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研究生:許靖瑋
研究生(外文):Ching-Wei Hsu
論文名稱:中文語前助詞的語用功能:以Eh2和Oh為例
論文名稱(外文):Pragmatic Functions of Mandarin Chinese Utterance-initial Particles: A Case Study of Eh2 and Oh in Social Interactions
指導教授:呂佳蓉呂佳蓉引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chiarung Lu
口試委員:謝富惠蔡宜妮
口試委員(外文):Fuhui HsiehI-Ni Tsai
口試日期:2015-06-20
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:語言學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:語言學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:英文
論文頁數:171
中文關鍵詞:語前助詞語用功能社會互動文類多功能性言談分析談話分析
外文關鍵詞:Utterance-initial Particlepragmatic functionssocial interactionsspeech genrespolyfunctionalitydiscourse analysisconversation analysis
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一直以來,中文助詞的研究可說是十足地蓬勃發展,而將重點放在助詞語用功能,並且探討其所體現的認知狀態者更是所在多有。這其中,由於句末助詞的位置與語用功能多變性,此類中文助詞的研究特別興盛。然而,較少學者(Wu, 1997;2014; Tsai, 2008)對位於語句前面位置的助詞有足夠的剖析,而且亦未對這些位置的助詞作諸多不同文類中(譬若於口語語料、電視談話節目和獨白敘述)的深刻探討。因此,本論文志在探討語前助詞(Utterance-initial Particle)在現實語料中的呈現,並欲了解語前助詞如何促進說話者的社交語用互動。
本論文中挑選兩個高頻出現的語前助詞 - Eh2和Oh - 作為研究對象,並就以下三種文類出現的語前助詞做比較 - 第一、線上口語語料庫的日常口語語料;第二、電視談話節目之採訪逐字稿語料;第三、故事重述的獨白語料。於這些文類中的語前助詞將以言談分析與談話分析的方式進行剖析。本論文基礎的分析架構受Fischer (2006a)關於言談助詞的多功能性模組所啟發,採取了狹義化的研究模式去探討語前助詞的多功能性。藉此,表面上雖然語前助詞的語用功能呈現零散分歧,卻得因目前的研究架構縮限成幾個較為關鍵的說話者的認知要素。而要避免落入紛雜且多義的窠臼,便要將不同文類的特點與談話情境中參與者的互動納入分析語前助詞時的考慮,這樣才真正能了解中文使用者使用語前助詞時較關鍵的認知狀態。
本論文的研究分析先從Eh2入手。在認知層面,根據反應時間的快慢,語前助詞Eh2可能代表說話者處於「發現」、「不如預期」、「疑問」等知識狀態。而在語用層次,一般語料裡這些知識狀態對應的基礎語用功能是用作獲取注意、表現驚訝、發問信號等;在談話性節目的語料中,衍生出了說話者自問自答、情節轉折的操弄和談話順序的控制;在獨白敘述的語料中,我們亦能看見類似的語用策略,並觀察到說話者以Eh2作為敘述時為溯往記憶而於敘述中自我修正的方式。而特別是當語境中出現否定意涵時,語前助詞Eh2會使說話者於情態上被解讀為倉促地想為自己平反,或是因為該助詞而加強了責備語氣。以上這些,均可用不同文類特性與社會語用要素搭配上Eh2的認知狀態做出解釋。
另一方面,Oh作為本論文另一關切重點,亦內含有多樣但可歸納的語用功能。在認知層面,根據反應時間的快慢,語前助詞Oh可能代表說話者處於「訊息接收」和「理解/了解」的狀態。而在語用層次,除了確知了訊息接收的訊號,與話者於語境中可能因為語前助詞Oh的出現而解讀說話者可能處於平靜、冷漠、甚至不悅等的情緒;基植於此,於談話性節目的語料中,我們可以看到語前助詞Oh也被用作敘述語流組織和記憶軌跡掌控的工具;而在獨白敘述中,基植於說話者的理解,Oh亦成為了判別說話者是否對敘述胸有成竹的依據。值得注意的是,否定語境中Oh反倒是緩解了對與話者的面子威脅,使得說話者作平反或拒絕他人都聽起來較委婉溫和。
本論文不僅只是要深入剖析中文的語前助詞以及它們所彰顯於社會互動中的語用功能,也致力於將語前助詞時下的使用作系統化的呈現。語前助詞紛雜多變的語用呈現藉由分析後可發現與說話者幾個不變而關鍵的認知狀態相呼應,而正是這些核心在不同文類與社會語用要素特徵交織下才派生出多元面貌。本論文在達成宗旨之餘,亦為未來助詞研究打開了新方向,在探究社會語言使用以及人類認知狀態上,盡了一份心力。


