(3.234.221.162) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/04/14 03:03
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:趙子祐
研究生(外文):Tzu-Yu Chao
論文名稱:牙科焦慮與成人樹脂窩洞修形疼痛經驗關聯性之臨床評估
論文名稱(外文):Clinical evaluation of the association between dental anxiety and the pain experience related to cavity preparation of composite resin filling in adult patients
指導教授:林嘉澍林嘉澍引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chia-Shu Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立陽明大學
系所名稱:牙醫學系
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:牙醫學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:95
中文關鍵詞:牙科焦慮疼痛經驗窩洞修形
外文關鍵詞:dental anxietypain experiencecavity preparation
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:70
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:20
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
牙本質敏感性疼痛是一種因為溫度或觸覺等刺激引起,不能歸因於其它牙齒缺陷或疾病的短暫刺痛。文獻指出疼痛經驗除了受疾病本身的影響外,亦會受到情緒與認知因素的作用,其中牙科焦慮與疼痛災難化是已知與牙科疼痛有關的因素。本研究觀察了40名於臺北榮民總醫院接受複合樹脂復形的病患,記錄其窩洞修形疼痛程度、各階段臨床敏感經驗、牙科焦慮程度與疼痛災難化程度,並探討窩洞修形疼痛程度、各階段臨床敏感經驗、複合樹脂復形類型、情緒與認知因素之間的關聯性。研究結果顯示牙科焦慮程度與窩洞修形疼痛程度呈統計上顯著的正相關。因不同的診斷原因接受複合樹脂復形類型(齲齒、齒頸部磨損或前次復形失敗)的病患,其窩洞修形疼痛程度、牙科焦慮程度與疼痛災難化並無顯著差異。治療各階段(治療前、窩洞修形後、復形後與術後一周)的臨床敏感經驗(包括不可忍受度,影響就診動機程度與症狀作用時間)皆有顯著差異,而其中第二階段窩洞修形後臨床敏感經驗與窩洞修形疼痛程度呈統計上顯著的正相關。研究中採用自訂的標記強度量表-臨床敏感經驗問卷,結合傳統的標記描述量表與視覺化類比量表的優點。該問卷可用於量化有關病患敏感經驗的各個面向,包括敏感經驗的不可忍受程度、症狀作用時間,以及影響就診動機程度,使臨床醫師能更有效地獲得精細的資訊。本研究結果將有助於臨床醫師進一步了解複合樹脂復形治療病患之疼痛的變化,並突顯牙本質敏感病患進行複合樹脂復形治療時,控制疼痛與處理病患焦慮情緒的重要性。
Dentine hypersensitivity is the short-lasting acute pain, commonly evoked by cold, hot or tactile stimuli, which cannot be attributed to other dental lesions or diseases. It is widely known that pain is not only influenced by the condition of a physical lesion, but also by emotional and cognitive factors. Among these factors, dental anxiety and pain catastrophizing are associated with dental pain. In the current study, we investigated 40 patients who received composite resin restoration in Taipei Veterans General Hospital. We assessed the pain during cavity preparation, clinical hypersensitivity experience in different treatment stages, and patients’ degree of dental anxiety and pain catastrophizing. The association between pain during cavity preparation, dental anxiety, pain catastrophizing, and the clinical hypersensitivity experience in different treatment stages is analyzed and discussed. Our results show that (1) the degree of dental anxiety is statistically positively correlated to the pain during cavity preparation. (2) Among the patients with different diagnoses for receiving composite resin restoration, including caries, cervical abrasion or previous failure in restoration, the pain during cavity preparation, dental anxiety and pain catastrophizing do not significantly differ. (3) Each of the clinical hypersensitivity experiences (intolerability, motivation to receive treatment and duration of symptoms) significantly differ across different treatment stages (before treatment, after cavity preparation, after filling and one week post-treatment), and the clinical hypersensitivity experiences in the second treatment stage(i.e., after cavity preparation) are statistically positively correlated to the pain during cavity preparation. In the study, we used a customized labeled magnitude scale – the Clinical Hypersensitivity Experience Questionnaire (CHEQ). The CHEQ combines the advantages of the traditional verbal descriptor scale and visual analog scale of pain assessment, and it is able to assess multiple aspects related to hypersensitivity, including intolerability, motivation to receive treatment and duration of symptoms. The findings would contribute to our knowledge about the dynamic experience of hypersensitivity during composite resin restoration. It highlights that both pain control and anxiety management is critical to the patients who receive composite resin restoration.
