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研究生:莊承璋
研究生(外文):Zhuang, Cheng-Zhang
論文名稱:探討線上協作平台於設計專題式學習之研究
論文名稱(外文):Study of the Application of an Online Cooperative Platform to Design Project-based Learning
指導教授:李來春李來春引用關係
指導教授(外文):Lee, Lai-Chung
口試委員:李來春陳圳卿梁桂嘉
口試委員(外文):Lee, Lai-ChungChen, Chun-ChingLiang, Kuei-Chia
口試日期:2016-06-28
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北科技大學
系所名稱:互動媒體設計研究所
學門:設計學門
學類:視覺傳達設計學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:合作學習要素團隊合作設計設計專題式學習線上協作平台
外文關鍵詞:cooperative learning elementsteamwork designDesign Project-Based Learning (DPBL)online cooperative platform
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線上協作平台及雲端資料的儲存是未來發展的重要趨勢,Google公司早於2006年即推出線上協作平台Google Docs (Google Documents)。微軟2015年推出Office 2016 (Office 365),其功能介面並無太大變化,主要改變在於產品定位,從個人的生產工具轉變為線上團隊協作工具。因網路打破時空限制,具有檔案傳輸、資料共享等功能,不但改變了我們生活的方式,更改變了我們的學習習慣。
當今社會環境不斷變化,過去老師授課與學生學習的方式,似乎無法跟上知識變化的速度,因此教育學習上逐漸轉變為以學習者為中心(Learner-Centered)的課程方式,學習者能夠自己決定、選擇並且安排其學習進度或需求的專題式學習(Project-Based Learning, PBL)逐漸受到重視。而網路符合了個人化的學習環境,線上協作平台更是提供以小組為單位的討論交流空間,特別是在知識上的學習共享和想法上的快速交流,因此,網路空間中提供個人化且無時空限制的學習環境,非常適合用來輔助專題式學習。
本研究專題式學習對象以設計系學生為主,專題式學習任務上結合團隊合作設計和設計思維等文獻,規劃出最適合設計系學生所進行的「設計專題式學習(Design Project-based Learning, DPBL)」,並於過程中以線上協作平台作為輔助DPBL的工具,以Google Docs和Office 365線上協作平台為研究對象,於整個設計專題企劃過程中使用此兩項線上協作平台。於設計專題課程結束後,透過設計小組焦點團體訪談和問卷填寫,資料蒐集後以合作學習五大要素進行分析探討。瞭解使用線上協作平台輔助DPBL,對於設計小組合作學習五要素之影響。
本研究採個案研究法(Case study),實施對象為某國立大學互動設計系碩士班一年級和大學部二年級學生作為主要研究對象,進行長達10週的DPBL課程。DPBL劃出三個學習階段:靈感階段、構思階段和執行階段。靈感階段,著重於設計專題上主題創意的發想;構思階段,將所選定的主題創意進行細部流程上的構思;執行階段,則是將前兩個階段想法進行統整,撰寫成設計專題企劃書。此三階段的執行過程中都是透過線上協作平台進行資料上的收集、簡報的製作發表和企劃書的撰寫。
於第十週過後進行各組焦點團體訪談法和研究問卷發放,研究結果發現,運用線上協作平台輔助DPBL,整體而言是具有有助益的。透過質化和量化分析結果顯示,線上協作平台功能中,共同編輯文件時右上方顯示線上姓名大頭貼和編輯框功能;以及共享雲端資料夾功能,此兩項功能設計最能有效助於積極互賴、個人權責和團體歷程此三個合作學習要素,此兩項功能設計也相當助於同學進行設計專題的企劃過程。不過此兩項協作平台功能,也會造成人際和小組技能構面上團隊成員間使用上的衝突情況,如共同編輯上的衝突、共享資料夾檔案誤放和共享資料夾檔案誤刪等合作上的衝突。但線上協作平台其即時性並不足夠,因此並不助於團隊合作要素上面對面促進性互動,其功能容易被即時通訊軟體取代。
Online cooperative platforms and cloud data storage are significant trends in the future. Google, in 2006, launched an online cooperative platform—Google Documents (Google Docs). Microsoft, in 2011, launched Office 2016 (Office 365) which had a main change in product positioning from a personal productivity tool to an online team cooperative tool. Because the network breaks the constraints of time and space and has various functions including file transmission and data sharing, it not only changes our lifestyle, but also our habits of learning.
In todays ever-changing social environment, it seems that the old way of teacher teaching and student listening fails to keep up with the speed of the change of knowledge. Thus, teaching methods gradually transform into a learner-centered mode via which students can make their own decisions in learning, choose Project-Based Learning (PBL), and arrange their progress. The network suits personal learning environment. An online cooperative platform can provide a space for discussion and exchange with a team as its unit, especially for sharing of knowledge and fast exchanges of concepts. Therefore, in cyberspace, a learning environment without the constraints of time and space for personal learning is very suitable to assist PBL.
This study started from the perspective of the assistance of an online cooperative platform for PBL, chose Google Docs and Office 365 online cooperative platform as its subject, carried out design of PBL of students from the Department of Interaction Design, and used online cooperative platform throughout the planning. This study aimed to explore if online cooperative platform could truly assist the team which carried out PBL and analyze five cooperative learning elements, that is, positive interdependence, individual accountability, promotive interaction, interpersonal and small group skills, and group processing (Johnson & Johnson, 2009) to investigate what were the degrees of influence of the online cooperative platform on the five elements respectively and whether it could enhance the results of design of PBL comprehensively.
