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研究生:陳世哲
研究生(外文):Shih-Jhe Chen
論文名稱:洋桔梗之花型花色遺傳、離體採種與種子處理
論文名稱(外文):Inheritance of Flower Form and Color, Seed Production ex vivo and Seed Treatments of Lisianthus
指導教授:葉德銘葉德銘引用關係
指導教授(外文):Der-Ming Yeh
口試委員:黃光亮沈榮壽張正
口試委員(外文):Kuang-Liang HuangRong-Show ShenChen Chang
口試日期:2016-06-23
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:園藝暨景觀學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:園藝學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:111
中文關鍵詞:育種採種種子滲調種子披衣
外文關鍵詞:breedingseed productionseed primingseed pelleting
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瞭解洋桔梗[Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf.) Shinn.]花型花色之遺傳模式,有助於未來選定適當的育種親本以提高育種效率。本研究旨在探討洋桔梗授粉時期及瞭解果實離體瓶插採種方式,期能避免夏季高溫採種,減少日後植株簇生化,並以適當的低溫浸潤、滲調、批衣及貯藏處理有助於本地品種商業化。
本研究調查臺南區農業改良場純化5-6世代洋桔梗自交系之雜交後代花朵性狀,共41個組合。結果顯示子代花徑皆為中輪(5.1-5.9 cm)或大輪花(≧6.0 cm)。花型瓣性為重瓣相對於單瓣為顯性。具花青素之花色相對於不具花青素之花色為顯性;覆輪色相對於單色為顯性;黃綠色相對於白色為顯性;粉色相對於白色為顯性;紫色相對於粉紅色為顯性。
取不同開花後天數之洋桔梗 ‘Doris Pink Flash’花粉授於開花後5天之柱頭及取開花後3天之花粉授於不同開花後天數之柱頭,結果顯示結實率可達90%以上。將洋桔梗#103-1自交授粉後(days after pollination, DAP)觀察果實及種子發育,結果顯示在15 DAP期間內為果實長、寬快速增加。果實鮮重於10-30 DAP期間顯著增加,種子含水量約為15%。而40 DAP後果實鮮重不再顯著變化,種子含水量顯著減少至約為5%。解剖顯微鏡觀察種皮顏色於50 DAP呈金黃色,60 DAP呈黑褐色。
取不同授粉週數之洋桔梗#103-1,採種方式分為果實帶莖葉與僅留果實及果梗瓶插於25oC及10oC生長箱,授粉週數與瓶插週數共計10週後,移至25oC、光度為43.03 µmol•m-2•s-1之環境乾燥後,種子播於25oC,光度165 µmol•m-2•s-1進行發芽試驗,結果顯示於25oC瓶插處理所獲得之種子發芽率均可達約90%以上,僅授粉2週且不帶莖葉之果實內之種子發芽率顯著較低,而於10oC瓶插者種子發芽率均較於25oC瓶插者低,僅以授粉6週之種子發芽率顯著高於其他處理。將於授粉4、6及8週且於25oC瓶插之種子與授粉6週且於10oC瓶插之種子,置於30/25oC及25/20oC栽培,結果顯示無論授粉週數及採種方式皆以栽培於25/20oC之抽苔率顯著高於栽培於30/25oC之抽苔率。於瓶插25oC所獲得之洋桔梗#103-1種子栽培於30/25oC,以授粉4週且帶莖葉處理之實生苗抽苔率最高。另外,授粉6週且瓶插於10oC之種子栽培於30/25oC則以僅留果梗處理之抽苔率顯著高於帶莖葉處理。
將洋桔梗‘Umihonoka’種子浸潤期間置於25/20oC黑暗或5oC搭配0、195及395 µmol•m-2•s-1 之光照環境4週後,移至30/25 oC及 25/20 oC之自然光照栽培,結果顯示以5oC浸潤後栽培於30/25oC之抽苔率顯著高於25/20oC浸潤者,並以5oC浸潤搭配光強度365 µmol.m-2.s-1獲最大抽苔率。
洋桔梗#103-1種子以PEG-8000及CaCl2 水勢各為-1.0及-1.5 MPa進行滲調處理3週後,於25oC、光強度165 µmol.m-2.s-1環境行發芽測試,結果顯示各滲調處理發芽率均可達90%以上,且較未滲調處理者提前2天發芽。將滲調種子栽培於30/25oC及25/20 oC,結果顯示滲調後植株抽苔率均以栽培於25/20 oC高於30/25oC,且皆以經滲調者之抽苔率顯著高於未滲調者。將滲調種子置於5 oC貯藏,結果顯示以-1.5 MPa 之PEG-8000滲調種子貯藏6個月後顯著降低種子發芽率。
另以臺灣種苗改良繁殖場研發之配方(TSSB4-1+TSSB1-1)進行披衣處理,本研究可成功將洋桔梗#341種子披衣成不同粒徑大小(0.5-2.1 mm),經發芽測試結果顯示隨粒徑增加,最終發芽率及發芽係數會降低,初始發芽時間、發芽所需時間、T10、T50及千粒重則增加,其中粒徑>1.7 mm之發芽率顯著低於對照組。將洋桔梗#103-1裸種子置於5-30oC貯藏庫中黑暗貯藏,結果顯示經12個月貯藏,洋桔梗#103-1種子發芽率仍可達90%以上,但種子發芽率隨貯藏時間增加而逐漸減少。


A better understanding of inheritance of flower form and color in lisianthus [Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf.) Shinn.] would facilitate breeding efficiency. This study aimed to test pollination timing and the technique of seed production by cut immature capsule was examined in Eustoma. Further, seed treatments would advance the industry.

