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研究生:李佑均
研究生(外文):Yu-Chun Lee
論文名稱:美國白領勞工工作時間法律問題之研究-兼論對我國勞動基準法第八十四條之一之啟示
論文名稱(外文):A Study on the Legal Issues Concerning the Working Hours of White-Collar Workers in the United States-and its Implications for Article 84-1 in the Labor Standards Act of Taiwan
指導教授:王能君王能君引用關係
指導教授(外文):Neng-Chun Wang
口試委員:焦興鎧邱駿彥侯岳宏
口試委員(外文):Cing-Kae ChiaoJiunn-Yann ChiouYueh-Hung Hou
口試日期:2016-06-20
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:科際整合法律學研究所
學門:法律學門
學類:專業法律學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:165
中文關鍵詞:白領勞工工作時間白領除外規定勞動基準法第八十四條之一監督管理人員責任制加班
外文關鍵詞:White-collarWorking hoursWhite-collar exemptionArticle 84-1 in the Labor Standards ActSupervisor and administrative workersProfessional workers with designated responsibilityOvertime
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隨著當代服務業之興起,白領勞工之工時遂成為一新興議題,在這當中應如何兼顧對勞工之保護與雇主之營運彈性?為了回應此一問題意識,本論文擬透過對美國法之研究,期望對我國白領勞工工時之規範提供啟示與反思。
本論文於第一章先介紹了研究動機與架構,於第二章則說明美國法下白領除外規定(White-collar exemption)之內涵。該規定之主要精神在於排除《公平勞動基準法》下法定加班費之適用,並進一步提供了白領勞工判斷上之要件:勞工必須依序通過薪資基準檢驗(salary basis test)、薪資水平檢驗(salary level test)以及職務檢驗(duty test),始具備白領身分。在確認勞工具備白領身分之後,本論文於第三章進一步探討其工時規範型態。在對美國法白領勞工工時規範進行上述說明後,本論文遂於第四章以我國勞基法第八十四條之一第一項第一款之「監督、管理人員或責任制專業人員」作為研究對象,探討該款人員之認定標準以及工時條件。
最後,於第五章透過我國與美國之比較,本論文整理出結論如下:就白領勞工之認定標準與工時條件而言,美國僅於前者有國家高度管制,對後者則是採取私法自治模式,此乃雇用自由意志原則(employment-at-will)原則之展現;我國則不論是對於前者或後者,皆有國家力量之高度介入。本論文藉此進一步歸結出二國白領勞工工時規範上之優劣:美國之模式固然具備因應白領勞工工作型態之彈性,然而在當代未必能確保妥適之勞資利益分配型態;我國之模式則固然對勞工較為保護,然而卻始終難以擺脫法定工時之色彩而彈性不足。因此,國家如何能制定一個具保護色彩之框架性規範,使勞資雙方可在其中以私法自治形成更具彈性之勞動條件,遂成為未來值得進一步研究之方向。


At the rise of the service industry, the working hours of white-collar workers has become an emergent issue. Considering this, the most important issue is how to strike a balance between operational elasticity for employers and the protection of labor rights. To respond to this problem, this thesis aims to provide some inspirations and reflections for the legal system regulating the working hours of white-collar workers in Taiwan, by conducting research on the corresponding legal system in the United States.
Chapter 1 introduces the motivation and structure of this thesis. Chapter 2 provides an elaboration on the “White-collar exemption” clause in the United States, of which the main purpose is to exclude the overtime pay regulated by the Fair Labor Standards Act. In addition, the exemption provides criteria for deciding the characterization of the white-collar. In order to be qualified as a white-collar, a labor must pass three tests sequentially: the salary basis test, the salary level test and the duty test. Based on the white-collar identity, Chapter 3 furthermore studies its working hour issues. After the above research on the regulation in the United States, Chapter 4 focuses on the “Supervisory, administrative workers, and professional workers with designated responsibility” in Article 84-1 in the Labor Standards Act of Taiwan, discussing the criteria and working hour standards for workers in this category.
Finally, conclusion is derived through a comparison between Taiwan and the United States in Chapter 5: As for the criteria and work hour of the white-collar, the United States exercises high degree of intervention from the public power for the former, while the latter mostly relies upon private autonomy. On the other hand, Taiwan administers high degree of intervention from the public power on both of the above-mentioned aspects. Based on this difference, the pros and cons of the work-hour systems of the two countries can be generated. The system in the United States has enough flexibility to adjust the working condition for the white-collar workers, while having more difficulty to ensure appropriate interest distribution between employers and laborers nowadays. The system in Taiwan gives laborers more protection, while being confined in the legal framework of working hours restrictions, which results in a lack of flexibility. In view of this, how do the public power design a framework of regulation, in which enough protection and flexibility can be provided to help laborers shape working hours conditions through private autonomy? This can be an issue worth studying in the future.


