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研究生:曾俊凱
研究生(外文):Chun-Kai Tseng
論文名稱:市場導向與產品優勢對新產品績效影響之研究—行銷人員與技術人員主導新產品發展活動之干擾效果初探
論文名稱(外文):The Impact of Market Orientation and Product Advantage on New Product Performance - The Moderating Effect of Marketing and Technical Personnel
指導教授:吳斯偉吳斯偉引用關係蔡瑤昇蔡瑤昇引用關係
口試委員:蔡瑤昇吳斯偉耿慶瑞蔡木霖廖森貴王俊人劉代洋
口試日期:2016-06-01
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺北科技大學
系所名稱:管理學院管理博士班
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:其他商業及管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:技術人員行銷人員新產品績效產品優勢市場導向
外文關鍵詞:technical personnelmarketing personnelnew product performanceproduct advantagemarket orientation
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市場導向對新產品績效影響之研究已被學者、產業界連續討論多年。有實證研究發現,市場導向與新產品績效間的關係為弱相關,或者甚至不相關。本研究分析過去文獻發現,有些研究認為公司競爭優勢若來自於對市場的瞭解,則市場導向及創新導向對新產品績效會帶來正向的影響;但有研究卻認為,對於競爭優勢來自於優異產品特性的公司而言,其產品優勢才是影響新產品績效的最重要因素。其中有學者提到市場導向或產品優勢對新產品績效之間的關係,需要加入其他變數來探討與新產品績效之間的不確定關係。由於國內外對於此議題的探討相當少見,因此,本研究希望透過個案研究方式,探討個案公司在發展新產品時,若以市場導向或產品優勢為基礎,加入由行銷人員或技術人員主導新產品發展活動的變數,對於所產生的新產品績效與市場導向或產品優勢之間會有什麼干擾效果。
本研究針對個案公司的四個事業部門—包括菸、酒、啤酒與生技事業部,以過去的新產品專案為研究範圍,與行銷、生產或研發技術相關人員進行訪談,探討各新產品專案在發展新產品競爭優勢時,所思考的市場導向或產品優勢為基礎,以及這些競爭優勢來源與新產品績效之間的關係。
針對研究結果,本研究依據研究發現提出下列命題:
一、新產品概念來源過度聚焦於高階主管,不利於新產品構想的形成。
二、產品優勢的公司必須同樣重視市場導向的組織文化與機制的設計。
三、新產品的上市目標必須具有效性且要與新產品績效評估連結。
四、時間績效是新產品績效衡量的重要評估標準。
五、新產品績效衡量標準應視產品特性與產業特性調整以免錯誤評估。
六、只重視產品線延伸式的新產品發展不利於公司的銷售成長。
七、若競爭優勢的形成是基於市場導向時,由技術人員所主導新產品發展的新產品績效,會較優於行銷人員所主導新產品發展的新產品績效。
八、若競爭優勢的形成是基於產品優勢時,由行銷人員所主導之新產品發展的新產品績效會較優於技術人員所主導之新產品發展的新產品績效。
The empirical research on market orientation effects on new product performance has been discussed for years by scholars and industries. Some empirical research has found very weak or even no relation between market orientation and new product performance. By analyzing former documentation, the study discovers that some research indicated if the competitive advantage of corporate derives from its understanding of markets, market orientation and innovation orientation will bring positive effects on new product performance. However, some research indicated that, to those businesses whose competitive advantages from their superior characteristics of products, their product advantages were the critical factor affecting their new product performance. Some scholars mentioned the relation between market orientation/product advantage and new product performance. Other variables should be considered to investigate the uncertain relations among them. Few studies are involved the subject both in Taiwan and abroad. As a result, the study is aimed to, by case study, investigate the moderating effects to market orientation and new product performance when marketing or technical personnel respectively lead new product development activities based on market orientation or new product performance.
Cases in this study involved four business units – Department of Tobacco, Department of Wine and Liquor, Department of Beer and Department of Bio-technology. The research was made in the range of former new product projects. By interviewing with personnel in marketing, production, research & development departments, the study investigated whether new product projects were based on the consideration of market orientation or product advantage when exploring the product advantage of competitiveness, as well as the relation between the origin of competitive advantage and new product performance.
Based on the results of research, the following topics are proposed:
1. The origin of new product concepts tilting excessively to the high-ranking management is unfavorable to the formation of new product concepts.
2. Businesses with product advantage should place importance on both cooperate culture and its mechanism design of market orientation.
3. The goals of new products should be effective and should be linked with performance evaluation.
4. Time efficiency is a critical standard of evaluation for new products performance.
5. The evaluation standard of new products performance should be adjusted according to the product and the industry characteristics to avoid improper evaluation.
6. Over emphasis on the new product development originating from extension of existing products is unfavorable to the sales development of a business.
7. If the formation of competitive advantage is based on market orientation, the product performance of new product development dominated by technical personnel is superior to that dominated by marketing personnel.
8. If the formation of competitive advantage is based on product advantage, the product performance of new product development dominated by marketing personnel is superior to that dominated by the technical personnel.
目 錄

中文摘要 i
英文摘要 iii
誌謝 vi
目錄 vii
表目錄 ix
圖目錄 x
第一章 前言 1
1.1 研究動機與背景 1
1.2 研究目的 2
1.3 研究範圍 3
1.4 論文大綱 3
1.5 研究流程 4
第二章 文獻探討 5
2.1 行銷導向與市場導向 5
2.2 產品優勢 8
2.3 新產品績效 10
2.3.1 新產品之定義與分類 10
2.3.2 新產品績效的研究 12
2.4 市場導向與產品優勢對新產品績效之關係 16
第三章 研究方法 19
    3.1 研究架構 19
3.2 資料收集 21
3.2.1 資料收集方法 21
3.2.2 個案研究法 22
3.2.3 研究個案、新產品專案與受訪者選擇訪談大綱 23
3.2.4 實施方式 34
3.2.5 訪談大綱 34
3.2.6 資料整理與分析 36
第四章 個案分析 37
4.1 個案公司新產品發展上市作業 37
4.2 新產品績效 47
4.3 新產品專案之市場導向與新產品優勢 55
4.4 行銷或技術人員主導新產品發展之干擾效果 66
第五章 結論與建議 79
5.1 研究結論與命題 79
5.2 學術貢獻 85
5.3 實務管理意涵 86
5.4 研究限制與後續研究建議 93
參考文獻 96
附錄 個案公司產品介紹 106
1.1 菸類市場現況及新產品開發 106
1.2 酒類市場現況及新產品開發 108
1.3 啤酒市場現況及新產品開發 112
1.4 生技產品市場現況及新產品開發 114、表目錄

表1 各種訪談法............ 21
表2 新產品專案基本資料............. 25
表3 各新產品專案訪談對象.............. 33
表4 受訪者對本研究所選取成功或失敗新產品專案之意見.............. 48
表5 各新產品專案的優勢來源.............. 65
表6 新產品專案由行銷/技術人員主導.......... 77、圖目錄

圖1 研究流程................................................ 4
圖2 研究架構................................................ 20
圖3 個案研究類型................................................ 23
圖4 個案公司新產品發展上市作業流程規範................................................ 38
圖5 個案公司近10年營收情況................................................ 84
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