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研究生:何岳晉
研究生(外文):Yueh-Chin Ho
論文名稱:能源模擬應用於冰水主機系統運轉診斷之研究
論文名稱(外文):Study on Energy Simulation for Diagnosing Chiller System Operation
指導教授:李魁鵬李魁鵬引用關係
口試委員:黃國倉楊安石
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北科技大學
系所名稱:能源與冷凍空調工程系碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:其他工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:104
中文關鍵詞:能源模擬運轉診斷Energy Plus
外文關鍵詞:Energy SimulationFDDEnergy Plus
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由於近年受高科技與人口密度迅速成長,能源使用需求日益增加。根據經濟部能源局統計各類建築以空調設備耗電量占了大宗,其中冰水主機占空調耗電百分比更高達近50%。因此提升冰水主機效率為現代重要課題之ㄧ。冰水主機長時間運轉下會因維修不良及設備老舊退化造成故障頻率增加,因此如何開發出一套自動監控系統,達到故障預警與即時故障排除,避免系統運轉損耗,維持高效率運轉周期為本研究之重點。
本研究以EnergyPlus軟體模擬一新北辦公大樓,輸入實際內部負載(如:照明耗電、人員密度、設備熱得等)、空調系統設備規格以及實際外部氣候條件,進而模擬出夏季逐時之系統各端理想能耗以及運轉情況。利用模擬情境與實際運轉數據之相對誤差及統計箱型圖建立運轉診斷門檻值,並針對超出門檻之設備分析故障原因。
由研究結果發現,實驗案場於2013年夏季共發生三種空調異常運轉,分別為主機出水溫控制異常、主機低載控制不易以及冰水泵震盪。研究證明EnergyPlus配合統計手法能有效地診斷出系統異常運轉點,以提供後續之相關研究與開發。
Energy consumption increasing intensely caused by technology and population grow substantially. According to government statistics, chillers of an HVAC system account for about 50% of the whole HVAC energy consumption. Improving the efficiency of chiller is a significant object. Therefore, this research focuses on the operation diagnosis of buildings chiller system. In actual operation, chillers are affected by factors such as degeneration and poor maintenance which make chillers increase its malfunction. It is therefore this study aimed to establish an automatic monitoring system that can detect any fault once it occurs.
This study has used EnergyPlus to model a real office case, with the real internal load data, HVAC equipment data and actual weather data. With the relative error of model operation data and actual operation data, this study applied boxplot to diagnosis the system and further distinguish the malfunction reasons in the actual operation.
The results show that, the study case had three different abnormal running conditions in summer time 2013, which were chiller evaporator outlet water temperature abnormal running, chiller control difficult at low load and chiller loop pump shock. This study proves that fault detection and diagnosis strategy with EnergyPlus and statistics for chiller system can work efficiently, and be worthy for the relevant research and development in the future.
摘 要 i
ABSTRACT ii
誌 謝 iv
目 錄 v
表目錄 vii
圖目錄 viii
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景與動機 1
1.2 文獻回顧 4
1.3 研究方法與流程 6
第二章 研究理論 8
2.1 能源模擬程式理論 8
2.1.1 EnergyPlus能源模擬軟體簡介 8
2.1.2 建築能源程式架構 9
2.1.3 EnergyPlus冰水主機性能計算 12
2.1.4 EnergyPlus冷卻水塔性能計算 16
2.1.5 EnergyPlus儲冰能力計算 21
2.1.6 EnergyPlus泵浦耗能計算 23
2.1.7 EnergyPlus風扇耗能計算 24
2.2 故障偵測與診斷理論 25
第三章 研究方法與步驟 28
3.1 資料預處理 28
3.1.1 遺失資料 29
3.1.2 離群資料 29
3.2 物理模型建立 31
3.2.1 空間使用行為調查 31
3.2.2 空間系統及設備資料 32
3.3 模擬校驗程序 40
3.3.1 氣象資料解析 41
3.3.2 耗電誤差分析 45
第四章 實驗操作與應用 49
4.1 故障診斷流程 49
4.2 故障門檻建立 51
第五章 結果與討論 54
5.1 冰水出水溫控制異常 54
5.2 主機低載控制不易 61
5.3 冰水泵浦震盪 66
第六章 結論 70
6.1 結論 70
6.1 後續研究建議 71
參考文獻 72
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[2]S. Katipamula and M.R. Brambley, " Methods for Fault Detection, Diagnostics and Prognostics for Building System-A Review: part II," HVAC&R Research, 11(2), 2005, pp. 169-187.