目錄
謝詞 ...........................................1
中文摘要.........................................2
英文摘要.........................................3
目錄................................................5
第一章 研究背景與目標..................9
1.1 研究背景.................................9
1.1.1 牙本質敏感...........................9
1.1.2 與牙科疼痛有關的情緒與認知因素.........................10
1.1.3 窩洞修形疼痛........................10
1.2研究目標..................................11
1.2.1 主要與分項研究目標..............11
1.3名詞定義與研究變項..................12
1.4文獻回顧..................................13
1.4.1文獻回顧目標與文獻篩選標準..........................13
1.4.2資料收集..............................14
1.4.3 資料整理..............................14
1.4.4 文獻回顧結果與討論................14
1.5研究假設..................................17
1.5.1 子目標一:牙科焦慮程度及疼痛災難化程度與病患窩洞修形疼痛程度的關聯性... 17
1.5.2子目標二:不同診斷原因是否影響受試者的窩洞修形疼痛程度、情緒與認知因子的差異....18
1.5.3子目標三:接受治療時各階段其臨床敏感經驗之差異.............19
第二章 研究方法......................20
2.1 研究策略與實驗設計.................20
2.1.1 研究策略..............................20
2.1.2 實驗設計...............................20
2.2 研究對象與收案流程.................21
2.2.1 研究對象之排除納入條件.........21
2.2.2 收案流程...............................22
2.3 研究倫理.................................22
2.4 受試者最小樣本數估計..............22
2.5 研究流程與資料收集.................23
2.6 研究工具................................24
2.6.1 臨床檢查工具........................24
2.6.2評估窩洞修形疼痛程度............25
2.6.3評估情緒與認知因素...............25
2.6.4自訂問卷:臨床敏感經驗問卷(CHEQ).........28
2.6.5 自訂CHEQ流程.....................29
2.6.6自訂問卷的信效度檢測............31
2.7統計分析..................................32
2.7.1 CHEQ重測信度:級內相關係數(Intraclass correlation coefficient)....32
2.7.2 病患受試者組與健康受試者之組間差異分析.................32
2.7.3常態性檢定(Normality test).........................32
2.7.4 史皮爾曼等級相關係數(Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient).....33
2.7.5 克-瓦檢定(Kruskal-Wallis test)...............33
2.7.6弗里德曼檢定(Friedman test)......................33
2.7.7魏克遜檢定(Wilcoxon test)..........................34
第三章 研究結果 .........................35
3.1 臨床敏感經驗問卷信度測試.............................35
3.1.1非病患組之描述統計分析...........................35
3.1.2 CHEQ重測信度 ..................36
3.2 受試者之臨床特徵分析 ............36
3.2.1 病患組之描述統計分析 .....................36
3.2.2 常態性檢定 ...................38
3.2.3 臨床病患組與健康受試者組之組間差異分析 ..............38
3.2.4 臨床病患組與先導實驗受試者之組間差異分析 .............38
3.3情緒與認知對受試者的窩洞修形疼痛程度的影響 ..............39
3.3.1 牙科焦慮與窩洞修形疼痛之關聯性.......................39
3.3.2認知對受試者窩洞修形程度的影響 ..............39
3.4不同診斷原因是否影響受試者的窩洞修形疼痛程度、情緒與認知經驗....39
3.4.1 診斷原因對窩洞修形疼痛程度的影響..............39
3.4.2 診斷原因對情緒的影響...............40
3.4.3 診斷原因對認知的影響..........40
3.5接受治療時各階段其臨床敏感經驗之差異.............40
