。
簡陳由,論附帶搜索與隱私權保障之衝突,中國文化大學法律學研究所碩士論文,2015年。
2. 英文部分
2. 1. 專書
Greenwald, Glenn. 2014. No Place To Hide: Edward Snowden, the NSA, and the U.S. Surveillance State. New York: Metropolitan Books.
Lessig, Lawrence. 2006. Code: And Other Laws of Cyberspace, Version 2.0. New York: Basic Books.
Levinson, Paul. 2004. Cellphone: The Story of the World''s Most Mobile Medium and How it Has Transformed Everything!. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Ling, Rich S. 2008. New Tech, New Ties: How Mobile Communication is Reshaping Social Cohesion. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.
Mayer-Schonberger, Viktor. 2009. Delete: The Virtue of Forgetting in the Digital Age. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Palfrey, John and Urs Gasser. 2010. Born Digital: Understanding the First Generation of Digital Natives. New York: Basic Books.
Silva, Adriana de Souza e and Jordan Frith. 2012. Mobile Interfaces in Public Spaces: Locational Privacy, Control, and Urban Sociability. New York and London: Routledge.
Solove, Daniel J. 2011. Nothing to Hide: The False Tradeoff between Privacy and Security. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Solove, Daniel J. 2008. Understanding Privacy. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Solove, Daniel J. 2004. The Digital Person: Technology and Privacy in the Information Age. New York: NYU Press.
Steiner, Christopher. 2013. Automate This: How Algorithms Took Over Our Markets, Our Jobs, and the World. New York: Portfolio.
2. 2. 期刊論文
Amar, Akhil Reed. (1994). Fourth Amendment First Principles, Harvard Law Review 107:757-819.
Bloustein, Edward J. (1964). Privacy as An Aspect of Human Dignity: An Answer to Dean Prosser, New York University Law Review 39: 962-1007.
Brenner, Susan W. & Frederiksen, Barbara A. (2002). Computer Searches and Seizures: Some Unresolved Issues, Michigan Telecommunications And Technology Law Review 8:39-114.
Chen, Chung-Lin. (2010). In Search of a New Approach of Information Privacy Judicial Review: Interpretation No. 603 of Taiwan''s Constitutional Court as a Guide, Indiana International & Comparative Law Review 20:21-45.
Clancy, Thomas K. (2005). The Fourth Amendment Aspects of Computer Searches and Seizures: A Perspective and a Primer, Mississippi Law Journal 75:193-286.
Fried, Charles. (1968). Privacy, Yale Law Journal 77:475-493.
Gold, Aaron J. (2015). Obscured by Clouds: The Fourth Amendment and Searching Cloud Storage Accounts Through Locally Installed Software, William and Mary Law Review 56:2321-2350.
Kerr, Orin S. (2005). Search Warrants in an Era of Digital Evidence, Mississippi Law Journal 75:85-138.
Kerr, Orin S. (2005). Searches and Seizures in a Digital World, Harvard Law Review 119:531-585.
Kerr, Orin S. (2010). Ex Ante Regulation of Computer Search and Seizure: A Reassessment, Virginia Law Review 96:1241-1293.
Kerr, Orin S. (2011). An Equilibrium-Adjustment Theory of the Fourth Amendment, Harvard Law Review 125:476-543.
Kerr, Orin S. (2012). The Mosaic Theory of the Fourth Amendment, Michigan Law Review 111:311-354.
Nissenbaum, Helen. (1998). Protecting Privacy in an Information Age: The Problem of Privacy in Public. Law & Philosophy 17:559-596.
Nissenbaum, Helen. (2004). Privacy as Contextual Integrity. Washington Law Review 79: 119-157.
Ohm, Paul. (2011). Massive Hard Drives, General Warrants, and the Power of Magistrate Judges, Virginia Law Review In Brief 97:1-12.
Posner, Richard A. (2008). Privacy, Surveillance, and Law, The University of Chicago Law Review 75:245-260.
Prosser, William L. (1960). Privacy. California Law Review 48:383-423.
Solove, Daniel J. (2002). Conceptualizing Privacy. California Law Review 90:1087-1155.
Solove, Daniel J. (2006). A Taxonomy of Privacy. University of Pennsylvania Law Review 154:477-560.
Solove, Daniel J. (2013). Introduction: Privacy Self-Management and the Consent Dilemma. Harvard Law Review 126:1880-1903.
Stuntz, William J. (2002). Local Policing after the Terror, Yale Law Journal 111:2137.
Terzian, Dan. (2014). Forced Decryption as Equilibrium—Why It’s Constitutional and How Riley Matters, Northwestern University Law Review Online 109:56-63.
