(18.204.2.190) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/04/22 08:02
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:王偉民
研究生(外文):Philip Wang
論文名稱:口譯員顯身性層級有別:宋美齡於一九四三年開羅會議兼任蔣委員長口譯員之探討
論文名稱(外文):Some Interpreters Are More Visible Than Others: A Study of Madame Chiang Kai-shek’s Doubling as Interpreter for the Generalissimo at the Cairo Conference in 1943
指導教授:石岱崙石岱崙引用關係
指導教授(外文):Darryl Sterk
口試委員:陳彥豪范家銘
口試日期:2016-07-05
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:翻譯碩士學位學程
學門:人文學門
學類:翻譯學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:英文
論文頁數:140
中文關鍵詞:宋美齡開羅會議口譯員角色中立性顯身性忠實性歷史/檔案研究
外文關鍵詞:Soong Mei-lingCairo Conferenceinterpreter roleneutralityvisibilityfidelityhistorical/archival research
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:241
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
本文聚焦於宋美齡列席1943年的開羅會議並參與討論,尤其是未曾受過專業訓練的她,憑藉其雙語能力同時扮演口譯員的角色。除了夫婿,蔣夫人同時也為羅斯福總統與邱吉爾首相提供口譯服務,基於今日口譯工作者與研究者對中立性的重視,此項安排自是非比尋常。除了中立性,蔣夫人兼任口譯員也導出口譯員顯身性與忠實性的問題,長久以來,諸多口譯員行為準則和口譯研究莫不將口譯員角色加以理想化,而中立性、顯身性、忠實性正是其中三個關鍵面向。為了探討70多年前這樁重大的口譯案例,本文採取歷史與文獻研究法。然而,由於欠缺官方文件和其他原始素材,本文僅能倚賴第二手、甚至第三手資料進行研究。開羅會議是二戰期間僅有的幾場同盟國高峰會之一,準此,本文也對比歷史上一些外交場合中其他口譯員的相關事例,進一步描繪中國第一夫人如何在開羅兼任口譯員。與古今許多同儕一樣,蔣夫人除了受命協助跨語言、跨文化交流,也同時扮演其他角色:發言人、使者、談判代表。然而,相較於多數口譯同業與其服務對象大抵維繫一種專業層面上的關係,她則是以蔣委員長夫人、親信與政治夥伴的多重身分,再兼他職,並且來回轉換,此種幾乎無從逾越的個人地位與親密關係,正足以說明她不同一般的口譯員角色,同時支撐作者針對中立性、顯身性、忠實性進行歷史化與相對化的研究。

This study focuses on Madame Chiang Kai-shek’s presence and participation at the Cairo Conference of 1943, particularly her “doubling” as a “lay interpreter,” a bilingual who plays the part despite a lack of formal training. At Cairo, she interpreted not only for her husband but also for U.S. President Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Churchill, which would be an extraordinary arrangement for today’s interpreting practitioners and researchers, for whom interpreter neutrality figures prominently. Besides neutrality, Madame Chiang Kai-shek’s doubling as interpreter also interrogates interpreter visibility and fidelity, two other defining aspects of the interpreter’s role as it has been idealized in codes of conduct and even to some extent in Interpreting Studies since its inception. A historical and archival approach is adopted; but the unavailability of primary sources—official transcripts or other direct records—leaves the study no other choice but to rely on secondary and even tertiary materials. Given that the Cairo Conference stood out as one of only a few summit meetings of Allied leaders during World War II, the study also compares Madame Chiang with other interpreters in diplomatic settings, to illustrate how she, first and foremost in her capacity as China’s First Lady, doubled as interpreter at Cairo. Like many of her counterparts, both in the past and today, Madame Chiang ended up performing extra roles—spokesperson, envoy, negotiator—while she was called upon to mediate cross-linguistic and cross-cultural interactions. But unlike almost all of her counterparts, who have mainly maintained a professional relationship with clients, Soong Mei-ling assumed, or shifted to and from, her extra roles in her capacity as wife, confidante, and political partner of the Generalissimo, and this almost unparalleled personal standing and intimacy explains her all but unique interpreting behavior and justifies a study to historicize and relativize values like neutrality, visibility, and fidelity.