The flower traits of progenies in 41 crosses were measured among inbred Eustoma, which were selfed 5-6 generations in Tainan District Agricultural Research and Extension Station. Results showed that flower diameter of the progenies ranged from medium (5.1-5.9 cm) to large (≧6.0 cm) sizes. Double flower is dominant to single flower. Cyanic color is dominant to acyanic color, picotee color is dominant to single color, green color is dominant to white color, pink color is dominant to white color, and purple color is dominant to pink color.

Results showed the fruit set percentage was higher than 90% after pollination with various flower age. Length and width of fruit in Eustoma #103-1 increased rapidly between 15 days after pollination (DAP), fruit fresh weight (FFW) significantly increased between 10 and 30 DAP, when seed water content was about 15%. FFW did not increase while seed water content reduced to 5% after 40 DAP. Seed coat appeared golden at 50 DAP and became dark brown at 60 DAP. Effects of thermal conditions during vase, weeks after pollination, and harvested seeds from fruit with 30 cm or fruit only on subsequent bolting and growth were also studied. Results showed that seed harvested from fruit with 30 cm or fruit only at 4-8 weeks after pollination (WAP) at vase during 25oC could reach more than 90% germination. And significant lower germination was observed for seeds harvested from fruit only at 2 WAP. Seed germination percentages were significantly lower when harvested fruit with 30 cm or fruit only at vase during 10oC, while only those at 6 WAP had higher germination percentage than other maturity. Seeds from 4, 6, and 8 WAP at vase during 25oC, and from 6 WAP at vase during 10oC were sown and grown at 30/25oC or 25/20oC. Results showed that bolting percentage was higher, regardless of weeks after pollination, harvested from fruit with 30 cm or fruit only, and temperatures during vase, at 25/20oC than at 30/25oC. Eustoma #103-1 seeds harvested from fruit with 30 cm shoot at 4 WAP and vase temperature during 25oC had higher bolting percentage under 30/25oC than other treatments. Harvested from fruit only at 6 WAP and vase temperature during 10oC had higher bolting percentage under 30/25oC than fruit with 30 cm shoot.

Effect of temperature (5 oC and 25/20 oC) and light intensity (0, 195, and 365 µmol.m-2.s-1) during seed imbibition was studied on bolting percentage in lisianthus seedlings grown at 25/20 oC or 30/25 oC. Results showed lisianthus ‘Umihonoka’ grown under 30/25 oC had higher bolting percentage after the seeds were imbibied at 5 oC than 25/20oC. The highest bolting percentage was recorded in those under 365 µmol.m-2.s-1 during imbibition at 5 oC. Osmopriming with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and calcium chloride (CaCl2), at -1.5 MPa and -1.0 MPa for three weeks resulted in germination percentage of 90%, and primed seeds emerged significantly earlier than nonprimed seeds. Bolting percentage was significantly higher in those after primed for three weeks than nonprimed plants under 30/25 oC. Seed longevity of primed Eustoma #103-1 seed was also measured. Results indicated primed seed germination with -1.5 MPa of PEG-8000 decreased after 6 months storage. Moreover, lisianthus seeds were drum coated into pellets with various sizes (0.5-2.1 mm) and film coating by using formula (TSSB4-1+TSSB1-1) developed by Taiwan Seed Improvement and Propagation Station. Results indicated the larger pelleted size (>1.7 mm) significantly reduced the germination and germination coefficient but significantly increased germination timing. Effects of storage temperature (5-30oC) and duration (0, 6, 12 months) on germination and time to maximum germination of Eustoma #103-1 were studied. Results showed that seed germination rate was higher than 90% after storage for 12 months. Seed germination decreased with prolonged storage duration.


摘要………………………………………………………………………i
Abstract………………………………………………………………iii
內容目次………………………………………………………………vi
表目次…………………………………………………………………vii
圖目次…………………………………………………………………ix
第一章 前言………………………………………………………………1
第二章 前人研究…………………………………………………………3
第三章 自交系洋桔梗之花型與花色遺傳……………………………17
第四章 洋桔梗授粉時期及果實離體瓶插採種之研究………………32
第五章 浸潤時期之溫度與光度及種子處理對洋桔梗種子發芽及抽苔之影.……………………………………………………………………59
第六章 綜合討論與結論………………………………………………85
參考文獻 (Referenses)………………………………………………89
附錄 (Appendix)………………………………………………………107



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