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研究生:張書榮
研究生(外文):Shu-Jung Chang
論文名稱:改良型半盲式通道估測法應用於單載波分頻多工存取系統
論文名稱(外文):Using the Modified Semi-Blind Channel Estimation in SC-FDMA Systems
指導教授:曾德樟
口試委員:譚旦旭陸清達曾德樟
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北科技大學
系所名稱:電子工程系研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:104
中文關鍵詞:單載波分頻多工存取、半盲式通道估測、長期演進技術、類神經網路
外文關鍵詞:SC-FDMA、Semi-blind channel estimation、Long Term Evolution
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在無線通訊系統中,訊號傳遞易受多路徑傳輸通道之干擾,造成接收端訊號品質下降,使得系統錯誤率增加。要克服此問題,通常可透過通道估測技術,估測出正確之通道響應,以利降低接收端之位元錯誤率。一般通道估測技術分為三類:領航式估測法、盲式估測法及半盲式估測法。半盲式通道估測法之效能介於領航式和盲式通道估測法,此方法是在傳輸訊號中插入極少量的領航訊號,不但可以提高資料傳輸量,也能護得較可靠的已知資訊。因此本論文以半盲式通道估測法應用於單載波分頻多工存取(Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access, SC-FDMA)系統進行通道估測效能之研究。
為提升半盲式通道估測效能,本文提出兩種改良型通道估測法,方法一為先利用最小平方(Least Square, LS)估測法計算出通道頻率響應的初值,接著使用線性最小均方誤差(Linear Minimum Mean Square Error, LMMSE)法以求出完整之通道頻率響應,再以奇異值分解簡化通道響應之相關矩陣。方法二是先利用MMSE估測法估測出領航訊號的通道頻率響應,再使用幅狀基底函數網路(Radial-Basis Function Network, RBFN)做內插,以求出完整之通道頻率響應。由實驗結果顯示,本文所提出的兩種改良型半盲式估測法效能均優於最小平方樣條內插(Least Square Spline Interpolation, LS-Spline)估測法、最小平方線性內插(Least Square Linear Interpolation, LS- Linear)估測法及傳統MMSE估測法。
In wireless communication systems, signal transmission suffers from multipath channel interference caused the quality decay of the receiver signal so that the system error rate is increased. To overcome this problem, channel estimation techniques can be employed. Channel estimation technology is divided into pilot-aided channel estimation method, semi-blind channel estimation method and blind channel estimation method. The performance of the pilot-aided channel estimation method is better than that of the semi-blind channel estimation method. However, the semi-blind channel estimation method can effectively save the transmission bandwidth due to not using the pilot symbols in transmission data. In this thesis we mainly study the performance of semi-blind channel estimation in SC-FDMA systems.
Two modified semi-blind channel estimation methods are proposed in this thesis. Method 1 uses the least square (LS) method to estimate the initial value of the channel frequency response. Then both linear minimum mean square error (LMMSE) algorithm and singular value decomposition (SVD) algorithm are used to reduce the complexity of the channel estimation. Method 2 the first applies the minimum mean square error (MMSE) algorithm to estimate the channel frequency response of pilots. Then the radial-basis function network (RBFN) is used to interpolate the channel frequency response of data signals. Experimental results show that considerably improved performance can be achieved in terms of bit error rate (BER), compared to the conventional semi-blind channel estimation methods, such as, least square spline (LS-spline) interpolation, least square linear (LS-linear) interpolation and MMSE.
摘 要 i
ABSTRACT ii
誌 謝 iv
目 錄 v
表目錄 vii
圖目錄 viii
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 研究背景與動機 1
1.3 論文架構 3
第二章 長期演進技術上行鏈路系統架構 4
2.1 簡介 4
2.2 正交分頻多工系統 4
2.2.1 單載波與多載波傳輸 5
2.2.2 正交分頻多工原理與架構 6
2.2.3 保護區間與循環字首 10
2.2.4 正交分頻多工存取技術原理 11
2.3 單載波分頻多工存取系統簡介 13
2.3.1 單載波分頻多工原理與架構 13
2.3.2 子載波映射方式 14
2.3.3 SC-FDMA系統與OFDMA系統之異同 16
2.4 通道模型 17
2.5 通道估測技術 22
第三章 通道估測演算法 24
3.1 最小平方(LS)演算法 24
3.1.1 內插方式介紹 26
3.2 最小均方誤差(MMSE)演算法 28
3.3 提出方法一 (Method 1) 31
3.3.1 奇異值分解(SVD)演算法 32
3.3.2 線性最小均方誤差(LMMSE)估測法 33
3.4 提出方法二 (Method 2) 36
3.4.1 類神經網路之基本概念 38
3.4.2 神經網路的工作原理 39
3.4.3 輻狀基底函數類神經網路 40
第四章 模擬實驗結果與討論 43
4.1 通道特性與系統參數之設定 43
4.2 不同實驗通道環境及子載波映射之性能比較 45
4.2.1 4RA通道環境下之實驗結果 45
4.2.2 6TU通道環境下之實驗結果 51
第五章 結論與未來展望 57
參考文獻 58
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