Abstract …………………….……………………………….….………………..…..…. i
摘要 ……………………………………………….……………………..………….... iii
1. Introduction ……………………………………………………………..…………... 1
1.1 Aims of the Study …………………………………………………………..… 3
1.2 Overview ……………………………………………………..………………. 7
2. Literature Review ………………………………………………..…………….…... 13
2.1 Interpreting: Definition and Classification ………………………………….. 15
2.2 Interpreting: Historical Studies ……………………………………………… 17
2.3 Diplomatic Interpreting ……………………………………………….......… 23
2.4 The Role of the Interpreter ……………………………………………….…. 27
2.5 Summary …………………………………………………………………….. 41
3. Methodology …………………………………………………….………………..... 43
3.1 Historical and Archival Approach ……………………………….……..…… 43
3.2 Absence of Direct Records ……………………………………………..…… 47
3.3 Interpreting vs. Infringing on the Past ………………………………….…… 54
3.4 Focus on Dialogue Interpreting …………………………………………...… 56
3.5 Summary …………………………………………………………………….. 57
4. Historical Background …………………………………………………….……..… 59
4.1 Cairo Conference ………………………………………………….………… 60
4.2 Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek: ‘No can do’ …………………….……...… 64
4.3 Madame Chiang Kai-shek: An Unusual First Lady ………………….…...… 67
4.4 The Only Woman & the ‘Fourth Man’ …………..………………….……… 73
4.5 When She Was Not There ………………………………………………..… 76
4.6 Summary ……………………………………………………………………. 79
5. Discussion ………………………………………………………………………..… 81
5.1 Madame Chiang’s Performing and Shifting Roles at Cairo ….……………... 82
5.1.1 Not just any lay interpreter ………………...………..……………..… 82
5.1.2 Madame Chiang’s ‘changing hats’ at Cairo ….…………..……..…… 86
5.1.3 Interpreter role influenced by primary interlocutors ………..……..… 90
5.2 Interpreter Neutrality, Visibility, Fidelity ………………………………..…. 97
5.2.1 Interpreter neutrality ……………………………….….………..…… 97
5.2.2 Interpreter visibility ………………………………….…...…….…... 101
5.2.3 Interpreter fidelity ……………………….…………….……….…… 109
5.3 Summary ……………………………………………..……………….……. 117
6. Conclusion …………………………………………………………..……….…… 119
6.1 Review of Study Aims and Methodology ……………………………...….. 119
6.2 Summary of Key Findings …………………………………………………. 121
6.3 Implications and Future Research ………………………………………..... 125
7. References ……… …………………………………………………….……...….. 129
7.1 English References …………………………………………………...……. 129
7.2參考文獻…….………………………………………………………..…… 139


English References
Anderson, R.B.W. (2002). Perspectives on the role of interpreter. In F. Pochhacker & M. Schlesinger (Eds.), The Interpreting Studies Reader (pp. 209-215). London/New York: Routledge.
Angelelli, C.V. (2004a). Revisiting the Interpreter’s Role: A Study of Conference, Court, and Medical Interpreters in Canada, Mexico, and the United States. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Angelelli, C.V. & Baer, B.J. (2015). Researching Translation and Interpreting.
Abingdon/New York: Routledge.
Baigorri-Jalon, J. (2015). The history of the interpreting profession. In H. Mikkelson & R. Jourdenais (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Interpreting (pp. 11-24). Abingdon/New York: Routledge.
Bonner, W. (2013, June 1). History and IS—Broadening our view and understanding: actor–network theory as a methodology. Journal of Information Technology, 28. Retrieved from http://www.palgravejournals.com/jit/journal/v28/n2/full/jit20136a.html
Bonsal, S. (1946/2001). Suitors and Supplicants: The Little Nations at Versailles. Safety Harbor, FL: Simon Publications.