3.5.1 各階段的不可忍受度是否存在差異.................40
3.5.2 各階段的影響就診動機程度是否存在差異.............41
3.5.3 各階段的症狀作用時間是否存在差異............41
3.6窩洞修形疼痛程度與第二階段臨床敏感經驗的關聯性...........42
3.6.1窩洞修形疼痛程度對第二階段不可忍受度的影響.............42
3.6.2窩洞修形疼痛程度對第二階段影響就診動機程度的影響...........42
3.6.3窩洞修形疼痛程度對第二階段症狀作用時間的影響................42
第四章 討論.....................44
4.1主要研究結果之討論..............44
4.2子目標一:情緒與認知對受試者的窩洞修形疼痛程度的影響 .......44
4.2.1 牙科焦慮程度與窩洞修形疼痛程度呈統計上顯著的正相關.......44
4.2.2 疼痛災難化程度與窩洞修形疼痛程度呈統計上顯著的正相關.....45
4.3子目標二:不同診斷原因是否影響受試者的窩洞修形疼痛程度、情緒與認知經驗...46
4.3.1 齲齒、齒頸部磨損與復形失敗此三種診斷的窩洞修形疼痛程度沒有顯著的差異...46
4.3.2 齲齒、齒頸部磨損與復形失敗此三種診斷的牙科焦慮程度無顯著的差異...........47
4.3.3 齲齒、齒頸部磨損與復形失敗此三種診斷的疼痛災難化程度無顯著的差異........48
4.4 子目標三:接受治療時各階段其臨床敏感經驗之差異 ...........48
4.4.1 各階段不可忍受程度存在差異..........48
4.4.2 各階段就診動機程度存在差異.........48
4.4.3各階段症狀作用時間存在差異...........49
4.4.4 窩洞修形疼痛程度與第二階段不可忍受度呈統計上顯著的正相關.....49
4.4.5窩洞修形疼痛程度與第二階段就診動機程度呈統計上顯著的正相關....50
4.4.6窩洞修形疼痛程度與第二階段症狀作用時間呈統計上顯著的正相關....50
4.5 CHEQ之應用與優缺點......................51
4.6本研究的侷限處與改進方法...............53
4.6.1 樣本選取與代表性........................53
4.6.2 可能影響臨床敏感經驗之因素.........53
4.6.3 窩洞修形疼痛經驗與臨床敏感經驗之程度評估..............54
4.6.4 有關個體因素之考量...................54
4.7臨床意義........................................55
參考資料............................................56
表一:名詞定義....................................60
表二:研究變項..................................61
表三:文獻搜尋流程............................62
表四:牙本質敏感盛行率與研究方法之文獻回顧 – 研究群體摘要.........63
表五:牙本質敏感盛行率與研究方法之文獻回顧 – 研究結果摘要..........65
表六:受試者納入排除條件.................68
表七:標準化檢查表............................69
表八:臨床敏感經驗量表所採用之標記....................70
表九:先導試驗受試者的描述統計特徵....................71
表十:非病患組受試者描述統計結果.....................72
表十一:病患組受試者描述統計結果..........................73
表十二:病患組受試者觀察變項之描述統計結果...................74
圖一:篩選流程圖..............................75
圖二:研究流程..........................76
圖三:視覺類比量表(Visual Analog Scale,VAS)........77
圖四:標記強度量表(Labeled Magnitude Scale,LMS).......78
圖五:CHEQ三大項目兩次測量分數之Bland-Altman plot.........79
圖六:情緒與認知對受試者的窩洞修形疼痛程度的影響.............80
圖七:不同診斷原因是否影響受試者的窩洞修形疼痛程度、情緒與認知經驗..81
圖八: 接受治療時各階段其臨床敏感經驗之差異.........83
圖九:窩洞修形疼痛程度與第二階段臨床敏感經驗的關聯性.........85
附件ㄧ:同意臨床試驗證明書(新案).....................86
附件二:同意臨床試驗證明書(變更案)...................87
附件三:診斷與治療記錄表 .........................88
附件四:臨床敏感經驗問卷CHEQ .....................89
附件五:改良式牙科焦慮量表MDAS.......................94
附件六:疼痛災難化問卷PCS...........................95


1. Shiau, H.J., DENTIN HYPERSENSITIVITY. Journal of evidence-based dental practice special issue, 2012. 12(1): p. 9.
2. Davari AR.a, A.E.a., Assarzadeh H., Dentin Hypersensitivity: Etiology, Diagnosis and Treatment; A Literature Review. J Dent (Shiraz), 2013. 14(3): p. 10.
