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研究生:曾彥翔
研究生(外文):Yen-Hsiang Tseng
論文名稱:應用超音波傳感器於即時檢測 冷凍真空乾燥過程
論文名稱(外文):Real-Time Diagnosis of Freeze Drying Process Using an Ultrasonic Transducer
指導教授:陳清祺陳清祺引用關係鄭鴻斌鄭鴻斌引用關係
口試委員:黃崧任尹慶中顏維謀陳清祺鄭鴻斌
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺北科技大學
系所名稱:冷凍空調工程系所
學門:工程學門
學類:其他工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:壓電效應超音波傳感器超音波冷凍真空乾燥
外文關鍵詞:PiezoelectricityUltrasonic TransducerUltrasonicLyophilization/Freeze-drying
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
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本研究主要目的是應用超音波技術具備非破壞性、非侵入性、在線、即時性與低成本的特點與優勢來檢測冷凍真空乾燥的預凍、初級/二級乾燥過程。研究中使用溶膠-凝膠法製作的壓電超音波傳感器黏貼於訂製的凍乾瓶上進行實驗,其可適用於-100~400℃之間。實驗中,以5、10、15與25mm液位高度、-20與-30℃凍結溫度、2組乾燥程序與水、重量百分濃度20%食鹽/葡萄糖水溶液的條件組合,透過熱電偶線量測溫度與攝影機進行微觀測錄影,進一步比對與分析超音波檢測訊號;同時,藉由數位電表記錄電力數據以瞭解用電資訊。實驗結果,可以清楚觀察純物質(水)與共晶結晶(食鹽)、玻璃形態(葡萄糖)水溶液於冷凍真空乾燥過程中的狀態變化,並指出超音波振幅變動的特徵與超音波在水/冰中的速度,可以用來判斷冷凍真空乾燥過程中,冷卻週期、凍結週期與乾燥週期的時間長度;而用電資訊顯示,本研究中的單一冷凍系統的小型凍乾設備,由於實驗負載小,因此消耗能量並不受室溫與製程影響。因此,本研究所提出的超音波傳感器與技術是可應用於監測冷凍真空乾燥過程連續性變化有效的量測方法之一。
Ultrasonic transducer and technology were adopted in this study for diagnosis of prefreeze, primary and secondary dryings of freeze drying process, due to their advantages of non-intrusive, non-destructive, on-line, real-time and low cost. The ultrasonic transducer, fabricated by sol-gel method, was attached on the frozen bottle. It could operate under the temperature range of -100~400℃. Several experimental settings, such as various liquid levels (5, 10, 15 and 25mm), freezing temperature (-20 and -30℃), drying procedures and liquid types (water, saline and glucose water of weight percentage 20%), were carried out. The temperature profile measured by thermocouple and visual image recorded by camera were also compared with information acquired by ultrasonic signals during freeze drying process. The consumed electricity during freeze drying process was also recorded for comparison. The experimental results indicated that the phase change, and cooling, frozen and drying periods of water, saline and glucose water could be indicated by the amplitude and velocity variations of ultrasonic signals during freeze drying process. The energy consumption of process was not affected by the temperature variation of environment and different procedures, due to small thermal load and fixed operating procedure of freeze dryer machine. Therefore, the presented ultrasonic transducer and technology could be one of the effective candidates for diagnosing the freeze drying process real time, on-line.
摘 要 I
ABSTRACT II
誌 謝 III
目 錄 IV
表目錄 VI
圖目錄 VIII
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 研究背景與動機 4
1.3 文獻回顧 6
第二章 冷凍真空乾燥 19
2.1 冷凍真空乾燥原理 19
2.1.1 預凍過程 20
2.1.2 初級乾燥 22
2.1.3 二級乾燥 23
2.2 冷凍真空乾燥設備 23
2.2.1 冷凍系統 25
2.2.2 真空系統 26
第三章超音波檢測技術 29
3.1 超音波原理 29
3.1.1超音波性質 30
3.1.2超音波量測 31
3.2 超音波傳感器 35
3.3 超音波檢測系統 39
第四章 研究方法 40
4.1實驗方法 41
4.2 實驗設施 47
第五章 結果與討論 50
5.1 超音波檢測不同液位高度的凍乾過程 50
5.1.1不鏽鋼凍乾瓶的凍結過程分析 51
5.1.2壓克力-鋼座凍乾瓶的凍結與真空乾燥分析 66
5.2 超音波檢測不同製程的凍乾過程 81
5.3 超音波檢測不同水溶液的凍乾過程 89
5.4冷凍真空乾燥過程的耗能分布分析 98
第六章 結論與建議 101
6.1結論 101
6.2未來研究方向與建議 103
參考文獻 104
符號彙編 113
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