Bowen, D., & Bowen, M. (Eds.). (2008). Interpreting: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow (American Translators Association Scholarly Monograph Series IV). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing.
Bowen, M. et al. (1995). Interpreters and the making of history. In J. Delisle & J. Woodsworth (Eds.), Translators through History (pp. 245-273). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Bowles, H., Schlesinger, A.M., & Mellon, R.L. (2001). Jacqueline Kennedy: The White House Years: Selections from the John F. Kennedy Library and Museum. Boston/New York/London: Bulfinch Press.
Carr, E. H. (1962). What Is History? New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf.
Carton de Wiart, A. (1955). Happy Odyssey: The Memoirs of Lieutenant-General Sir Adrian Carton de Wiart. London: Pan Books.
Danchev, A., & Todman, D. (Eds.). (2001). Field Marshall Lord Alanbrooke, War Diaries, 1939-1945. Berkeley/Los Angeles: University of California Press.
DeLong, T. A. (2007). Madame Chiang Kai-shek and Miss Emma Mills: China’s first lady and her American friend. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company.
Donovan, S. (2007). Madame Chiang Kai-shek: Face of Modern China. Mankato, MN: Compass Point Books.
Ekvall, R. B. (1960). Faithful Echo. New Haven, CT: United Printing Services, Inc.
“First Lady In The U.S. May Be Interpreter” (May 16, 1961). A New York Herald Tribune report reprinted in The Ottawa Citizen, p. 25. Retrieved from https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=2194&dat=19610516&id=MC4yAAAAIBAJ&sjid=rOUFAAAAIBAJ&pg=7096,353310&hl=zh-TW
Feldweg, E. (1996). Der Konferenzdolmetscher im internationalen Kommunikationsprozes. Heidelberg: Groos.
Gall, M. D., Borg, W. R., & Gall, J.P. (1996). Educational Research (6th ed.). White Plains, NY: Longman Publishers USA.
George C. Marshall Foundation/Interview Notes/October 29, 1956 – Stilwell and China; relations with MacArthur, Churchill, the French, and Army Air Forces, p. 607. Retrieved from http://marshallfoundation.org/library/wp
content/uploads/sites/16/2014/05/Interview_10-29-56.pdf
Gill, J. and Laubach, S. (n.d.). Supporting claims while telling a good story. Retrieved from http://www.williamcronon.net/researching/arguing.htm
Goffman, E. (1959/1990). The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. London: Penguin.
Goffman, E. (1961). Encounters—Two Studies in the Sociology of Interaction. Indianapolis, NY: The Bobbs-Merrill Company.
Goffman, E. (1981). Forms of Talk. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Goodwin, D. K. (2013). No Ordinary Time: Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt: The Home Front in World War II. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.
Heiferman, R. I. (2011). The Cairo Conference of 1943: Roosevelt, Churchill, Chiang Kai-shek and Madame Chiang. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co.
Jespersen, T. C. (2005). Madame Chiang Kai-shek and the face of Sino-American relations: personality and gender dynamics in bilateral diplomacy. In S. C. Chu (Ed.), Madame Chiang Kai-shek and Her China (pp. 121-147). Norwalk, CT: EastBridge.
Kade, O. (1968). Zufall und Gesetzmasigkeit in der Ubersetzung. In Beiheft Fremdsprachen I. Leipzig: Verlag Enzyklopadie.
Kelen, E. (1963). Peace in Their Time: Men Who Led Us in and out of War
(1914-1945). New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf.
Keynes, J.M. (1949). Two Memoirs (Dr. Melchior: A Defeated Enemy & My Early Beliefs). New York/London: Augustus M. Kelley/Rupert Hart-Davis.
