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研究生:詹致嘉
研究生(外文):Chih-Chia Chan
論文名稱:以恆速控制技術應用於機具提升節能效率
論文名稱(外文):Manufacturing Machine Energy Efficiency Enhancement by Application of Constant Speed Control Technique
指導教授:莊賀喬莊賀喬引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ho-Chiao Chuang
口試委員:潘正堂李春穎
口試日期:2016-07-21
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北科技大學
系所名稱:機電整合研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:104
中文關鍵詞:製程機具、節能、負載控制、矽控整流器
外文關鍵詞:Manufacturing machineEnergy-savingLoad controlSilicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR)
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目前國內提高電動機用電效率的研究,並未給予系統化的方式去改進電動機用電的效率,使能迅速判斷用電系統是否最佳化。因此若能藉由系統化方法檢討電動機的用電狀況,降低運轉用電成本,將可作為效率差之老舊電動機是否更換為高效率電動機之替代方法。本研究將使用一種恆速的控制技術應用在製程機具上,依據電動機負載變化量利用最佳化控制觸發SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier, SCR)元件進行相位角度的改變,使電流合理下降以符合電動機最適當之電壓輸出並提供機具最佳扭力輸出,輸出功率可以隨著製程負載的變化而改變;因此在低負載時可以節省不需要浪費的電力,反之當機具高負載運轉時則有效提供扭力需求,有效降低耗能。而本技術不影響原本的機具之運轉狀態,相較於使用變頻器的節能方法,不但未改變電動機轉速,僅在機具外掛一個裝置做最佳化的控制。本研究實際應用於石材廠內的拉鋸機與汙水處理廠內的調節泵,以無裝與有裝進行驗證比較如: 運轉電流、平均消耗功率與24小時耗能度數,拉鋸機此實例節能率分別達到20%、38.87%與48.36%,拉鋸機設備每天以24小時運轉,以運轉天數350天估計,一年預計可以節省耗能度數約為187,915kWh,減少碳排放量約為97,903kg,而在調節泵實例中,30分鐘的累積耗能度數比較下得到33%的節能率。相較於耗能設備常使用變頻器為節能的方式,本研究控制技術具有自動偵測負載變化能力,其主要可應用在製程中不能改變轉速之設備,提升整體電動機運轉效率並產生節能效果,未來更能廣泛運用到各種行業上,達到產業升級的作用。
This study presents a constant speed control technology applied to the manufacturing process equipment. According to the amount of change of electrical motor (EM) load, a Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) element was used to modulate the phase angle so that the current drops accordingly, to meet the most appropriate output voltage of the EM and providing machine the best torque output. The changes in output power of the EM varies along with different process load, so the unnecessary electricity at low loads of EM can be saved; however, when the equipment is during a high-load operation period, the proposed technique provides a proper torque for it, and thus, reducing the power consumption. The present technique, energy saving technique by constant speed control (ESTCSC), does not affect the ordinary machine, it is just to modulate the load according to the dynamic load variation of machine. Compared with the most popular inverter, the proposed ESTCSC does not change the EM speed, and it is only an easy and low cost plug-in device. In this study, the proposed ESTCSC was practically applied to the sawing machine in stone industry. The validation experiments were conducted w/o installing the ESTCSC, and the measured total saving rates for operating current, average operating power consumption and 24 hours long-term energy consumption were 20 %, 38.87% and 48.36%, respectively. Because the sawing machine normally operates for 24 hours per day and 350 days per year, the estimated annual energy savings of approximately is 187,915 kWh, reducing carbon emissions of about 97,903kg. With the adjusting of the pump as an example, the energy saving rate achieved from the accumulated consumption after 30 minutes was 33%. Therefore, compared with the frequently used equipment, inverter, for energy-saving purpose, the proposed ESTCSC is functioned with automatic detection of changes in load capacity. Its main applications are the machines that must be with constant speed in the manufacturing process, to improve the overall operational efficiency of EM and achieve the energy-saving effect. Furthermore, it is also suitable for many potential applications in various industries in the near future, to achieve the industrial upgrading effect.
摘 要 i
ABSTRACT iii
誌謝 v
目錄 vi
表目錄 viii
圖目錄 ix
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2 研究背景 2
1.3 論文架構 4
第二章 基礎理論與文獻回顧 5
2.1 交流電源 5
2.1.1 單相電源系統 5
2.1.2 三相電源系統 6
2.1.3 交流電功率 8
2.2 電動機啟動方式 9
2.3 電力系統之諧波探討 10
2.4 節能方式 12
2.4.1 變頻控制 12
2.4.2 功率因數補償 15
2.4.3 汰換為高效率電動機 16
第三章 實驗方法 19
3.1 實驗流程 19
3.2 量測儀器 21
3.2.1 電力品質分析儀 21
3.2.2 數位電錶 22
3.2.3 同步轉速儀 23
3.3 實驗設備 24
3.4控制及驅動元件 26
3.4.1 矽控整流器 26
3.4.2 控制核心 32
3.4.3 系統整合 35
3.5節電效益 37
第四章 結果與討論 39
4.1 控制技術對相位關係的影響 39
4.2 控制技術對電力品質的影響 42
4.3 控制技術用於石材廠之節能效益 43
4.3.1 拉鋸機耗能分析 43
4.3.2 控制技術對拉鋸機產生的影響 45
4.3.3 預估節能效益 48
4.4 控制技術用於汙水處理廠之節能效益 50
第五章 結論 53
未來展望 53
參考文獻 54
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