3. Liu, H.-C., W.-H. Lan, and C.-C. Hsieh, Prevalence and distribution of cervical dentin hypersensitivity in a population in Taipei, Taiwan. Journal of Endodontics, 1998. 24(1): p. 45-47.
4. Sixou, J.L., How to make a link between Oral Health-Related Quality of Life and dentin hypersensitivity in the dental office? Clin Oral Investig, 2013. 17 Suppl 1: p. S41-4.
5. Davari, A., E. Ataei, and H. Assarzadeh, Dentin hypersensitivity: etiology, diagnosis and treatment; a literature review. J Dent (Shiraz), 2013. 14(3): p. 136-45.
6. Heaton, L.J., A.P. Barlow, and S.E. Coldwell, Development of Labeled Magnitude Scales for the Assessment of Pain of Dentin Hypersensitivity. Journal of Orofacial pain, 2013. 27: p. 10.
7. Tracey, I. and P.W. Mantyh, The Cerebral Signature for Pain Perception and Its Modulation. Neuron, 2007. 55(3): p. 377-391.
8. Rubin, J.G., M. Slovin, and M. Krochak, The psychodynamics of dental anxiety and dental phobia. Dent Clin North Am, 1988. 32(4): p. 647-56.
9. Locker, D., A. Liddell, and D. Shapiro, Diagnostic categories of dental anxiety: a population-based study. Behav Res Ther, 1999. 37(1): p. 25-37.
10. Chellappah, N.K., et al., Prevalence of dental anxiety and fear in children in Singapore. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 1990. 18(5): p. 269-71.
11. Stouthard, M.E. and J. Hoogstraten, Prevalence of dental anxiety in The Netherlands. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 1990. 18(3): p. 139-42.
12. Schwarz, E. and H. Birn, Dental anxiety in Danish and Chinese adults--a cross-cultural perspective. Soc Sci Med, 1995. 41(1): p. 123-30.
13. Klages, U., et al., Dental trait anxiety and pain sensitivity as predictors of expected and experienced pain in stressful dental procedures. Eur J Oral Sci, 2004. 112(6): p. 477-83.
14. McNeil, D.W., et al., Memory of pain and anxiety associated with tooth extraction. J Dent Res, 2011. 90(2): p. 220-4.
15. Lin, C.S., Pain catastrophizing in dental patients: implications for treatment management. J Am Dent Assoc, 2013. 144(11): p. 1244-51.
16. Briso AL, M.S., Delício G, Sundfeld RH, Bedran-Russo AK, de Alexandre RS, Ambrosano GM., Clinical assessment of postoperative sensitivity in posterior composite restorations. Oper Dent., 2007. 32(5): p. 6.
17. Liberati, A., et al., The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate healthcare interventions: explanation and elaboration. BMJ, 2009. 339(b2700).
18. Scaramucci, T., et al., Investigation of the prevalence, clinical features, and risk factors of dentin hypersensitivity in a selected Brazilian population. Clin Oral Investig, 2014. 18(2): p. 651-7.
19. Wang, Y., et al., The prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity in the general population in China. J Oral Rehabil, 2012. 39(11): p. 812-20.
20. Lewis, C., H. Lynch, and B. Johnston, Dental complaints in emergency departments: a national perspective. Ann Emerg Med, 2003. 42(1): p. 93-9.
21. Chung, G., S.J. Jung, and S.B. Oh, Cellular and molecular mechanisms of dental nociception. J Dent Res, 2013. 92(11): p. 948-55.
22. Lin, M., et al., Fluid mechanics in dentinal microtubules provides mechanistic insights into the difference between hot and cold dental pain. PLoS One, 2011. 6(3): p. e18068.
23. FAUL, F., et al., G*Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behavior Research Methods, 2007. 39(2): p. 175-191.
24. Tellez, M., et al., Prevalence and correlates of dental anxiety in patients seeking dental care. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 2015. 43: p. 135-142.
25. Humphris, G.M., T. Morrison, and S.J. Lindsay, The Modified Dental Anxiety Scale: validation and United Kingdom norms. Community Dent Health, 1995. 12(3): p. 143-50.
