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研究生:蘇品涵
研究生(外文):Pin-Han Su
論文名稱:以空氣間隙式薄膜蒸餾結晶法製備硫酸鎳晶體之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Preparation of Nickel Sulfate Crystals by Air-Gap Membrane Distillation Crystallization Technology
指導教授:蔡德華
指導教授(外文):Teh-Hua Tsai
口試委員:張裕祺郭文正蘇至善洪桂彬
口試日期:2016-07-04
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北科技大學
系所名稱:化學工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:化學工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:粒徑分布聚四氟乙烯硫酸鎳膜蒸餾結晶空氣間隙式薄膜蒸餾薄膜蒸餾
外文關鍵詞:Crystal size distributionNickel sulfateMembrane distillation–crystallizationPolytetrafluoro- ethyleneAir-Gap Membrane DistillationMembrane Distillation
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薄膜蒸餾屬於一種新型的膜分離技術,相對於其他膜分離過程的主要優勢之一是受溶液濃度的影響較小,因此可以處理高濃度的水溶液。將薄膜蒸餾應用於結晶過程中的溶劑脫除,可將溶劑蒸發與溶質結晶分開進行,由於薄膜蒸餾的操作條件及跨膜通量的可控制性,使溶質在適當的飽和濃度下結晶析出,能得到粒徑分布較均勻的晶體產品。
本論文探討以空氣間隙式薄膜蒸餾結晶系統,對硫酸鎳飽和水溶液進行濃縮並收集硫酸鎳晶體,分析不同操作條件下的滲透水通量及晶體品質。
實驗之薄膜選擇為聚四氟乙烯(PTFE)膜,進料液為硫酸鎳溶液,改變熱流溫度、熱流進料體積、進料濃度、進料飽和濃度,由實驗結果顯示最佳操作條件:熱流流量9 L/min、熱流溫度70 C,冷流流量固定為5 L/min,冷流溫度固定為20 C。
Membrane distillation(MD) is a new membrane separation technology, which can handle aqueous solution with extremely high concentration, because, unlike the other membrane processes, the solution concentration has less effect on the performance of MD. The evaporation of solvent and the crystallization of solute can be separated, if MD was used to the remote of solvent. The stable operation condition and well remote control make it possible that the crystallization occurs on the right supersaturation, and thus, crystal products with good CSD might be produced.
In this study, by measuring the permeate fluxand crystal quality in condensingthesaturated aqueous solution of nickel sulfate and collecting nickel sulfate crystals under different operating conditions in the AGMDC system.
According to the experimental, we use PTFE membrane,we have variables.Such as the different feed temperature,feed flow rate, feedconcentration, Solubility fraction, according to the experimental, we find the optimal operating conditions in the AGMD system:hot flow 9 L/min, heat temperature 70C, and cold flow 5 L/min, cold temperature 20C。
摘要 i
Abstract ii
誌謝 iv
表目錄 viii
圖目錄 ix
第一章 緒論 1
1.1前言 1
1.2研究動機與目的 2
1.3研究架構 3
1.4硫酸鎳物理及化學性質 5
第二章 文獻回顧 6
2.1薄膜蒸餾簡介 6
2.1.1薄膜蒸餾指標 7
2.1.2薄膜蒸餾之優點 8
2.2薄膜蒸餾各類型介紹 9
2.2.1直接接觸式薄膜蒸餾 9
2.2.2空氣間隙式薄膜蒸餾 10
2.2.3空氣掃掠式薄膜蒸餾 10
2.2.4真空式薄膜蒸餾 10
2.3薄膜介紹 12
2.4薄膜蒸餾之傳輸機制 13
2.4.1質量傳輸機制 15
2.4.1.1 Knudsen diffusion model 15
2.4.1.2 Poiseuille diffusion model(Viscous diffusion model) 18
2.4.1.3 Molecular diffusion model 21
2.4.1.4複合性之質傳機制 24
2.4.2熱量傳輸機制 25
2.4.3極化現象 31
2.5結晶技術簡介 34
2.6薄膜蒸餾結晶法 34
2.6.1典型薄膜蒸餾結晶程序 34
2.6.2結晶器型態 35
第三章 實驗部分 37
3.1實驗器材與藥品 37
3.1.1實驗藥品 37
3.1.2 實驗設備及器材 38
3.1.3薄膜特性與薄膜蒸餾結晶設備 41
3.2實驗方法與步驟 42
3.2.1硫酸鎳之溶解度曲線 42
3.2.2薄膜蒸餾實驗 43
3.2.3薄膜蒸餾結晶實驗 44
3.3實驗流程圖 45
第四章 結果與討論 46
4.1硫酸鎳溶解度曲線 46
4.2薄膜蒸餾流體特性之影響 47
4.2.1進料濃度與熱流體積之影響 47
4.2.1.1進料液濃縮之效果 51
4.2.1.2滲透端之結果 54
4.2.2進料溫度之影響 60
4.3薄膜蒸餾結晶之實驗結果 63
4.3.1結晶產量及粒徑分佈 67
4.3.2薄膜蒸餾結晶之效率分析 72
第五章 結論 78
參考文獻 79
符號說明 85
附錄 88
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