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研究生:張坤圖
研究生(外文):Kun-Tu Chang
論文名稱:運用機械手臂視覺伺服之自動化USB方孔組裝系統
論文名稱(外文):Automated USB Peg-in-Hole Assembly Based on Robotic Visual Servoing
指導教授:張文中
指導教授(外文):Wen-Chung Chang
口試委員:鄭智湧莊季高傅立成
口試日期:2016-07-25
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北科技大學
系所名稱:電機工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:立體視覺、視覺伺服、動力學、力矩控制
外文關鍵詞:Stereo VisionVisual servo controlDynamicTorque control
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本論文提出一種運用眼看手視覺伺服之自動化USB方孔組裝系統,此系統藉由兩台攝影機觀測USB方孔與機械手臂夾具之三維資訊,以視覺伺服控制機械手臂精準地完成USB之組裝任務。本論文運用最小平方參數估測法鑑別出機械手臂動力學方程式之參數,藉以設計速度控制器並計算出輸出力矩命令。本系統首先透過攝影機擷取USB方孔之特徵,運用立體視覺計算USB方孔姿態,藉由適當之編碼誤差,設計一閉迴路視覺伺服控制器,將所計算出之速度控制命令輸入速度控制器,進而計算出力矩命令驅動機械手臂執行任務。本論文提出之方法可以在 USB之位置不固定的情況下完成組裝,並已經實際實驗驗證所提出的系統之可行性。
An eye-to-hand vision-based automated USB peg-in-hole assembly system is presented. The system employs two fixed cameras to observe the USB square hole and the manipulator gripper. The parameters of the manipulator dynamic model are identified by using the least squares parameter estimation method. The identified parameters are used for velocity controller to determine the torque commands. The system captures the features of the USB square hole by using the cameras, and then computes the pose of square hole by two-camera vision. With an appropriate encoded error, a closed-loop visual servo controller is proposed. The velocity control command can thus be determined for driving the manipulator to perform the assembly tasks. The control approach proposed in the thesis has been successfully validated in experiments and can be used to precisely accomplish automated USB peg-in-hole assembly tasks with uncertain location.
中文摘要. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i
英文摘要. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii
誌謝. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii
目錄. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv
表目錄. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi
圖目錄. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
第一章 緒論. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1 研究動機及目的 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 文獻回顧 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.3 論文具體成果 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.4 論文章節瀏覽 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
第二章 系統簡介. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.1 系統架構 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.2 系統流程 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
第三章 攝影機參數校準以及手眼關係校準. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.1 攝影機校準 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.1.1 立體視覺. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.2 手眼關係校準 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
第四章 影像處理. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4.1 顏色濾波 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4.2 侵蝕與膨脹 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
4.3 Canny邊緣檢測 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
4.4 霍夫轉換 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
第五章 機械手臂參數鑑別與運動學. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
5.1 正向運動學 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
5.2 速度運動學 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
5.3 機械手臂之動態模型. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
5.4 機械手臂之參數鑑別. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
5.5 速度控制器 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
第六章 USB 方孔組裝任務 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
6.1 Cartesian-based 視覺伺服控制器 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
6.1.1 機械手臂末端期望角度與期望點. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
6.1.2 機械手臂末端當前末端點與旋轉角度. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
6.1.3 設計控制器 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
第七章 實驗結果. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
7.1 實驗設備 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
7.2 實驗數據 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
第八章 結論與未來展望 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
8.1 結論 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
8.2 未來展望 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
參考文獻. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
附錄. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
A 作者簡介. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
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