26. Yap, J.C., Lau, J., Chen, P. P., Gin, T., Wong, T., Chan, I., Chu, J. and Wong, E., Validation of the Chinese Pain Catastrophizing Scale (HK-PCS) in Patients with Chronic Pain. Pain Medicine, 2008(9): p. 186-195.
27. Yuan, S., et al., Some psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale with cross validation. Health Qual Life Outcomes, 2008. 6: p. 22.
28. Zigmond, A.S. and R.P. Snaith, The hospital anxiety and depression scale. Acta Psychiatr Scand, 1983. 67(6): p. 361-70.
29. Yap, a.C., et al., Validation of the Chinese Pain Catastrophizing Scale (HK-PCS) in Patients with Chronic Pain. Pain Medicine, 2008. 9(2): p. 11.
30. Sullivan, M.J., S.R. Bishop, and J. Pivik, The pain catastrophizing scale: development and validation. Psychological assessment, 1995. 7(4): p. 524.
31. Sullivan, M.J., et al., Theoretical perspectives on the relation between catastrophizing and pain. Clin J Pain, 2001. 17(1): p. 52-64.
32. Shrout, P.E. and J.L. Fleiss Intraclass correlations:Uses in assessing rater reliability. Psychological Bulletin, 1979. 86(2): p. 420-428.
33. Graven-Nielsen, T., et al., Assessment of musculoskeletal pain sensitivity and temporal summation by cuff pressure algometry: a reliability study. Pain, 2015. 156(11): p. 2193-202.
34. Maggirias, J. and D. Locker, Psychological factors and perceptions of pain associated with dental treatment. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 2002. 30(2): p. 151-9.
35. Sullivan, M.J. and N.R. Neish, Catastrophizing, anxiety and pain during dental hygiene treatment. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 1998. 26(5): p. 344-9.
36. Sullivan, M.J. and N.R. Neish, Psychological predictors of pain during dental hygiene treatment. Probe, 1997. 31(4): p. 123-6, 135.
37. Tripp, D.A., N.R. Neish, and M.J. Sullivan, What hurts during dental hygiene treatment. J Dent Hyg, 1998. 72(4): p. 25-30.
38. Severeijns, R., J.W. Vlaeyen, and M.A. van den Hout, Do we need a communal coping model of pain catastrophizing? An alternative explanation. Pain, 2004. 111(3): p. 226-9.
39. Moore, R., et al., Acute pain and use of local anesthesia: tooth drilling and childbirth labor pain beliefs among Anglo-Americans, Chinese, and Scandinavians. Anesth Prog, 1998. 45(1): p. 29-37.
40. Roger-Leroi, V., C. Lalechere-Lestrade, and S. Tubert-Jeannin, [Characteristics of the patients needing emergency dental treatment at the hospital of Clermont-Ferrand (France)]. Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique, 2007. 55(3): p. 197-202.
41. Waldrop, R.D., B. Ho, and S. Reed, Increasing frequency of dental patients in the urban ED. Am J Emerg Med, 2000. 18(6): p. 687-9.
42. Guzeldemir, E., H.U. Toygar, and U. Cilasun, Pain perception and anxiety during scaling in periodontally healthy subjects. J Periodontol, 2008. 79(12): p. 2247-55.
43. Ye, W., X.P. Feng, and R. Li, The prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity in Chinese adults. J Oral Rehabil, 2012. 39(3): p. 182-7.
44. van Wijk, A.J. and J. Hoogstraten, Experience with dental pain and fear of dental pain. J Dent Res, 2005. 84(10): p. 947-50.
45. Roberson, T.M., Heymann, H., Swift, E. J., & Sturdevant, C. M., Sturdevant's art and science of operative dentistry. 4 ed. 2002: Mosby.
46. Berkowitz, G.S., et al., Postoperative Hypersensitivity in Class I Resin-based Composite Restorations in General Practice: Interim Results. Compendium of continuing education in dentistry (Jamesburg, N.J. : 1995), 2009. 30(6): p. 356-363.
47. Gordon, D., et al., A critical review of approaches to the treatment of dental anxiety in adults. J Anxiety Disord, 2013. 27(4): p. 365-78.
