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研究生:羅盛威
研究生(外文):Sheng-Wei Lo
論文名稱:可調式座椅之脊椎曲度與背部壓力分佈之研究
論文名稱(外文):Curvature of the Spine and Back Pressure Distribution of Chair with Adjustable Design
指導教授:陸元平
口試委員:林建佑林上智陸元平
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北科技大學
系所名稱:製造科技研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:104
中文關鍵詞:脊椎曲度、坐姿與健康、可調式座椅、壓力分佈
外文關鍵詞:Curvature (lordosis) of spineSitting and healthAdjustable chairPressure distribution
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座椅因結構設計不同,其功能性也不同,但均以提供背腰臀之支撐及增進舒適度為共同目的。根據Daniel J. Murphy DC研究顯示,人體在坐姿時之腰椎間盤內壓力是站姿時的1.4~1.8倍。如果坐姿時的腰椎前突曲度越趨近於站姿時的腰椎前突曲度,勢必能降低坐姿時的腰椎間盤內壓力。
本研究由20位受測者透過團隊所設計的可調式座椅搭配一種站姿與四種坐姿(1.無靠背坐姿、2.椅背趨近於直線坐姿、3.椅背調整為舒適曲度坐姿、4.上下腰墊過頂坐姿)及問卷進行實驗,利用臨床X光影像和Solidworks軟體進行腰椎前突曲度量側;以及Visual Basic所開發的壓力影像輔助系統量測第2.3.4種坐姿在腰部作用於椅背之上腰墊(piece3)、下腰墊(piece4)壓力感測墊之正向力;和問卷五點量表以第2.3.4種坐姿之支撐度評分,從中了解支撐度、腰椎前突曲度與上、下腰墊正向力各項參數之關係。
實驗結果顯示,站姿及1.2.3.4種坐姿之腰椎前突曲度分別為47.9、16.4、24.4、24.8以及30.1;上腰墊(piece3)平均正向力從16.97(N/cm2)降至15.39(N/cm2)下降6.32%,與腰椎前突曲度成正向關係;下腰墊(piece4)平均正向力從17.14(N/cm2)上升至18.77(N/cm2)上升6.52%,與腰椎前突曲度成負向關係,19位受測者認為支撐度方面以第3種坐姿為最滿意的坐姿。可證實雖然坐姿之腰椎前突曲度越趨近於站姿之腰椎前突曲度,對人體腰椎有一定程度的保護,但無法達到受測者滿意的支撐度;下腰墊正向力越高,表示腰墊支撐的力道越高,但並非支撐力道越高,使用者就會有越滿意的支撐度,因為座椅設計應以使用者滿意度為主要考量,椅子之腰墊調整機構設計上,調整行程可以不需要過長;在未來椅子結構設計上,腰椎前突曲度之相關參數為重要參考值之一。
Generally, chairs are designed for different purposes with different architectures and structures. However, the main purpose of chairs is meant to decrease the pain from the musculoskeletal system and to increase personal comfort at sitting posture. According to Daniel J. Murphy DC studies show that lumbar intradiscal pressure of seat more 1.4 to 1.8 times than standing. If seated when lumbar lordosis curvature of the curvature in the lumbar protrusion approaching when standing is bound to reduce lumbar disc seated while pressure.
In this study, the 20 subjects were use chair with adjustable design by our team with one kind of standing and Four sitting(1.No sitting back, 2.back sitting close to a straight line, 3.adjusted to comfortable curved back degree sitting position, 4.upper and lower lumbar cushion sitting over the top)and a questionnaire to experiment. The clinical use of X-ray images and Solidworks software metrics song performed lumbar protrusion side; and the video assist system developed by Visual Basic amount of pressure measurement 2.3.4 Species sitting on the back waist to upper lumbar pad (piece3), lower lumbar pad ( piece4) pressure sensing pads of positive force; and a five-point scale of questionnaire to support the kind of the first sitting of the score 2.3.4. Lumbar protrusion curvature and upper and lower lumbar cushion the parameters of the relationship between the normal force.
Experimental results show that the standing and sitting 1.2.3.4 kinds of lumbar curvature of the protrusion 47.9, 16.4, 24.4, 24.8 and 30.1 respectively;the upper lumbar pad (piece 3) average forward force from 16.97 (N / cm2) dropped 15.39 (N / cm2) felled 6.32%, and the curvature of lumbar protrusion into a positive relationship; lower lumbar pad (piece4) average positive force from 17.14 (N / cm2) up to 18.77 (N / cm2) increased 6.52%, and the curvature of the lumbar protrusion into negative relationship. 19 subjects were considered in terms of the support of the third sitting of the most satisfactory posture. While verifiable sitting lumbar curvature of the protruding lumbar close to standing of the curvature of the projection. It’s good for human body have a certain degree of protection of the lumbar spine. But can not reach the subjects satisfaction degree of support. The higher strength at higher power lumbar pad forward, showing higher lumbar pad of support force. But not support the higher strength, the user will have the satisfaction degree of support. Because the seat design should be based on user satisfaction as the main consideration. The chair back pad adjustment mechanism design, may not need to adjust the itinerary is too long. The future chair structural design parameters of the curvature of the lumbar protrusion of one of the important reference value.
目錄
摘要 I
ABSTRACT III
誌 謝 V
表目錄 VIII
圖目錄 IX
第一章 緒論 1
1.1研究背景 1
1.2 研究動機與目的 2
1.3 脊椎構造與功能與下背痛之定義與危險因子 6
1.3.1脊椎構造與功能 6
1.3.2腰椎椎間盤退化機制 8
1.3.3 下背痛之定義 11
1.3.4下背痛之盛行率 13
1.3.5下背痛之危險因子 14
1.4論文架構 16
第二章 文獻回顧 17
2.1不同的坐姿與退化疾病之關聯性 17
2.2 腰椎前凸角度與腰椎椎間盤壓力之關聯性 20
2.2.1不同姿勢與腰椎椎間盤壓力的影響 20
2.2.2不同坐姿對腰椎的影響 21
2.3 理想坐姿的姿態 23
第三章 實驗設計 27
3.1研究方法 27
3.2 評估對象 29
3.3評估姿勢之條件 30
3.4儀器與設備 31
3.4.1可調式座椅 31
3.4.2臨床X光片拍攝實驗 33
3.4.3壓力影像輔助系統 36
3.5分析項目 41
3.5.1問卷分析 41
3.5.2腰椎角度分析 42
3.5.3腰部壓力數值分析 42
第四章 實驗結果 44
4.1 問卷調查結果 44
4.1.1問卷題項之信度分析 44
4.1.2實驗問卷之支撐度分析 45
4.1.3實驗問卷之貼合度分析 47
4.2腰椎角度分析結果 49
4.2.1腰椎角度之平均值分析 49
4.2.2腰椎角度之散佈圖分析 52
4.3腰部壓力分析結果 58
4.3.1腰部壓力之平均值分析 58
4.3.2腰部壓力之散佈圖分析 61
第五章 結論與未來展望 65
5.1結論 65
5.2未來展望 66
參考文獻 67
附錄 73
附錄A 可調式座椅之實驗問卷 73
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