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研究生:杜麗琴
研究生(外文):Li-chin Du
論文名稱:祖靈、敵人,藝術品:Toi moko 的回歸與連結的重建
論文名稱(外文):Ancestral Spirit, Enemy and Artwork : Repatriating Toi Moko and Rebuilding Connections
指導教授:王嵩山王嵩山引用關係
指導教授(外文):Sung-Shan Wang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北藝術大學
系所名稱:博物館研究所碩士班
學門:傳播學門
學類:博物館學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:195
中文關鍵詞:人類遺骸毛利族文面頭顱奧提羅亞的呼喚回歸計劃紐西蘭國家博物館
外文關鍵詞:human remainsToi mokomokomokaiKaranga Aotearoa Repatriation ProgramMuseum of New Zealand Te Papa TongarewaTe Papa
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毛利族於歐洲人尚未抵達紐西蘭前的傳統社會中,會將生前文面的親人或敵人的頭顱砍下,製成如木乃伊般可以長久保存的文面頭顱,今日的族人稱這些紀念物為Toi moko。19世紀初期,毛利人以當地物產與歐洲人交換毛瑟槍,引發史稱之「毛瑟槍戰爭」,期間毛利人投歐洲人所好,將所藏之敵人文面頭顱拿來交換毛瑟槍、彈藥,後來卻在市場供不應求的情況下,逐漸演變成殺害奴隸後施以文面,製作成「mokomokai(奴隸文面頭顱)」的殘忍交易。
1970年代紐西蘭國家博物館即開始與藏有Toi moko的海外博物館展開協商,提出回歸祖先遺骸的請求,直到1989年始有澳洲博物館同意讓Toi moko重回故土,至2015年底,共有60個機構或個人收藏家,共計歸還154尊Toi moko給紐西蘭。2003年起,紐西蘭政府指定國家博物館Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa(下稱Te Papa)為紐西蘭政府進行祖先遺骸回歸之研究、協商與執行的對外代表單位,政府以專款專用方式在Te Papa博物館之下,成立奧提羅亞的呼喚回歸計畫(Karanga Aotearoa Repatriation Program)。該計畫為全球少數以博物館為主體,主動進行國際祖先遺骸回歸的組織。本文討論今日毛利族人稱之為Toi moko的祖先頭顱在毛利傳統社會文化脈絡下的意義;18、19世紀西方博物館蒐藏人類遺骸的時代背景下Toi moko如何進入博物館的收藏體系,以及近年來毛利族如何透過Te Papa博物館進行回歸祖先遺骸的行動。紐西蘭唯一的國家博物館Te Papa透過國家級的marae建立國族認同,經由回歸Toi moko復振傳統文化與儀式,並與iwi(部落)形成夥伴關係,致力於將殖民時期拋棄的暗黑遺產Toi moko轉化成毛利族共同的祖靈,成為連結Te Papa與歐美博物館的樞紐;連結毛利族過去、現在與未來的文化傳承。


In traditional Māori society, during the era before European contact, tattooed heads of family members and enemies which have been preserved and mummified have been kept and produced. Today, such heads are called as “Toi moko”. Early in the 19th century, some of Māori chiefs traded local products for muskets and ammunitions with the Europeans, and then caused what was called the “Musket War” in New Zealand history. During this period, the Toi moko became the most popular local artifact. When its supply failed to meet market demands, this caused the Māori to kill slaves so they may tattoo their faces post-mortem. Such trade heads were called “mokomokai” in some documents.
From the 1970s, National New Zealand Museum started to negotiate with overseas museums about retrieving their housed Toi moko. Until 1989, Australian Museum returned 3 Toi moko, followed by 154 Toi moko repatriated to New Zealand from 60 institution/private collectors by the end of 2015. In 2003, New Zealand government assigned for the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa (also known as Te Papa below) to establish Karanga Aotearoa Repatriation Program (KARP) as a representative body to research, negotiate and execute repatriation of tupuna (ancestral) remains from overseas for returning to the appropriate domestic iwi. As of 2014, KARP is the few international repatriation program of its kind that is hosted by a museum. This article discusses the Toi moko cultural context in traditional Māori society, 18th and 19th century Western museums'' collection practices, and 21st century Māori repatriation ceremony. This article also suggests how Māori descendants use repatriation program as a chance of ceremony and culture revitalization; Te Papa also creates a partnership with Māori advisors and local iwi through the repatriation program. Toi moko like a node rebuilt the connection between Te Papa and international museum society, which also connecting Māori ancestral spirits, today and future decendants.


論文提要 1
Abstract 2
銘謝 8
第一章 緒論 12
第一節 研究動機:從一張照片說起 12
第二節 研究目的 14
第三節 研究方法 15
第四節 章節規劃 21
第五節 名詞界定 23
第二章 國際回歸 29
第一節 文物回歸的國際宣言與公約 29
第二節 國際回歸的理由與原則 37
第三節 文化遺產的普世性與獨特性 40
第四節 英、美人類遺骸、陪葬物或聖物回歸相關國家法令 44
第五節 文物回歸國際公約在紐西蘭的實踐 50
第三章 Toi moko在歐美博物館 52
第一節 歐洲博物館的蒐藏簡史 52
第二節 全球蒐藏Toi moko的歷史背景與國家 54
第三節 Toi moko著名的蒐藏家 58
第四節 Toi moko的回歸案例 64
第四章 Toi moko在傳統毛利社會 73
第一節 毛利傳統社會與文面 75
第二節 毛利傳統社會與Toi moko 82
第五章 Toi moko 在Te Papa 97
第一節 Te Papa及其前身 97
第二節 在Te Papa實踐毛利生活文化 103
第六章 奧提羅亞的呼喚回歸計畫 136
第一節 Toi moko的蒐藏區域研究 140
第二節 Toi moko的物質研究 142
第三節 從人到物,從祖先到商品 152
第四節 從暗黑遺產到文化傳承 158
第七章 結語 163
參考文獻 169
中文書目 169
英文書目及網路文獻 171
參考網站 179
附件一:博物館道德守則(Code of ethic for museum)第六條 180
附件二:毛利族人類遺骸政策(Kōiwi Tangata Policy) 183
附件三:已回歸之Toi moko清單(根據國家排列) 189
附件四:待回歸之Toi moko清單 192
作者簡介 195


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英文書目及網路文獻
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參考網站
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Te Ara – The Encyclopedia of New Zealand official website, Retrived Decemer 7, 2015, from http://www.teara.govt.nz/en


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