Knapp-Potthoff, A. and Knapp, K. (1986b). Interweaving two discourses—the difficult task of the non-professional interpreter. In J. House and S. Blum-Kulka (Eds.), Interlingual and Intercultural Communication: Discourse and Cognition in Translation and Second Language Acquisition Studies (pp. 151-168). Tubingen: Narr.
Kondo, M. (1990). What conference interpreters should not be expected to do. The Interpreters’ Newsletter, 3, 59-65.
Korchilov, I. (1997). Translating History: Thirty Years on the Front Lines of Diplomacy With a Top Russian Interpreter. New York, NY: Lisa Drew/Scribner.
Li, L.T. (2006). Madame Chiang Kai-shek: China’s Eternal First Lady. New York, NY: Atlantic Monthly Press.
Lichtman, A. J. & French, V. (1978). Historians and the Living Past: The Theory and
Practice of Historical Study. Arlington Heights, IL: AHM Publishing.
Liu, M. (2011). Methodology in interpreting studies. In B. Nicodemus & L. Swabey
(Eds.), Advances in Interpreting Research: Inquiry in Action (pp. 85-108). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Liu, X. (1996). A Partnership for Disorder. New York, NY: Cambridge University
Press.
Llewellyn-Jones, P. & Lee, R.G. (2013). Getting to the core of role: defining
interpreters’ role-space. International Journal of Interpreter Education, 5(2), 54-72.
Lung, R. (2011). Interpreters in Early Imperial China. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing.
Mitter, R. (2014). Forgotten Ally: China’s World War II, 1937-1945. New York, NY: Mariner Books.
Nicodemus, B. & Swabey, L. (2011). Advances in Interpreting Research: Inquiry in Action. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Pakula, H. (2009). The Last Empress: Madame Chiang Kai-shek and the Birth of Modern China. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.
Pochhacker, F., & Schlesinger, M. (Eds.). (2002). The Interpreting Studies Reader. London/New York: Routledge.
Pochhacker, F. (2004a). Introducing Interpreting Studies. London/NewYork: Routledge.
Pochhacker, F. (2005). Interpreters and ideology: from ‘between’ to ‘within.’ In TRANS. Internet-Zeitschrift fur Kulturwissenschaften, 16. Retrieved from http://www.inst.at/trans/16Nr/09_4/poechhacker16.htm
Pogue, F. C. (1973). George C. Marshall: Organizer of Victory 1943-1945. New York, NY: The Viking Press.
Roland, R.A. (1982). Translating World Affairs. Jefferson, NC: McFarland. Re-published in 1999 as Interpreters as Diplomats: A Diplomatic History of the Role of Interpreters in World Politics. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press.
Roosevelt, E. (1946). As He Saw It. New York, NY: Duell, Sloan and Pearce.
Roy, C.B. (1993/2002). The problem with definitions, descriptions, and the role metaphors of interpreters. Journal of Interpretation, 6 (1), 127-154. Reprinted in F. Pochhacker & M. Schlesinger (Eds.), The Interpreting Studies Reader (pp. 345-353). London/New York: Routledge.
Sainsbury, K. (1985). The Turning Point: Roosevelt, Stalin, Churchill and Chiang
Kai-shek, 1943. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Santoro, G. (2009, November 20). Hannah Pakula: A biographer traces the rise of Madame Chiang Kai-shek. HistoryNet.com. Retrieved from http://www.historynet.com/hannah-pakula-a-biographer-traces-the-rise-of-madame-chiang-kai-shek.htm
Snow, E. (1957). Random Notes on Red China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Takeda, K. (2007). Sociopolitical aspects of interpreting at the International Military Tribunal for the Far East (1946-1948). Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Spain.
Taylor, J. (2009). The Generalissimo: Chiang Kai-shek and the Struggle for Modern China. Cambridge: Belknap Press (Harvard University Press).
Tong, H. K. (1950). Dateline China: The Beginning of China’s Press Relations With the World. New York, NY: Rockport Press.
Torikai, K. M. (2006). Diplomatic interpreters in post-World War II Japan: voices of the invisible presence in foreign relations. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Southampton, Southampton.
