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研究生:彭楷霖
研究生(外文):Kai-Lin Peng
論文名稱:能量回收與自適應性電壓控制策略應用於可調光RGB LED驅動器
論文名稱(外文):Energy Recycling and Adaptive Output Voltage Control Schemes in Dimmable RGB LED Driver
指導教授:劉邦榮
指導教授(外文):Pang-Jung Liu
口試委員:彭盛裕陳景然胡國英劉邦榮
口試日期:2016-07-26
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北科技大學
系所名稱:電機工程系所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:能量回收電路自適應回授控制返馳式功因校正電路LED驅動器
外文關鍵詞:Energy Recycling CircuitAdaptive Feedback ControlFlyback PFC CircuitLED Driver
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本論文為交流-直流轉換器提供定電壓於LED應用。根據能源之星和IEC-61000-3-2:Class-C的安全規範,LED驅動器需有高功因值(Power Factor)及低總電流諧波失真(THD),所以交流-直流轉換器需具備功因校正(PFC)功能。
為了避免市電漣波造成的閃爍(Flicker),我們使用電流調節器。但是採定電壓驅動,將造成電流調節器上多餘的功率損耗。LED導通跨壓會隨溫度增加而減小。此外,因為材質不同,紅光與綠光/藍光的LED導通跨壓也有所不同。如此會增加電流調節器的跨壓,而產生更多的額外功耗。
為了提昇效率,我們採用自適應回授(Adaptive Feedback)控制調整輸出電壓,使得電流調節器的跨壓維持在最小值。然而PFC轉換器的頻寬有限,使得自適應回授機制受到限制。因此,我們加入從級轉換器,以加速改變輸出電壓位準。
本論文LED驅動器架構包含單級PFC轉換器、電流調節器及從級直流-直流轉換器。我們使用控制IC L6561實現返馳式PFC轉換器,而從級轉換器使用TI的DSP TMS320F28335來實現。當需改變輸出電壓時,從級轉換器操作於升壓模式以吸收輸出電容電荷,或操作於降壓模式以注入電荷於輸出電容。
PFC轉換器輸入交流電壓有效值為85 V到140 V、輸出電壓40 V至50 V、輸出電流350 mA、最小切換頻率50 kHz,且輸出電容820 μF。從級轉換器最大輸出電壓為120 V,最大切換頻率300 kHz,且輸出電容200 μF。實驗結果顯示滿載時(導通時間紅光33%、綠光33%、藍光33%),不加入所提機制之輸入功率21 W,但是加入機制之輸入功率15.2 W,減少6.1 W消耗功率。在輸出電壓為41.2 V的整體效率有94.2%。結果說明所提之控制方式可降低功率消耗,提升效率。
This thesis presents that a single-stage AC-DC converter supplies a constant voltage for LED applications. Based on the safety specifications of Energy Start and IEC 61000-3-2:Class-C, LED driver should have high power factor and low total harmonic distortion, so the AC-DC converter requires power factor correction function.
To avoid flickers caused by line ripple in output voltage, we adopt linear current regulators. However, using constant voltage driving will cause additional power losses on linear current regulators. As the temperature of LEDs increase, the forward voltage of LEDs decreases. Moreover, due to different materials of RGB LEDs, the forward voltages across RGB LEDs are also different. Therefore, the voltages across the current regulators increase, and more additional power dissipations are generated.
To enhance power efficiency, we apply adaptive feedback control to adjust output voltage for maintaining the voltage across the current regulator at the minimum value. However, the bandwidth of the PFC converter is limited, so the effect of the adaptive control is reduced. As a result, a slave converter is added to accelerate the level change of the output voltage.
In this thesis, LED driver consists of a single-stage PFC converter, current regulators, and a slave dc-dc converter. We employ a control IC L6561 to implement flyback PFC converter, and the slave converter is realized with TI’s DSP TMS320F28335. When the output voltage needs to be changed, the slave converter is operating in boost mode for absorbing charge from output capacitor and in buck mode for injecting charge to output capacitor.
The specifications of the PFC converter are input ac voltage range of 85-140 V, output voltage of 40-50 V, output current of 350 mA, minimum switching frequency of 50 kHz and output capacitor of 820 μF. The specifications of the slave converter are maximum output voltage of 120 V, maximum frequency of 300 kHz, output capacitor of 200 μF. The experimental results show that the input power of the full load (conduction time Red 33%, Green 33%, Blue 33%) without the proposed methods is 21 W, but that of the full load with the proposed controls is 15.2 W, reducing input power 6.1 W. The overall efficiency is 94.2% at output voltage 41.2 V. The results demonstrate the proposed control methods reduce power consumption, so as to enhance efficiency.
摘要 i
ABSTRACT iii
誌謝 v
目錄 vi
圖目錄 ix
表目錄 xii
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機與目的 1
1.2 文獻討論與比較 4
1.2.1 自適應性控制文獻 4
1.2.2 能量回收電路文獻 11
1.3 論文概述 17
第二章 轉換器電路介紹 18
2.1 功率因數修正電路簡介 18
2.1.1功率因數校正之概念 18
2.1.2 返馳式PFC基本架構與原理 23
2.2升降壓型轉換器簡介 28
2.2.1 降壓操作模式 28
2.2.2 升壓操作模式 31
2.2.3 遲滯電流控制及脈波頻率調變方法 34
第三章 LED驅動及調光介紹40
3.1 LED簡介 40
3.2 驅動方式 43
3.2.1 定電壓驅動 43
3.2.2 定電流驅動 45
3.3 調光及顯示方式 47
3.3.1 類比直流調光 47
3.3.2 脈波寬度調變調光 48
3.3.3 循序顏色顯示 49
第四章 自適應性電壓與能量回收控制 53
4.1 自適應性電壓調節控制 53
4.1.1 輸出電壓與LED導通電壓關係 53
4.1.2 自適應性輸出電壓調節機制 55
4.2 能量回收電路控制 58
4.2.1 能量回收與LED導通電壓關係 58
4.2.2 能量回收協調機制 59
4.3 緩啟動和預充電控制 63
4.4 程式規劃與控制流程圖 64
第五章 LED驅動器電路設計 68
5.1 系統架構 68
5.2 返馳式PFC設計 69
5.3 升降壓轉換器設計 75
5.4 線性電流調節電路及調光電路設計 78
第六章 實驗結果與探討 80
6.1 緩啟動及預充之實測波形 80
6.2 輸出電壓自適應調節之實測波形 81
6.3 能量回收電路之實測波形 82
6.3.1 升壓儲存及降壓釋能模式 82
6.3.2 電流維持模式 85
6.4 調光控制之實測波形 85
6.4.1 調光比例紅光、綠光、藍光各33%(滿載) 85
6.4.2調光比例紅光、綠光、藍光各10% 86
6.4.3 調光比例紅光35%、綠光10%、藍光10% 87
6.5效率量測與比較 87
第七章 結論與未來展望 89
參考文獻 90
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