第一章 緒論 1

第一節 研究動機 1
第一項 前言 1
第二項 我國勞基法第八十四條之一之簡介 3
第三項 我國勞基法第八十四條之一之實務爭議 4
第四項 小結 6
第二節 研究目的與架構 8

第二章 美國白領除外規定之變遷 10

第一節 美國《公平勞動基準法》之工時規定 10
第二節 美國白領除外規定之變遷 11
第一項 第一階段 11
第二項 第二階段:美國勞工部第一次修正 23
第三項 第三階段:美國勞工部第二次修正 41
第四項 小結 50

第三章 美國白領勞工工作時間之法律問題 57

第一節 白領勞工之加班 58
第一項 團體協約關於加班之約定 58
第二項 勞動仲裁機關對於加班之立場 59
第三項 法院之角色 65
第四項 團體協約以外之加班約定型式 68
第二節 白領勞工加班之補償 69
第一項 補償時間(Comp-time)制度 70
第二項 加班費制度 73
第三項 小結 75
第三節 違法或不當加班之救濟 76
第一項 工時上限之爭議 76
第二項 違法或不當加班之補救措施 79
第三項 白領勞工之過勞現象與職業災害相關法規 81

第四章 我國勞基法第八十四條之一白領勞工工作時間法律問題 87

第一節 勞基法第八十四條之一之白領勞工 89
第一項 監督、管理人員 89
第二項 責任制專業人員 93
第二節 排除法定工時適用之程序 102
第一項 勞雇雙方之約定方式 102
第二項 主管機關「核備」之性質 107
第三節 排除法定工時適用後之勞動條件 109
第一項 工時規範之態樣 109
第二項 加班之法律議題 117
第三項 加班之補償 125

第五章 結論:我國與美國白領勞工工時規範之比較 132

第一節 美國白領勞工工時規範之特徵 132
第一項 適用對象 132
第二項 勞動條件 134
第二節 我國白領勞工工時規範之特徵 137
第一項 適用對象 137
第二項 勞動條件 138
第三節 美國白領勞工工時規範對我國之啟示 140
第一項 「白領勞工」之認定 140
第二項 白領勞工之工時內容 145
第三項 美國白領勞工工時法制值得我國參考之處 147
第四節 未來研究方向 148

參考文獻 152
附件一 臺北市政府審查適用勞基法第84條之1工作者工作時間一覽表 (105.01.01起施行) 159
附件二 台北市政府核備勞動基準法第八十四條之一約定書審查基準 164



一、中文文獻(依作者姓名之筆畫順序)

(一)書籍

William B. Gould(著),焦興鎧(譯)(1996)。《美國勞工法入門》,初版。台北:國立編譯館。

中華民國勞動法學會(1999)。《勞動法裁判選輯(二)》。台北:元照。

中華民國勞動法學會(2000)。《勞動法裁判選輯(三)》。台北:元照。

焦興鎧(1995)。《勞工法與勞工權利之保障—美國勞工法論文集(一)》。台北:元照。

黃程貫(1997)。《勞動法》。台北:國立空中大學。

黃越欽教授紀念論文集編輯委員會(2011)。《社會公義-黃越欽教授紀念論文集》。台北:元照。

黃越欽(2012)。《勞動法新論》,修訂四版。台北:翰盧。

楊通軒(2014)。《集體勞工法‒理論與實務》,修訂三版。台北:五南。

臺灣勞動法學會(2009)。《勞動基準法釋義-施行二十年之回顧與展望》,第二版。台北:新學林。

臺北大學法律學院勞動法研究中心(2013)。《勞動法精選判決評釋》。台北:元照。

劉志鵬(2000)。《勞動法理論與判決研究》。台北:元照。

(二)專書論文

王能君(2012)。〈勞動基準法上加班法律規範與問題之研究—日本與台灣之加班法制與實務〉,《臺北大學法學論叢》,第81期,頁75-138。
吳姿慧(2012)。〈勞動基準法第84條之1適用現況之檢討—以保全服務業為例〉,《東海大學法學研究》,第38期,頁181-242。