Terzian, Dan. (2014). The Fifth Amendment, Encryption, and the Forgotten State Interest, UCLA Law Review Discourse 61:298-312.
Terzian, Dan. (2015). Forced Decryption as a Foregone Conclusion, California Law Review Circuit 6:27-36.
The Supreme Court. (2014). 2013 Term—Leading Cases, Harvard Law Review 128: 251-260.
Watzel, Ryan. (2014). Riley’s Implications for Fourth Amendment Protection in the Cloud, Yale Law Journal Forum 124:73-79.
Warren, Samuel D. and Brandeis, Louis D. (1890). The Right to Privacy. Harvard Law Review 4:193-220.
Weir, Bryan K. (2010). It''s (Not So) Plain to See: The Circuit Split on the Plain View Doctrine in Digital Searches, George Mason University Civil Rights Law Journal 21:83-121.
Wellman, Barry. (2001). Physical Place and Cyberplace: The Rise of Personalized Networking, The International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 25:227-252.
Winick, Raphael. (1994). Searches and Seizures of Computers and Computer Data, Harvard Journal of Law & Technology 8: 75-128.
2. 3. 專書論文
Gergen, Kenneth J. (2002). The Challenge of Absent Presence. Pp. 227-241 in Perpetual Contact: Mobile Communication, Private Talk, Public Performance, edited by James E. Katz and Mark Aakhus. Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press.
Katz, James E. and Mark Aakhus. (2002). Conclusion: making meaning of mobiles – a theory of Apparatgeist. Pp. 301-318 in Perpetual Contact: Mobile Communication, Private Talk, Public Performance, edited by James E. Katz and Mark Aakhus. Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press.
Richardson, Ingrid. (2008). Pocket Technospaces: the Bodily Incorporation of Mobile Media. Pp. 66-76 in Mobile Phone Cultures, edited by Gerard Goggin. New York; Routledge.
Turkle, Sherry. (2008). Always-on/Always-on-you: The Tethered Self. Pp 121-137 in Handbook of Mobile Communication Studies, edited by James E. Katz. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
2. 4. 網路文獻
Gershowitz, Adam. 2014. Symposium: Surprising unanimity, even more surprising clarity, SCOTUSblog (Jun. 26, 2014), http://www.scotusblog.com/2014/06/symposium-surprising-unanimity-even-more-surprising-clarity
Goodman, Jody. Forced Data Decryption: Does It Violate the Fifth Amendment?, Criminal Justice, http://www.crowell.com/files/Forced-Data-Decryption-Does-It-Violate-the-Fifth-Amendment.pdf (last visited Jan. 12, 2016).
Hofmann, Marcia. Apple’s Fingerprint ID May Mean You Can’t ‘Take the Fifth’, Wired (Sep. 12, 2013), http://www.wired.com/2013/09/the-unexpected-result-of-fingerprint-authentication-that-you-cant-take-the-fifth
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Kerr, Orin. Apple’s dangerous game, part 3: Where do you draw the line, and what’s the privacy tradeoff?, The Volokh Conspiracy (Sep. 22, 2014), http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/volokh-conspiracy/wp/2014/09/22/apples-dangerous-game-part-3-where-do-you-draw-the-line-and-whats-the-privacy-tradeoff
Kerr, Orin. Virginia state trial court ruling on the Fifth Amendment and smart phones, The Volokh Conspiracy (Nov. 3, 2014), http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/volokh-conspiracy/wp/2014/11/03/virginia-state-trial-court-ruling-on-the-fifth-amendment-and-smart-phones
Kerr, Orin. Court invalidates cell phone warrant as overbroad, The Volokh Conspiracy (Feb. 23, 2015), http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/volokh-conspiracy/wp/2015/02/23/court-invalidates-cell-phone-warrant-as-overbroad
Kopp, Glen and Kedar Bhatia. Fingerprint Lock Won''t Protect Phone From Law Enforcement, Law 360 (Dec. 12, 2014), http://www.law360.com/articles/603831/fingerprint-lock-won-t-protect-phone-from-law-enforcement
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Solove, Daniel. Does the U.S. Supreme Court''s Decision on the 4th Amendment and Cell Phones Signal Future Changes to the Third Party Doctrine?, LinkedIn (Jun. 25, 2014), https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/20140625172659-2259773-does-the-u-s-supreme-court-s-decision-on-the-4th-amendment-and-cell-phones-signal-future-changes-to-the-third-party-doctrine
Villasenor, John. Can the Government Force Suspects To Decrypt Incriminating Files?, Slate (Mar. 5, 2012), http://www.slate.com/articles/technology/future_tense/2012/03/encrypted_files_child_pornography_and_the_fifth_amendment_.html
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