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研究生:趙梅蘭
研究生(外文):Chao,Mei-Lan
論文名稱:由競合角度分析航運策略聯盟之研究
論文名稱(外文):Co-opetition of Strategic Analysis in Shipping Industry
指導教授:姚成彥姚成彥引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yao,Chen-Yen
口試委員:洪新民葉承達
口試日期:2016-06-20
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:世新大學
系所名稱:企業管理研究所(含碩專班)
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:129
中文關鍵詞:定期航運策略聯盟競合策略賽局理論價值網
外文關鍵詞:Liner Shipping IndustryStrategic AllianceCo-opetition of StrategyGame TheoryValue Net
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  面臨全球經濟快速變遷且日趨複雜的航運環境,定期航商認知到自身資源與能力有限,很難再以單打獨鬥的方式生存,因此企業紛紛透過聯盟的方式與競爭者策略性合作來獲取更多的資源,降低風險,以開創新局。

  綜觀各產業對於競合議題有不少的研究,廣泛的運用於各個不同領域之中,反觀定期航運業對於聯盟成員間之競合研究相對稀少,而定期貨櫃航運受全球經濟影響甚鉅,因此聯盟成員之間的競合關係有著極其重要性,故本研究以Brandenburger and Nalebuff (1996) 提出的價值網與競合策略作為基礎,應用賽局理論探討航運聯盟之間的競爭與合作關係。首先分析全球定期航運的現況,接著以航運四大聯盟為研究對象,探討航運策略聯盟競合互動關係的展現,並以賽局五個基本要素之參賽者、附加價值、規則、戰術與範圍分析航運四大聯盟的競合策略,最後整理及歸納此產業之競合關係,並給予定期航運企業的策略建議。

  本研究由競合角度來探討航運策略聯盟之競合關係,根據國內外相關文獻以及透過航運企業的高階經理人深度訪談,詳細分析的研究結論如下:

一、各國反壟斷要求不同,航運聯盟監管亦有不同的審查結果。
二、船舶大型化及航運聯盟疊加施壓之下,降低航運成本將是各航運公司所面臨的主要課題。  
三、航運聯盟競合的附加價值,基於雙方互惠的原則下建立,聯盟合作已是時代的潮流,聯盟化、規模化是航運業的發展趨勢。
四、航運聯盟優勢與營運規則之相關性,航運聯盟的的規模經濟能降低單貨櫃運輸成本,增強航線運力和服務範圍達最大化。


Facing the change of rapid and increasingly complex shipping industry, Liner carriers acknowledge self of insufficient resource and ability. It is really hard to survive alone in this circumstance. Thus, numerous shipping companies have obtained more resource by strategic alliances in order to reduce the risk and create a breakthrough.

An overview of the situation shows that many kinds of industries have lots of researches regarding to coopetition and are widely used in various fields. By contrast, there are less coopetition researches between members for Liner shipping industry. Liner shipping are hugely impacted by the global economic. Therefore, the coopetition for the members of strategic alliance plays a very important role. So this study puts in use of game theory to explore the relationship of competition and cooperation between shipping alliance basis the value net and coopetition presented by Brandenburger and Nalebuff (1996). Firstly, it analyzes current situation of the global liner shipping and follows by the major four shipping alliances as the object of the study for discussing the coopetition of interactive relationship in between; The coopetition strategy of the four major shipping alliances is analyzed basis five elements against game theory as players, added values, rules, tactics and scope. At last, the study is organized and summarized the coopetition relationship of the industry and given strategic policy for the liner shipping companies.
  
In this study, we explore the coopetition relationship of shipping strategic alliances from coopetitive way. According to relevant domestic and international literature and in-depth interviews with senior managers of shipping companies, we draw the conclusions as follows:

1. Due to different demands of anti-trust policy in each countries, shipping alliances have different results of the review.

2. Along with the double pressures of trends of the enlargement of containerships and shipping alliances, cost-cutting will be the main topic for each shipping company.

3. The added value of shipping alliance coopetition is built basis on the mutual-beneficial as the principle. Alliance cooperation is already the trend of the times; Furthermore, federalization and scalability are developmental trends of shipping industry.