邱駿彥(1996)。〈勞基法工作時間制度修正草案之檢討〉,《月旦法學雜誌》,第13期,頁30-38。

林良榮(2011)。〈是「委任」的經理,還是「僱傭」關係的經理?〉,《台灣法學雜誌》,168期,頁177-182。

侯岳宏(2013)。〈未依法定計算方法給付加班費之效力〉,《臺北大學法學論 叢》,第88期,頁261-291。

荒木尚志(著),周兆昱(譯)(2012)。〈日本部分工時勞動與白領勞工工作時間規範之現狀與課題〉,《臺灣勞動法學會學報》,第10期,1-58頁。

郭玲惠(2004)。〈勞動基準法工時制度之沿革與實務爭議問題之初探〉,《律師雜誌》,第298期,頁15-30。

陳正良(1999)。〈勞動基準法第八十四條之一之探討〉,《政大勞動學報》,第8期,頁35-51。

陳旻沂(2013)。〈勞工「責任制」工作合理性之探討〉,《國立中正大學法學集刊》,第3期,頁1-24。

楊雅萍(2008)。〈我國過勞死之職業災害認定之現狀〉,《萬國法律》,第161期,頁2-15。

鄭津津(1999)。〈特殊行業因應勞動基準法之工時規劃-以保險業與房屋仲介業為例〉,《政大勞動學報》,第8期,頁53-61。

顧玉玲(2006)。〈「過勞死」在台灣〉,《台灣勞工雙月刊》,第4期,頁138-132。

(三)學位論文

方文伶(2014)。我國工作時間除外規定之研究—以勞基法第八十四條之一為中心》,中國文化大學法律學系碩士論文。

劉夢蕾(2006)。《工作時間基準除外之適用-論我國勞動基準法第84條之1》,國立政治大學勞工研究所碩士論文。



(四)會議論文

林佳和(2010)。〈勞基法第84條之1與團體協約〉,發表於:《勞動基準法實務爭議研討會論文集》。行政院勞委會主辦,台灣勞動法學會、台北大學法院學院協辦,頁86-99。

二、英文文獻

(一)書籍

Schoonhoven, R. J. and Fairweather, O. (1983). Fairweather’s Practice and Procedure in the Labor Arbitration, Bureau of National Affairs.

Rothstein, M.A., Liebman, L. and Yuracko, M. A. (2015), Employment Law: Case and Material, Foundation Press.

(二)期刊論文

Abbott, N. S. (1998). To Pay or Not To Pay: Modernizing The Overtime Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act, University of Pennsylvania Journal of Business Law, Vol.1:1, 254-267.

Abrams, R. I. and Nolan, D. R. (1984), Time at a Premium: The Arbitration of Overtime and Premium Pay Disputes, Ohio State Law Journal, Vol.45:4, 837-862.

Anderson, T. (2004). Overwork Robs Workers Health: Interpreting OSHA’s General Duty Clause to Prohibit Long Work Hours, New York City Law Review, Vol.7:1, 85-160.

Bertagna, B. R. (2012). The“Miscellaneous Employee”: Exploring The Boundaries Of The Fair Labor Standards Act’s Administrative Exemption, Hofstra Labor & Employment Law Journal, Vol.29:2, 485-545.

Buckley, J. P., Bourgoine, I. B. and Parker. D. R. (2004), Collective-Actions Breathe New Life into the Fair Labor Standards Act’s Salary Test, The Wayne Law Review, Vol.50, 906-932.

Burns, B. (2012). Prescription for Change: Third Circuit Diagnoses
Pharmaceutical Sales Representatives as Exempt from Overtime Pay in Smith v. Johnson & Johnson, Villanova Law Review, 671-698 .