48. Humphris GM, M.T., Lindsay S, The Modified Dental Anxiety Scale: validation and United Kingdom norms. . Community dental health, 1995. 12: p. 143-150.
49. Costa, R.S., et al., Prevalence and risk indicators of dentin hypersensitivity in adult and elderly populations from Porto Alegre, Brazil. J Periodontol, 2014. 85(9): p. 1247-58.
50. Naidu, G.M., et al., Prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity and related factors among adult patients visiting a dental school in andhra pradesh, southern India. J Clin Diagn Res, 2014. 8(9): p. Zc48-51.
51. Al-Khafaji, H., Observations on dentine hypersensitivity in general dental practices in the United Arab Emirates. Eur J Dent, 2013. 7(4): p. 389-94.
52. Cunha-Cruz, J., et al., The prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity in general dental practices in the northwest United States. J Am Dent Assoc, 2013. 144(3): p. 288-96.
53. Que K, G.B., Jia Z, Chen Z, Yang J, Gao P., A cross-sectional study: non-carious cervical lesions, cervical dentine hypersensitivity and related risk factors. J Oral Rehabil., 2013. 40: p. 9.
54. C. RAHIOTIS*, A.P., K. TSIKLAKIS‡ & and A. KAKABOURA*, Cervical dentin hypersensitivity: a cross-sectional investigation in Athens, Greece. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 2013(40): p. 948-957.
55. Rane, P., et al., Epidemiological Study to Evaluate the Prevalence of Dentine Hypersensitivity among Patients. J Int Oral Health, 2013. 5(5): p. 15-9.
56. Vijaya, V., et al., Association of dentine hypersensitivity with different risk factors - a cross sectional study. J Int Oral Health, 2013. 5(6): p. 88-92.
57. Colak H, A.B., Hamidi MM, Uzgur R., Prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity among university students in Turkey. Niger J Clin Pract, 2012. 15(4): p. 5.
58. Dhaliwal, J.S., et al., Prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity: A cross-sectional study in rural Punjabi Indians. J Indian Soc Periodontol, 2012. 16(3): p. 426-9.
59. Amarasena, N., et al., Dentine hypersensitivity in a private practice patient population in Australia. J Oral Rehabil, 2011. 38(1): p. 52-60.
60. Bamise CT, K.K., Oloyede EO, Esan TA., Tooth sensitivity experience among residential university students. Int J Dent Hyg, 2010. 8: p. 6.
61. Que, K., et al., A multi-centre and cross-sectional study of dentine hypersensitivity in China. J Clin Periodontol, 2010. 37(7): p. 631-7.
62. Smith WA, M.S., Rafeek RN, The prevalence and severity of non-carious cervical lesions in a group of patients attending a university hospital in Trinidad. J Oral Rehabil., 2008. 35: p. 7.
63. Rees, J.S. and M. Addy, A cross-sectional study of buccal cervical sensitivity in UK general dental practice and a summary review of prevalence studies. Int J Dent Hyg, 2004. 2(2): p. 64-9.
64. Clayton, D.R., D. McCarthy, and D.G. Gillam, A study of the prevalence and distribution of dentine sensitivity in a population of 17-58-year-old serving personnel on an RAF base in the Midlands. J Oral Rehabil, 2002. 29(1): p. 14-23.
65. Rees, J.S. and M. Addy, A cross-sectional study of dentine hypersensitivity. J Clin Periodontol, 2002. 29(11): p. 997-1003.
66. Taani, S.D. and F. Awartani, Clinical evaluation of cervical dentin sensitivity (CDS) in patients attending general dental clinics (GDC) and periodontal specialty clinics (PSC). J Clin Periodontol, 2002. 29(2): p. 118-22.
67. Gillam, D.G., et al., Comparison of dentine hypersensitivity in selected occidental and oriental populations. J Oral Rehabil, 2001. 28(1): p. 20-5.
68. Rees, J.S., The prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity in general dental practice in the UK. J Clin Periodontol, 2000. 27(11): p. 860-5.
69. Gupta, P.V., Dental disease differential diagnosis. 2008. p. 149-152.

連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關論文
 
無相關期刊
 
無相關點閱論文
 
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