4. The correlation between Shipping alliance’s advantages and operation rules: the economies of scale of shipping alliance can lower the cost of single containerization, and increase lines’ capacity and maximize the scope of services.



目次
中文摘要 i
英文摘要 ii
目次 iv
表次 vi
圖次 vii
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景 1
第二節 研究動機 3
第三節 研究目的 7
第四節 研究流程 8
第二章 文獻探討 9
第一節 策略聯盟 9
壹、 策略聯盟的定義 10
貳、 策略聯盟的分類 13
參、 策略聯盟的優點 18
肆、 海運策略聯盟的優勢 20
伍、 策略聯盟的衝突 21
陸、 策略聯盟的特色 22
柒、 海運策略聯盟的型式 24
第二節 競合 26
壹、 競合的定義 26
貳、 競合的分類 31
參、 競合的優點 32
肆、 競合的風險 33
伍、 競合的內涵 34
第三章 航運策略聯盟之發展與全球定期航運現況 36
第一節 航運策略聯盟之發展 36
壹、 航運策略聯盟的演進 36
貳、 航運策略聯盟對市場的影響 40
第二節 全球定期航運現況 41
壹、 定期航運經營與產業特性 44
貳、定期航運發展趨勢 45
第四章 研究方法 47
第一節 研究方法選擇考量 47
第二節 個案研究法 48
第三節 案例選擇 50
第四節 資料蒐集 51
第五節 研究架構 53
第五章 研究結果 54
第一節 個案聯盟組織介紹 54
第二節 2M聯盟競合策略分析 70
第三節 G6聯盟競合策略分析 76
第四節 CKYHE聯盟競合策略分析 82
第五節 O3聯盟競合策略分析 90
第六章 結論與建議 99
第一節 研究結論 99
第二節 對航運聯盟的策略建議 104
第三節 研究限制與未來研究建議 105
參考文獻 107

表次
表 1-1 全球貨櫃航運四大聯盟 ....................................... 3
表 2-1 策略聯盟定義彙整表 .........................................11
表 2-2 策略聯盟分類表 .............................................17
表 3-1 海運聯盟發展表 (1996-2011年) ...............................39
表 3-2 2015 年全球前二十五大定期航商 ..............................43
表 4-1 五種社會科學研究方法 .......................................49
表 4-2 本研究深度訪談之對象 .......................................52
表 5-1 CKYHE與O3聯盟航班表 (遠東-歐洲航線) ........................65
表 5-2 CKYHE與O3聯盟航班表 (遠東-地中海航線) ......................66
表 5-3 2014 年定期航商策略聯盟運能表 ..............................69
表 6-1 航運聯盟之競合策略 ........................................103

圖次
圖 1-1 研究流程圖 ................................................. 8
圖 2-1 價值網 .....................................................28
圖 2-2 動態競合示意圖 .............................................32
圖 3-1 全球貨櫃船vs全球貨量成長趨勢圖 .............................42
圖 3-2 定期貨櫃船舶發展趨勢圖 .....................................46
圖 4-1 個案研究法研究步驟 .........................................50
圖 4-2 研究架構圖 .................................................53
圖 5-1 各聯盟合作航線運能表 (遠東-歐洲航線) .......................55
圖 5-2 全球前二十大定期貨櫃航商競爭格局 ...........................59
圖 5-3 各聯盟合作航線運能表 (遠東-美國航線) .......................62
圖 5-4 2015 年四大聯盟占太平洋航線運力市場份額 ....................68
圖 5-5 2M 聯盟價值網關係架構 ......................................71
圖 5-6 全球班輪船隊貨櫃量及市場份額統計表 .........................73
圖 5-7 G6 聯盟價值網關係架構 ......................................77
圖 5-8 2015 年主要定期貨櫃航商營業利潤表 ..........................79
圖 5-9 CKYHE 聯盟價值網關係架構 ...................................83
圖 5-10 定期貨櫃上市公司相對價值表 .................................85
圖 5-11 O3 聯盟價值網關係架構 ......................................91
圖 5-12 定期貨櫃航商季度平均營業利潤表 (2009-2015年) ...............93

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