Studies on particles and their uses in Mandarin Chinese have been quite robust throughout the past and present. Apart from formal focus, many of these Mandarin Chinese particle studies have treated the various pragmatic functions of particles as linguistic manifestations reflecting speakers’ cognitive status. Among these, the sentence-final particles (so-called SFPs) in Mandarin Chinese especially call for linguists’ attention owing both to their positional predictability and pragmatic varieties. However, rather few studies (Wu, 1997; 2014; Tsai, 2008) take interest in particle use in utterance-initial position in Mandarin Chinese on the contrary. Moreover, such particle use is seldom investigated into in various different speech genres (e.g., talk-in-interaction, TV talk shows, and monologue narratives). In light of the aforementioned, the current thesis aims to excavate how Utterance-initial Particles (hereafter UIPs) manifest themselves in real-world language data and how speakers socially and pragmatically interact with the aid of UIPs in context.
The two targeted frequently-adopted UIPs – Eh2 and Oh – are inspected through three different discourse channels – (1) talk-in-interaction manifestations through spoken corpora; (2) transcriptions of TV talk shows; (3) monologue narratives of story-retelling. The uses of UIP in these different speech genres are analyzed based on research methods of discourse analysis and conversation analysis. The general analytic framework is inspired by Fischer (2006a) and its spectrum of models dedicated to the polyfunctionality of discourse particles, and it hinges upon rather monosemous approach to polyfunctionality. The dispersed outcomes of UIP adoption on the surface are looking forward to being confined by the current analytic framework. Instead of claiming polysemy for the diverse pragmatic functions UIPs exhibit, by incorporating the speech genre features and the interactions between speakers and co-participants, we will be able to elicit the core features Mandarin Chinese speakers encode in UIPson the cognitive level.
The analyses of the present study firstly present the discourse manifestations of Eh2. On the cognitive level where we can suggest speakers’ different epistemic statuses, Eh2-prefacing foretells discovery, unexpectedness, and wonder in regard to the reaction time. Pragmatically on the discursive level, in conversational discourse these epistemic stages render default pragmatic functions like attention marking, surprise marking, and interrogation initiation. On the other hand, in TV talk shows, there are other pragmatic functions such as self-generate adjacency pair, plot twist setting, and speaker’s turn modulation, and these are merely variants of Eh2-encoded modality and knowledge states. Similarly we also see such functions in Eh2-prefacing in monologue narratives data, and Eh2 can also aid in the speakers’ memory retrieval through self-repair. Notably when there is a negative cue, speaker’s take with respect to the reaction time begets implications of urgency to refute and reproachment respectively.
Secondly, the researched counterpart Oh on the cognitive level conveys information recipience and speakers’ reasoning/understanding process in regard to the reaction time. On the discursive level, these epistemic statuses are not just encoded as recipience acknowledgement, but also as emotional states ranging from calmness, indifference, to unfriendliness based on how co-participants interpret it. These core elements of Oh in TV talk shows further provide the speakers with pragmatic tools to coordinate speech sequence and narrative track-keeping. Moreover, in monologue narratives, the feature of reasoning/understanding further suggests narrator’s planned speech signal. Unlike Eh2 in negative contexts, which conveys stronger sense of negation, Oh at this end presents mild or euphemized refutations.
The present thesis not only presents an in-depth investigation into UIP use in Mandarin Chinese and the pragmatic functions in social interactions, but also contributes to a systematic presentation of synchronic UIP use on different levels. Delicate and complicated pragmatic functions in various different speech genres can be systematically attributed back to several invariant core cognitive statuses each UIP idiosyncratically conveys. The current thesis also opens new directions for the future particle studies so as to the complexity of linguistic intercourses and human cognition.


Acknowledgement i
English Abstract ii
Chinese Abstract v
Table of Contents vii
List of Abbreviation ix
List of Tables x
List of Diagrams xi
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 What Is UIP and Why? 4
1.2 Research Questions 5
1.3 Data and Analytic Framework 8
1.4 Organization of the Thesis 9
Chapter 2 Literature Review 11
2.1 Previous Literature on Particles 12
2.2 Positionally Initial Items 16
2.3 Concerning Eh2 and Oh 18
2.4 Polyfunctionality, Social Interactions, and Speech Genres 23
Chapter 3 Methodology 28
3.1 Monologue Narrative Transcription 29
3.1.1 Source for Transcription 29
3.1.2 Content of Transcription 30
3.1.3 Adoption of Transcription 31
3.2 Existent Spoken Corpora 32
3.2.1 NCCU Corpus of Spoken Chinese 32
3.2.2 NTU Spoken Corpus 33
3.2.3 General Drawbacks and Measures taken 33
3.3 Transcriptions of TV Talk Show 34
3.3.1 Kangxi Lai Le 康熙來了 35
3.3.2 Wenren Zhengshi文人政事 36
3.4 UIP Questionnaire 36
3.4.1 Basic Content of Questionnaire 37
3.4.2 Test Sentences in the Questionnaire 37
3.4.3 Functions of the Questionnaire 39
3.5 Other Research Method Notes 40
Chapter 4 Data Analysis and Discussion 42
4.1 Token Frequency of Eh2 and Oh in use 42
4.2 Eh2 across Genre 47
4.2.1 Wondering 49
4.2.1.1 Question Initiator 50
4.2.1.2 Turn-taking Steering 57
4.2.2 Unexpectedness 61
4.2.2.1 Surprise Marker 62
4.2.2.2 Reproachment 68
4.2.2.3 Plot Twist 71
4.2.3 Discovering 75
4.2.3.1 Self-generate Adjacency Pair 84
4.2.3.2 Urgency to Refute 89
4.2.3.3 Self-repair Process 93
4.3 Oh across Genre 95
4.3.1 Reasoning and Understanding 98
4.3.1.1 Certainty, or Unfriendliness 103
4.3.1.2 Mild or Euphemized Refutation 110
4.3.1.3 Planned Speech Signal 112
4.3.2 Information Recipience 115
4.3.2.1 Sequence Ordinator 119
4.3.2.2 Track-keeping of Narration 122
4.4 Discussion 127
4.4.1 Eh2 and Its Pragmatic Functions 129
4.4.2 Oh and Its Pragmatic Functions 132
Chapter 5 Conclusion 135
5.1 Renditions 136
5.2 Future Directions 140
References 144
Appendix 161
Appendix 1. 162



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