Chin, K. Y. (2012). Continuing the White-Collar Unionization Movement: Imagining a Private Attorneys’ Union, Pace Law Review, Vol. 32:1, 77-113.

Cicala, M. (2002). Equalizing Workers in Ties and Coveralls: Removal of the White-Collar Exemption to the Fair Labor Standards Act, Seton Hall Legislation Journal, Vol.27:1, 139-162.

Conway, M. E. (1997). Karoshi: Is It Sweeping America? UCLA Pacific Basin Law Journal, Vol.15:2, 352-380.

Crouss, K. S. (2012). Welcome to the Jungle: Salespeople and the Administrative Exemption to the Fair Labor Standard Act, Western New England Law Review, Vol.34, 205-249.

Dechiara, P. D. (1993). Rethinking the Managerial-Professional Exemption of the Fair Labor Standards Acts, the America University Law Review, Vol.43, 139-189 .

Denlinger, Rosenthal and Greenberg Legal Professional Association (2001). Court Rights Wrong Management Rights Decision, Ohio Employment Law Letter, 12 No. 6.

Faillace, M. A. (2000). Automatic Exemption of Highly-Paid Employment and Other Proposed Amendments to the White-Collar Exemption: Bringing the Fair Labor Standards Act into the 21st Century, The Labor Lawyer, Vol.15, 357-390.

Felder, M. (2005). Not Quite “Family Friendly”: Amending the Fair Labor Standards Act to Provide Comp Time May Hurt Welfare Leavers and Their Family, Georgetown Journal on Poverty Law & Policy, Vol.12:2, 273-298.

Frederick, D. (2011). Exempt Executives? Dollar General Store Manager’s Embattled Quest for Overtime Pay under the Fair Labor Standard Act, University of Pennsylvania Law Review, Vol.160, 278-328.

Gershenfeld. G. (1988). Overtime. In Bornstein, T., Gosline, A. and Stiefel, H. (Eds.), Labor and Employment Arbitration (1-24). New York: M. Bender.

Greenbaum, M. L. (1988). Remedies. In Bornstein, T., Gosline, A. and Stiefel, H. (Eds.), Labor and Employment Arbitration (1-32). New York: M. Bender.

Grenig, J. E. (1988). Principles of Contract Interpretation. In Bornstein, T., Gosline, A. and Stiefel, H. (Eds.), Labor and Employment Arbitration (1-24). New York: M. Bender.

James, J. (2004). The Equal Pay Act in the Courts: A De Facto White-Collar Exemption, New York University Law Review, Vol.79, 1873-1901.

Krueger, G. R. (2003). Straight-Time Overtime and Salary Basis: Reform of the Fair Labor Standards Act, Washington Law Review, Vol.70:4, 1097-1124.

Lung, S. (2005). Overwork and Overtime, Indiana Law Review, Vol. 39, 51-85.

Malamud, D. C. (1998). Engineering the Middle Classes: Class Line-Drawing in New Deal Hours Legislation, Michigan Law Review, Vol. 96:8, 2212-2321.

Miller, A. (2006). Reality Check For Production Companies: Why Writers on Reality Television Are Entitled To Overtime PAY, Loyola of Los Angeles Entertainment Law Review, Vol.27, 185-216.

Miller, S. D. (2003). Work/Life Balance and the White-Collar Employee under the FLSA, Employee Rights and Employment Policy Journal, Vol.7:1, 5-50.

Miller, S. D. (2008), Atrophied Rights: Maximum Hours Labor Standards under the FLSA and Illinois Law, Northern Illinois University Law Review, Vol.28, 263-346.

Peterson, D. J. (1997). Arbitration of Employee Refusal to Work Overtime, Journal of Dispute Resolution, Vol.52, 20-27.

Powell, L. C. (2013). Flexible Scheduling and Gender Equality: The Working Families Flexibility Act Under the Fourteenth Amendment, Michigan Journal of Gender and Law, Vol.20:2, 359-384.

Powers, Kinder and Keeney (1997). Supreme Court Again Restricts Arbitrability of Statutory Duties, Rhode Island Employment Law Letter, 2 No.5.

