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研究生:王伊姍
研究生(外文):Wang I Shan
論文名稱:用解析法分析五軸機械手逆向運動學
論文名稱(外文):Inverse Kinematics Analysis of 5 Axis Robot Arm by Using Analytical Solution
指導教授:譚仲明
指導教授(外文):Tan Zhongming
口試委員:譚仲明邱永川蔡宏榮
口試委員(外文):Tan ZhongmingYung-Chuan ChiouHung-Jung Tsai
口試日期:2015-01-15
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:吳鳳科技大學
系所名稱:光機電暨材料研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:英文
論文頁數:60
中文關鍵詞:五軸機械手臂
外文關鍵詞:5Axis Robot Arm
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摘要
本文主要是採用Analytical method的分析方法來實現五軸機械人手臂逆向運動學分析。利用Analytical method來做機器手臂之逆向運動學方程式。未來也要將逆向運動(Inverse Kinematics)所得的各軸資料,用運動控制系統來完成五軸機械手臂之運動控制。
過去機械手臂機構設計技術主要著重於在非移動及非互動型的產業用機械手臂為主。而機械手臂機構設計所強調的是與人類的互動,例如: 和人類打招呼或抓取物體等應用,都需要輕巧且靈活的機械手臂來完成任務。
由實驗中結果可看出,機械手臂肩部之馬達透過正時皮帶來傳遞動力至手肘關節,由於手臂重量不輕,其皮帶需經常保養,而且有彈性疲乏及斷裂等缺點,使得手臂無法長時間舉起,因此在設計一款新的機械手臂在每個關節的地方裝置渦輪渦桿,因為渦輪渦桿有機械式的自鎖功能所以就不用再透過馬達與正時皮帶來傳動手臂關節也可以達到長時間舉起,使手臂更加穩定,為了要配合運動控制卡的應用,所以在馬達尾部加裝編碼器,能讓控制卡和機械手臂動作,而降低手臂故障率。


關鍵詞:Analytical method、機械手臂、機構設計、運動學分析、分析計算論、
運動控制卡

Abstract
This thesis mainly analyzes the inverse kinematics of robot axis by using the “Analytical method” which is employed to solve equations of the inverse kinematics for robot arm. Then in order to complete the motion, five-axis robot arm is used. Then the following data obtained by the calculation procedure of each axis is used by the system for the desired movement.
Usually, the design technology of robot arm is principally focused on the non-mobile and non-interactive mechanical arms for industrial applications. The mechanism design of robot arm emphasizes the interaction between humans and robot arm to achieve the interactive tasks. The robot arm require is used for lightweight works. For example, sending greetings to human or grabbing objects as it is programmed.
It can be seen from the experimental results that the motor located at the shoulder of robot arm delivers power to hand through the bevel gear. It then gives rise to a new design of mechanical arm, which places a different gear at respective joint. Also the elbow is equipped with worm gear which is having a self-locking function. Thus the robot arm is more stable and can lift itself up for longer time, even though the power does not come from the motor.

Keywords: mechanical arm, worm gear, bevel gear, Inverse kinematics analysis, analytical calculation method, motor controller.


Table of Contents

Chapter First. Introduction
  1.1 Background 09
1.2 Objective 12
1.3 Literature Review 13
1.4 Papers architecture 13

Chapter second. Construction of five-axis robotic arm
2.1 Robot Design and Development 14
         2.1.1 Design of the mechanical arm shoulder 16
2.1.2 Design of the mechanical arm shoulder and elbow of 20
2.2 Scroll Turbo 22
2.3 Straight bevel gear 23
2.4Analytical calculation method 25

Chapter third. Robot kinematics
3.1 Orientation 30
3.1.1 Azimuths 31
  3.1.2 Homogeneous coordinate system 31
  3.2 Kinematics robot arm 32
3.2.1 Forward Kinematics 33
         3.2.2 Inverse kinematics 37

Chapter fourth. Robot hardware and operating equipment
4.1 overall architecture 40
        4.1.1 Motor 41
4.1.2 MCDC 3006S axis Card Overview 44
         4.1.3 Robot power supply 44
          4.1.4 RS-232 45
        4.1.5 Visual Basic interface control 47
4.2 MCDC 3006S axis card 47
4.2.1 MCDC 3006S drive features 50
4.2.2 MCDC 3006S drive exercise program 50
4.2.3 MCDC 3006S drive instruction 51
4.3 Actual test of Mechanical arm 52

Chapter fifth. Conclusions and future research
5.1 Conclusion 59
     5.2 Future Research 59
References 60


References
[1] Herdt, N. Perrin, P.-B. Wieber, Walking without thinking about it, in: IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2010, pp. 190–195.
[2] ShadiaElgazzar, Efficient Kinematic Transformations for the Puma 560 Robot , IEEE Journal of Robotics and automation vol Ra-1, No.3, September 1985.
[3] ShadiaElgazzar, Efficient Kinematic Transformations for the Puma 560 Robot , IEEE Journal of Robotics and automation vol Ra-1, No.3, September 1985.
[4] Denavit J.R.S. Hartenberg, “A kinematic Notation for Lower- Pair Mechanism Based on Matrices,” ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics,
June 1955 , 215 – 221.
[6] RachidMansuer, A software package for computer-aided robotics
education.
[7] Introduction to Robotics Mechanics and Control, John J. Craig pp
109-114, 2005 Prentice Hall.
[8] Heterogeneous Modeling & Design of Robot Arm Control System,AntoniaYordan-Nones , University of Puertro Rico , Mayagüez.
[9] De Xu , Carlos A. Acosta Calderon ,Jong Q. Gan , Huosheng Hu , An Analysis of the Inverse Kinematics for a 5- DofManipulator,International Journal of Automation and Computing 2(2005) 114 –
124.
[10] Introduction to Robotics, Saeed B. Niku pp 67-76 ,2001 Prentice Hall.
[11] Inverse Kinematics for Lynx Arms by Laurent Gay
(www.lynxmotion.com).
[12] BakiKoyuncu , Mehmet Güzel, Chessboard Application of 6 Axes
Robot Arm by using Inverse Kinematics Equations, Journal ofComputer


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