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研究生:韓禹廷
研究生(外文):YU TING HAN
論文名稱:狹窄空間側傾坐姿之擺位與支撐
論文名稱(外文):Supporting Strategy of Lateral Recumbent Position on Cabinet Seat for Ischial Tuberosity Pressure Relief
指導教授:黃子坤黃子坤引用關係
口試委員:范政揆廖學書
口試日期:2016-07-07
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北科技大學
系所名稱:工業設計系創新設計碩士班(碩士在職專班)
學門:設計學門
學類:綜合設計學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:支撐擺位坐姿卸壓狹窄空間側傾坐姿
外文關鍵詞:Pressure relief
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久坐不動使肌肉長期處於緊張與收縮的狀態,造成血液循環不良,無法提供組織養分,進而引起組織疼痛甚至壓瘡。一般人時常變換姿態來舒緩坐骨下方的壓力,若以血氧飽和度做變換姿勢的標準,需每8分鐘改變姿態(Reenalda,2009),而組織恢復所需最少時間為3至5分鐘(Makhsous,2007)。
本研究針對長途交通工具使用者,探討狹窄空間坐姿變換姿態的可能性,以滿足臀部短暫卸壓(3至5分鐘)之可能性,並提出以「側傾坐姿」來改變坐壓受力面,藉此轉換臀部所承受的壓力。在狹窄空間執行「側傾坐姿」需要考量頭頸、腰背部及下肢之支撐輔助,其中以下肢之支撐輔助較為特殊。本研究進行「側傾坐姿」擺位(positioning)之姿態平衡分析,並測試各種下肢擺位及支撐輔助之可行性(feasibility)。其中包括側傾坐姿在不同下肢之支撐輔助時之重心(center of pressure, CoP)位移幅度(the amount of sway)以檢測「側傾坐姿」之姿態穩定(postural stability)績效,並進行臀部壓力量測與主觀舒適度評估。
研究發現當人們採取側傾坐姿時,藉由適當的支撐輔助,靈活的下肢擺位策略有助於姿態平衡,亦即,得以穩定地維持側傾坐姿,且遠超過坐骨粗隆及周圍的組織卸壓所需的5分鐘。由於側傾坐姿所需之下肢擺位支撐輔助迴異於一般腳踏板設計,即側傾坐姿中雙腳之落點具高度差,因此,本研究針對「側傾坐姿」下肢擺位之支撐輔助提出腳踏板之設計建議,可提供狹窄座位空間更多姿態變換的選擇。
The lack of posture shifts that causes intense muscles, and stops blood from returning back, may cause blood colts and thrombosis in vein. In order to recover tissue oxygenation value while sitting, people need to adjust posture every 8 minutes (Reenalda, 2009), and the least time period for tissue recovery are 200-300 seconds (Makhsous, 2007).
This thesis focus on possibilities of sitting posture shifts in a tightly spaced cabinet seat, and proposes supporting strategy of lateral recumbent posture in a cabinet seat for ischial tuberosity pressure relief. The supporting strategy of lateral recumbent posture includes nect, back and lower limbs supports in which lower limbs support requires special setting-up. In order to evaluate the feasibility of the lower limbs’ supporting strategy, postural stability tests are conducted to measure the sway of CoP (center of pressure), buttock pressure distribution, and subjective local discomfort rating.
The study shows that flexible lower limbs positioning and support improves postural stability of lateral recumbent posture, which makes sitting posture shifts in a tightly spaced cabinet seat feasible and viable.
中文摘要 i
英文摘要 iii
致謝 iv
目錄 v
表目錄 vii
圖目錄 viii
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景與動機 1
1.2研究目的 2
1.3研究範圍與限制 2
1.4研究流程與架構 4
第二章 文獻探討 5
2.1坐姿生物力學 5
2.1.1 坐姿臀部壓力負荷 5
2.1.2 臀部組織受壓與細胞壞死 6
2.1.3 受壓組織復原所需之時間 7
2.1.4 姿態平衡理論 9
2.1.5 脊椎生物力學 10
2.1.6 坐姿與脊椎的關聯 11
2.1.7 動態坐姿與支撐輔助 14
2.2 現有坐姿洩壓相關研究 15
2.2.1 自身擺位策略 17
2.2.2 坐面與椅背傾斜 17
2.2.3 臀部與大腿交替減壓 17
2.2.4 跪式坐姿 18
2.3側傾坐姿 18
2.4小結 21
第三章 側傾坐姿穩定性之支撐輔助設計 22
3.1 側傾坐姿穩定性因素分析 22
3.1.1 姿態調整因素 22
3.1.2 硬體設計因素 24
3.1.3 下肢擺位因素 27
3.2下肢擺位支撐輔助之概念發展與分析 27
3.2.1 現有下肢支撐輔助形式調查 27
3.2.2 飛航座椅人因尺度調查 28
3.2.3 下肢擺位支撐輔助之概念發展 30
3.3側傾坐姿穩定性支撐輔助概念發展小結 32
第四章 研究方法 32
4.1 研究假設 33
4.2 實驗方法 33
4.3 壓力中心(CoP) 34
4.4 舒適度評估與量測方法 35
4.4.1 問卷設計 35
4.4.2 實驗設備與環境配置 36
4.4.3 受測者定義 38
第五章 試驗與分析 40
5.1 下肢擺位對側傾坐姿穩定性之影響 40
5.2 不同下肢擺位之主觀舒適度差異 44
5.3 小結 45
第六章 結論 46
6.1 機艙座椅踏板之設計分析 46
6.1.1 側傾坐姿下肢擺位支撐輔助尺度規範 46
6.1.2 機艙座椅材料調查 48
6.2 側傾坐姿下肢擺位支撐輔助之設計建議 49
6.3 後續發展與建議 51
參考文獻 52
英文
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