This study adopted experimental method, the 17 graduates were divided into 3 groups, with 6 in each group; the 59 postgraduates were divided into 18 groups, with 3 to 4 in each group. An online coordination platform was adopted for the design project-based learning. This study distinguished three learning stages via the literature related to team design processes and design thinking: inspiration, ideation, and implementation. The first stage, inspiration, focused on the creation of design projects. The second stage, ideation, broke down the creations of projects into detailed procedures. The third stage, implementation, integrated the above two stages to compile a proposal of design projects. During all the three stages, the online cooperative platform was employed to collect data, prepare and make presentations, and compile the proposal.
In the tenth weeks, focus group interviews were conducted on nine groups. It is found that, according to the quantitative and qualitative results, the online display of name and photo and the editing box, along with the sharing of cloud-based files, were the most effective in enhancing positive interdependence, individual accountability and group processing and were highly helpful for students in the planning of design project-based learning. However, the immediacy of the online coordination platform was inadequate; thus, the face-to-face promotive interaction would be replaced by the instant message software, such as Facebook and Line.
摘 要 i
ABSTRACT iii
誌 謝 v
目錄 vi
表目錄 viii
圖目錄 x
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景與動機 1
1.2 研究目的 3
1.3 研究範圍與限制 4
1.4 研究流程與架構 6
第二章 文獻探討 8
2.1 網路協作平台發展與應用 8
2.1.1 網路協作平台之特性 8
2.1.2 線上協作平台應用-Wiki 11
2.1.3 線上協作平台應用-Moodle 13
2.1.4 線上協作平台應用-Blackboard 15
2.1.5 線上協作平台應用-Facebook 16
2.1.6 Google Docs其特色與相關應用 17
2.1.7 Microsoft Office 365其特色與相關應用 22
2.2 專題式學習特色與應用 25
2.2.1 專題式學習之概念 25
2.2.2 網路結合專題式學習之相關研究 26
2.3 團隊合作設計與設計思維概念 33
2.3.1 團隊合作設計 33
2.3.2設計思維概念 38
2.4 團體合作學習要素 44
2.4.1 團體合作學習要素 44
2.5 小結 49
2.5.1 相關線上協作平台研究應用 49
2.5.2 Google Docs與Microsoft Office 365其特色與相關應用 51
2.5.3 專題式學習與網路專題式學習 52
2.5.4 團隊合作設計與設計思維 54
2.5.5 團體合作學習要素 56
第三章 研究設計與實施 58
3.1 研究流程 58
3.1.1 研究實施流程與步驟 58
3.2 研究架構 59
3.3 研究對象 60
3.4 DPBL課程規劃 61
3.4.1 設計專題任務前準備 61
3.4.2 設計專題任務中輔助 72
3.4.3 期末線上報告討論 74
3.5 研究工具 76
3.6 資料處理與分析 77
第四章 研究結果與討論 82
4.1 量化問卷分析 82
4.1.1 因素分析及信度檢定 82
4.1.2 樣本特質描述 90
4.1.3 研究問題檢定 94
4.1.4 量化問卷分析結果 103
4.2 質化焦點團體訪談分析與討論 107
4.2.1 應用協作平台輔助DPBL之優缺點與使用方式 107
4.2.2 線上協作平台輔助設計專題對於合作學習要素之影響 114
4.2.3 Google Docs與Office 365功能上優缺點和建議 130
4.2.4 焦點團體訪談質化分析結果 144
第五章 研究結論與建議 149
5.1 研究結論 149
5.1.1 使用線上協作平台輔助DPBL之實施成效 149
5.1.2 使用線上協作平台輔助DPBL合作學習五要素之影響 150
5.1.3 線上協作平台工具功能調整及修改建議 152
5.2 研究建議 162
參考文獻 165
中文文獻 165
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網站資料 172
附錄 172
質化焦點團體訪談主持人訪談稿 173
協作平台於設計專題式學習之合作要素問卷 174
問卷題目設計與參考構面對照表 179
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網站資料
Blackboard官網(2015)。2015 年 9 月 23日,取自:
http://anz.blackboard.com/sites/international/globalmaster/
Google發展歷史網(2015)。2015 年 9 月 22日,取自:
https://www.Google.com.hk/intl/zh-CN/about/company/history/#2006
Google Docs 功能介紹(2015)。2015 年 9 月 22日,取自:
https://www.Google.com.tw/intl/zh-TW/docs/about/
Google 協作平台(2015)。2015 年 9 月 21日,取自:http://www.Google.com/apps/intl/zh-TW/business/sites.html
Microsoft官方網站(2015)。2015 年 9 月 23日,取自:
http://www.microsoft.com/taiwan/Office 365/
Top 100 Tools for Learning 2014 (2015)。2015年9月23日,取自:
http://www.slideshare.net/janehart/top-100-tools-for-learning-2014
Facebook (2016)。2016年 5月20日,取自:
https://www.Facebook.com/zuck/posts/10102329188394581
數位時代(2015)。2016年10月18日,取自:
http://www.bnext.com.tw/article/view/id/31479&sa=U&ved=0CBMQFjAAahUKEwjp0ZKwiMbHAhWVj44KHaB4BWk&usg=AFQjCNG-MnLjBDqH7KR6uxYXKppkb2vDeA
Office 365 vs. Google Docs Showdown: Feature by Feature. 2016年10月18日,取自:http://www.pcworld.com/article/231294/office_365_vs_Google_docs_smackdown.html
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