[3]陳家榮,「冰水主機節能系統效率提昇」,能源服務業成功案例示範觀摩研討會,新竹,2006。
[4]M.C. Comstock and J.E. Braun, "Experimental data from fault detection and diagnostic studies on a centrifugal chiller," ASHRAE RP-1043 Report, 4036-1, 1999.
[5]V. Shabunko, C. M. Lim, and S. Mathew, "EnergyPlus models for the benchmarking of residential buildings in Brunei Darussalam," Energy and Buildings, 2016.
[6]Welma Pereira , Andreas Bögl , and Thomas Natschläger , "Sensitivity analysis and validation of an EnergyPlus model of a house in Upper Austria ," Energy Procedia, vol. 62, 2014, pp. 472-481.
[7]S. Wang, Q. Zhou, and F. Xiao, "A system-level fault detection and diagnosis strategy for HVAC systems involving sensor faults," Energy and Buildings, vol. 42, 2010, pp. 477-490.
[8]M. B. Bailey and J. F. Kreider, "Creating an automated chiller fault detection and diagnostics tool using a data fault library," ISA Transactions, vol. 42, 2003, pp. 485-495.
[9]D. A. T. Tran, Y. Chen, M. Q. Chau, and B. Ning, "A robust online fault detection and diagnosis strategy of centrifugal chiller systems for building energy efficiency," Energy and Buildings, vol. 108, 2015, pp. 441-453.
[10]林育群,建立冰水機房基準線與節能效益之研究,碩士論文,國立國立臺北科技大學能源與冷凍空調工程研究所,2009。
[11]張佑民,故障診斷專家系統於中央空調之應用分析,碩士論文,國立中山大學機械與機電工程研究所,2006
[12]施冠群,資料中心機櫃冷卻系統自我故障診斷之研究,碩士論文,國立國立臺北科技大學能源與冷凍空調工程研究所,2010。
[13]趙培均,以EnergyPlus為基礎之空調系統即時意我故障診斷之研究,碩士論文,國立國立臺北科技大學能源與冷凍空調工程研究所,2012。
[14]EnergyPlus Documentation, "EnergyPlus Engineering Reference," U.S. Department of Energy, 2013.
[15]F. Merkel, "Verdunstungskuehlung," VDI Forschungsarbeiten, no. 275, Berlin, 1925.
[16]Henze, G.P. and M. Krarti , "Predictive Optimal Control of Active and Passive Building Thermal Storage Inventory – Final Report for Phase I: Analysis, Modeling, and Simulation," Architectural Engineering, Peter Kiewit Institute,University of Nebraska, Omaha, Nebraska, 2002.
[17]S. Katipamula and M.R. Brambley, " Methods for Fault Detection, Diagnostics and Prognostics for Building System-A Review: Part I," HVAC&R Research, 11(2), 2005.
[18]Edwin de Jonge, Mark van der Loo, “An introduction to data cleaning with R”, Statistics Netherlands, 2013, pp.7.
[19]V. Barnett and T. Lewis., "Outliers in statistical data, 3rd edition," New York: Wiley, 1994.
[20]J. W. Tukey, " Exploratory Data Analysis," MA: Addison-Wesley, 1977, pp. 39-43.
[21]Reindl, D. T., W. A. Beckman and J. A. Duffie, "Diffuse fraction correlations," Solar Energy, vol. 45, No. 1, 1990, pp. 1-7.
[22]Joseph C. Lam, Danny H. W. Li, "Correlation between Global Solar Radiation and its Direct and Diffuse Components," Building and Enviroment, vol. 31, No. 6, 1996,pp. 527-535.
[23]John Cowan, "International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol: Concepts and Options for Determining Energy and Water Savings Volume I, EVO-10000-1.2010." Efficiency Valuation Organization, 2010, pp. 90-107.
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