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研究生:陳玟錞
研究生(外文):CHEN, MIN-CHUN
論文名稱:膨腹煙管蝸的親緣地理學
論文名稱(外文):Phylogeography of Hemiphaedusa ventriosa (Schmacker & Boettger, 1891)
指導教授:黃重期
指導教授(外文):HWANG, CHUNG-CHI
口試委員:葛孟杰何詩琥
口試委員(外文):GER, MANG-JYEHO, SHIH-HU
口試日期:2016-06-06
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄大學
系所名稱:生命科學系碩士班
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:62
中文關鍵詞:膨腹煙管蝸分類親緣地理學族群遺傳學
外文關鍵詞:Hemiphaedusa ventriosataxonomyphylogeographypopulation genetics
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本研究以分子特徵來探討煙管蝸科的膨腹煙管蝸Hemiphaedusa ventriosa (Schmacker & Boettger, 1891) 的分類地位與親緣地理學。本研究採集恆春半島17個樣點,共定序171隻膨腹煙管蝸,以粒線體DNA中的16S 核糖體RNA (16S rRNA) 之基因片段為遺傳標記,重建出單倍型 (haplotype) 的親緣關係樹。本研究結果顯示曾與膨腹煙管蝸視為同一種的白口煙管蝸Hemiphaedusa similaris (Adams, 1867) 屬於不同分支。此外,不同地區的膨腹煙管蝸在殼形上雖然有變異,但是從親緣樹來看仍然歸類在同一類群,因此確立了膨腹煙管蝸屬於獨立物種的地位。族群遺傳結構的分析顯示整體遺傳歧異度 (Hd值、π值) 都屬於偏高的數值,顯示膨腹煙管蝸有大且穩定的族群並擁有久遠的演化歷史,或是具有高度分歧之族群二次接觸後,造成譜系混雜的結果。由AMOVA分析結果顯示,膨腹煙管蝸族群有高度遺傳分化,推究其原因可能是物種本身較低的擴散能力以及地理隔離,使得族群間缺乏基因交流,造成較高的遺傳分化現象。在族群變動分析中,Tajima’s D中性假說測試結果顯示族群沒有受到選汰的影響,也沒有經歷族群擴張;而核苷酸變異分佈檢測結果顯示膨腹煙管蝸A、B兩大群曾經歷族群擴張。總結而論,膨腹煙管蝸族群擁有高度遺傳分化,形成A、B兩大族群,在應用上可以作為許多領域的基礎研究,像是生物學、保育遺傳學或是地質學等等。
The taxonomy and phylogeography of the clausilid land snail Hemiphaedusa ventriosa (Schmacker & Boettger, 1891) were studied by using molecular characteristics. Sequences of mtDNA 16S rRNA were examined from 171 individuals collected from 17 locations in Hengchun Peninsula as one molecular marker to build the phylogenetic trees of haplotypes showing that H. ventriosa differs from H. similaris (Adams, 1867), which were considered to be the same species. Hemiphaedusa ventriosa, along with geographical variations on shell morphology, are clustered on single clade. Therefore, we can identify H. ventriosa is an independent species. In addition, population genetic structure analysis shows high overall genetic diversities (Hd, π) indicating it is a large stable population with long evolutionary history or secondary contact between differentiated lineages. The result of AMOVA shows the existence of high genetic divergence among populations, which may be caused by the lack of gene flow resulted from weak mobility of the land snail or geographic isolation. The analyses of Tajima’s D and mismatch distribution show inconsistency on historic population expansion. Overall, populations of H. ventriosa have high divergence and differentiate into two groups. In applications, this research could offer the base information for other research areas like biology, conservation genetics or geology.
謝誌 I
第一章 前言 3
1.1研究物種介紹 3
1.1.1分類階層和簡介 3
1.1.2分類問題與歷史 4
1.2親緣地理學 5
1.3破碎化理論 7
1.4恆春半島的地形地貌 7
1.4.1簡介 7
1.4.2地形破碎化 9
1.5粒線體DNA與分子演化 11
1.6研究方向 12
第二章 材料與方法 13
2.1採樣 13
2.2純化及擴增DNA片段 13
2.2.1純化DNA 13
2.2.2擴增DNA片段-聚合酶連鎖反應 (PCR) 14
2.3資料分析 16
2.3.1序列整理 16
2.3.2親緣關係分析 16
2.3.3族群遺傳結構分析 18
2.3.4族群遺傳分析 19
2.3.5族群變動分析 19
第三章 結果 21
3.1親緣地理關係重建 21
3.2核苷酸組成分析 22
3.3族群內遺傳變異分析 22
3.4族群間遺傳變異分析 23
3.5族群變動分析 26
第四章 討論 27
4.1膨腹煙管蝸的親緣關係 27
4.1.1以分子角度看分類問題 27
4.1.2探討地理上膨腹煙管蝸族群間的親緣關係 29
4.2膨腹煙管蝸的遺傳結構與變異 31
4.3膨腹煙管蝸的族群分化與變動歷史 32
4.4 延伸應用 33
第五章 結論 34
第六章 參考文獻 35
第七章 圖與表 41

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