Ray, D. E. (1988). Protecting the Parties’ Bargain after MISCO: Court Review of Labor Arbitration Awards, Indiana Law Journal, Vol. 64:1, 1-41.

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Tamie Kobayashi and Middlemiss, S. (2009). Employers’ Liability for Occupational Stress and Death from Overwork in the United States and the United Kingdom, Common Law World Review, Vol. 38:2, 137-169.

Walsh, D. J. (1999). The FLSA Comp Time Controversy: Fostering Flexibility or Diminishing Worker Rights? Berkeley Journal of Employment & Labor Law, Vol.20:1, 76-136.

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(三)研究報告

Department of Labor. (2003). Defining and Delimiting the Exemptions for Executive, Administrative, Professional, Outside Sales and Computer Employees. Retrieved from https://www.dol.gov/whd/overtime/preamble_final.htm.

Department of Labor (2015). Defining and Delimiting the Exemptions for Executive, Administrative, Professional, Outside Sales and Computer Employees. Retrieved from https://www.dol.gov/whd/overtime/nprm2015/ot-nprm.pdf.

United States Department of Labor. (1938). Reports and Enquiries: Regulation of Hours of Work through Collective Bargaining in the United States.


(四)網路文獻

American Banker Association. (2015, Sep. 4). Comments on Department of Labor Expanded Overtime Rule. Retrieved from
https://www.aba.com/Advocacy/commentletters/Documents/2015DoLFLSAProposalCommentLetter.pdf.

Center for Effective Government. (2015, Sep. 4).Comments on Department of Labor Expanded Overtime Rule. Retrieved from http://www.foreffectivegov.org/files/regs/cegovertimerulecomments%20090415.pdf.

Department of Labor. (2016, May. 18). Overtime for White Collar Workers-Overview and Summary of Final Rule. Retrieved from
https://www.dol.gov/sites/default/files/overtime-overview.pdf.

International Franchise Association. (2015, Sep. 4). Comments on Department of Labor Expanded Overtime Rule. Retrieved from
http://www.franchise.org/sites/default/files/IFA%20Comments%20%20FINAL.pdf.

John Fraser, Monica Gallagher, Gail Coleman. (2004, July). Observations on the Department of Labor’s Final Regulations “ Defining and Delimiting the Minimum Wage and Overtime Exemptions for Executive, Administrative, Professional, Outside Sales and Computer Employees”. Retrieved from
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Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights. (2015, Sep. 4). Comments on Department of Labor Expanded Overtime Rules. Retrieved from
http://civilrightsdocs.info/pdf/policy/letters/2015/OvertimeRegsComments.pdf.

National Association of Home Builders (2015, Sep. 4). Comments on Department of Labor Expanded Overtime Rule. Retrieved from
https://www.nahb.org/~/media/Sites/NAHB/PressReleaseDocuments/NAHB%20Overtime%20Comments%20RIN%201235AA11%20FINAL%209%204%2015.ashx?la=en.

United Auto Workers Union. (2015, Sep. 4). Comments on Department of Labor Expanded Overtime Rules. Retrieved from http://uaw5810.org/wpcontent/uploads/2015/09/UAWLocal5810_Overtime_Comment.pdf.

Society for Human Resource Management. (2015, Feb.). Comp Time Legislation, Retrieved from https://www.shrm.org/Advocacy/Issues/WorkplaceFlexibility/Documents/1.23.15%20FINAL%20Comp%20Time%20Legislation%20Issue%20Paper%2003-25-2013.pdf.

Society for Human Resource Management. (2015, Sep. 4). Comments on Department of Labor Expanded Overtime Rule. Retrieved from
https://www.shrm.org/Advocacy/PublicPolicyStatusReports/Courts-Regulations/Documents/SHRM%20541%20FINAL%20SUBMITTED%209%204.pdf.

U.S. Small Business Administration. (2015, Sep. 4). Comments on Department of Labor Expanded Overtime Rule. Retrieved from https://www.sba.gov/advocacy/942015-defining-and-delimiting-exemptions-executive-administrative-professional-outside.

Worldatwork. (2015, Sep. 4). Comments on Department of Labor Expanded Overtime Rule. Retrieved from https://www.worldatwork.org/adimLink?id=79095


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