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研究生:吳俊興
研究生(外文):Tuan Hung Ngo
論文名稱:越南大氣戴奧辛濃度分佈特性及來源解析
論文名稱(外文):The Congener Profiles And Potential Sources Contributing To Atmospheric PCDD/Fs At Different Areas In Vietnam
指導教授:紀凱獻
指導教授(外文):Kai Hsien Chi
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立陽明大學
系所名稱:國際衛生碩士學位學程
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:公共衛生學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:英文
論文頁數:83
中文關鍵詞:NA
外文關鍵詞:PCDD/FsAmbient airVietnamPrincipal Component AnalysisPositive Matrix Factorization
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Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and Polychlorinated dibenzo furans (PCDD/Fs) are two groups of toxic persistent organic pollutants that can cause a variety of diseases in human beings and also detrimental effects to the environment. PCDD/F input in the air is mainly due to thermal process as well as some other sources with different amount of contribution. Vietnam has a double burden of dioxin from both industrial sources and historical sources (Agent Orange sprayegulations and policies on garbage treatment could help reduce the dioxin emission in the country.
Table of Contents
Acknowledgement i
Abstract ii
Table of Contents iii
List of abbreviation vi
Table of tables vii
Table of figures viii
Introduction 1
1. Physical and chemical properties of PCDD/Fs 1
2. Dioxin toxicity 4
3. Sources of dioxins 6
4. History of dioxins 7
5. Dioxin exposure risk 8
6. Health effect of dioxin exposures 12
Literature Review 15
1. Studies about dioxin 15
2. Vietnam dioxin situation 16
3. Regulations and standards on Dioxins threshold levels in industries and in the environment 17
i. International regulations 17
ii. Regulations in the USA 17
iii. Regulations in Canada 17
iv. Regulations in EU 18
v. Regulations in Japan 19
vi. Regulations in Korea 20
vii. Regulations and standards on dioxins in Vietnam 21
4. Research motivations and objectives 23
Materials and methodology 24
1. Sampling in the field 24
2. Sample collection and analysis 25
3. PCDD/Fs processing and analysis 26
4. Receptor modeling 27
Results and discussion 31
1. TSP concentration 31
2. Dioxin concentrations and distributions 32
3. Toxicity 42
4. Principal Component Analysis 46
5. Sources analysis using Positive Factorization Matrix 51
i. Source apportionment of atmospheric PCDD/Fs in Da Nang 51
ii. Source apportionment of atmospheric PCDD/Fs in Son La 54
iii. Source apportionment of atmospheric PCDD/Fs in Ho Chi Minh City 57
6. Policy implication 60
i. Agent Orange hotspot 60
ii. Transportation 60
iii. Liquid fuel conversion from biomass 61
iv. Control of waste generation and sufficient treatment 61
Current waste situation in Vietnam 61
MSW incineration 64
Composting of garbage and biomass 65
Potential of Anaerobic Digestion in Vietnam 65
Recycling activities and Waste classification 67
7. Strength and limitation of the study 68
Conclusion 69
References 70
Appendix 80


Table of tables
Table 1: Chemical structures of PCDD and PCDF compounds.............................................................2
Table 2: Suggested half-life times (h) of seventeen PCDD and PCDF congeners in air, water, soil
and sediment for area with annual average temperature about +7°C [8] .............................................3
Table 3: Dioxin toxicity standards.............................................................................................................5
Table 4: Dioxin major sources in ambient air..........................................................................................6
Table 5: Dioxin body burden in general populations and dioxin exposed groups..............................11
Table 6: LD50 of 2,3,7,8-TCDD for various species [51] ........................................................................14
Table 7: Dioxin thresholds for some sections of the environmental media..........................................21
Table 8: TSP concentration in Da Nang, Son La, Ho Chi Minh City ..................................................31
Table 9: Summary of PCDD/F concentration in Da Nang, Son La and Ho Chi Minh City...............33
Table 10: The logarithm of Cv/Cs ratio and the logarithm of vapor pressure at three areas ...........40
Table 11: Comparison of PCDD/F levels with other studies.................................................................45
Table 12. Waste amount forecast in Vietnam [93].................................................................................62
Table 13: Generated MSW quantity in Vietnam during 2007 – 2010 [94]..........................................62
Table 14: MSW composition (%) at landfills in big cities in Vietnam [94] .........................................63


Table of figures
Figure 1: Possible pathways from emission of substances to human exposure [42]. ..........................12
Figure 2: Map of sampling areas in Vietnam.........................................................................................25
Figure 3: Research flowchart...................................................................................................................30
Figure 4: PCDD/F distributions in Da Nang, Son La, and Ho Chi Minh City....................................35
Figure 5:Distribution of dioxin in gas phase and solid phase in (A) Da Nang, (B) Son La, (C) Ho Chi
Minh City...................................................................................................................................................36
Figure 6: Relationship between temperature and dioxin distribution in vapor and solid phases. Cv
is concentration of PCDD/Fs congeners existing in vapor phase (ng/Nm3
); and Cs is concentration
of PCDD/Fs congeners bounded in particles (ng/Nm3
)..........................................................................38
Figure 7: The coefficient of vapor/solid-phase PCDD/F distribution in A: Son La, B: Da Nang, C:
Ho Chi Minh City......................................................................................................................................41
Figure 8: Distribution of PCDD/Fs based on I-TEQ concentration in Da Nang city .........................42
Figure 9: Distribution of PCDD/Fs based on I-TEQ concentration in Son La ...................................43
Figure 10: Distribution of PCDD/Fs based on I-TEQ concentration in Ho Chi Minh City...............43
Figure 11: Principal component analysis (PCA) score plot on the PCDD/F homologue groups of air
samples collected in Da Nang, Son La, and Ho Chi Minh City. ...........................................................48
Figure 12: Dioxin pattern of open burning [79].....................................................................................49
Figure 13: Dioxin pattern of biomass combustion [80]..........................................................................49
Figure 14: Dioxin pattern of industrial boilers [81]...............................................................................50
Figure 15: Dioxin pattern of industrial waste incinerators [81] ...........................................................50
Figure 16: Dioxin pattern of vehicle activity [82]...................................................................................51
Figure 17: Source apportionment of Da Nang samples. (A) original data of dioxin I-TEQ profile of
Da Nang. (B) I-TEQ profile obtained when applying PMF to dioxin data in Da Nang .....................53
Figure 18: Source apportionment of Son La samples. (A) original data of dioxin I-TEQ profile of
Son La. (B) I-TEQ profile obtained when applying PMF to dioxin data in Son La. ..........................55
Figure 19: Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data about fire spot in Son
La, Vietnam (A) during 2011, March 18th and March 30th and (B) during 2012, March 13th to April
9
th [86]. Each fire spot is indicated in one spot in the figure. ................................................................56
Figure 20: Source apportionment of Ho Chi Minh City samples. (A) original data of dioxin I-TEQ
profile of Ho Chi Minh City. (B) I-TEQ profile obtained when applying PMF to dioxin data in Ho
Chi Minh City............................................................................................................................................59
Figure 21: MSW incineration scheme of Son Tay MSW incinerator plant (Ha Noi).........................64

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