Tuchman, B. (1970). Stilwell and the American Experience in China, 1911-45. Toronto/New York: Bantam Books.
United States Department of State/Foreign relations of the United States diplomatic papers, The Conferences at Cairo and Tehran, 1943, p. 72. Retrieved from http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/FRUS/FRUS-idx?type=turn&entity=FRUS.FRUS1943CairoTehran.p0164&id=FRUS.FRUS1943CairoTehran&isize=M
United States Department of State/Foreign relations of the United States diplomatic papers, The Conferences at Cairo and Tehran, 1943, p. 73. Retrieved from http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/FRUS/FRUS-idx?type=turn&entity=FRUS.FRUS1943CairoTehran.p0165&id=FRUS.FRUS1943CairoTehran&isize=M
United States Department of State/Foreign relations of the United States diplomatic papers, The Conferences at Cairo and Tehran, 1943, p. 322. Retrieved from
http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/FRUS/FRUS-idx?type=goto&id=FRUS.FRUS1943CairoTehran&isize=M&submit=Go+to+page&page=322
United States Department of State/Foreign relations of the United States diplomatic papers, The Conferences at Cairo and Tehran, 1943, p. 351. Retrieved from http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/FRUS/FRUS-idx?type=goto&id=FRUS.FRUS1943CairoTehran&isize=M&submit=Go+to+page&page=351
United States Department of State/Foreign relations of the United States diplomatic papers, The Conferences at Cairo and Tehran, 1943, p. 441. Retrieved from http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/FRUS/FRUS-idx?type=turn&id=FRUS.FRUS1943CairoTehran&entity=FRUS.FRUS1943CairoTehran.p0543&q1=h.h.%20kung
Wadensjo, C. (1995). Dialogue interpreting and the distribution of responsibility. Hermes, Journal of Linguistics, 14, 111-129.
Wadensjo, C. (1998). Interpreting as Interaction. London/New York: Longman.
Wadensjo, C. (2002). The double role of a dialogue interpreter. In F. Pochhacker & M. Schlesinger (Eds.), The Interpreting Studies Reader (pp. 355-369). London/New York: Routledge.
Williams, J., & Chesterman, A. (2002). The Map: a beginner’s guide to doing research in translation studies. Manchester: St. Jerome Publishing.
Wong, Lawrence Wang-chi (2007). Translators and interpreters during the Opium War between Britain and China (1839-1842). In Myriam Salama-Carr (Ed.), Translating and Interpreting Conflict (pp. 41-57). Amsterdam/New York: Rodopi.
Ziegler, P. (1985). Mountbatten. New York, NY: Knopf.

參考文獻
呂世浩 (2015)。帝國崛起:一場歷史的思辨之旅2。臺北市:平安文化。
沈劍虹 (1989)。半生憂患—沈劍虹回憶錄。臺北市:聯經出版。
林博文 (2000)。跨世紀第一夫人宋美齡。臺北市:時報出版。
林蔭庭 (2004)。尋找世紀宋美齡:一個紀錄片工作者的旅程。臺北市:天下遠見出版。
秦孝儀 (總編纂)。(1978)。總統 蔣公大事長編初稿卷五。台北:財團法人中正文教基金會。
梁敬錞 (1973) 。開羅會議。台北:臺灣商務印書館。
黃仁宇 (1994)。從大歷史的角度讀蔣介石日記。臺北市:時報出版。
楊天石 (2008)。找尋真實的蔣介石—蔣介石日記解讀。香港: 三聯書店。
習近平女兒習明澤 低調隨團當翻譯(民104 年9 月29 日)。聯合新聞網。取自
http://udn.com/news/story/8299/1215256-習近平女兒習明澤-低調隨團當翻譯
陳潔如 (1992) 。陳潔如回憶錄。台北:傳記文學出版社。


QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關論文
 
無相關期刊
 
無相關點閱論文
 
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