(3.235.41.241) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/04/15 05:27
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:黃嘉宇
研究生(外文):Chia-Yu Huang
論文名稱:右旋美沙芬對於減少胚胎期暴露於脂多醣所引起之多巴胺和血清素神經元及神經新生下降之效果之研究
論文名稱(外文):The study of dextromethorphan treatment on preventing prenatal LPS exposure induced reduction in dopamine & serotonin neuron and neurogenesis
指導教授:王先逸
指導教授(外文):Sabrina Wang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立陽明大學
系所名稱:解剖學及細胞生物學研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:醫學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:88
中文關鍵詞:妊娠感染脂多醣介白素-6腫瘤壞死因子-α多巴胺神經元血清素神經元神經新生右旋美沙芬
外文關鍵詞:maternal infectionLPSIL-6TNF-αdopamine neuronserotonin neuronneurogenesisdextromethorphan
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
  • 點閱點閱:83
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:5
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
根據許多研究顯示妊娠期時母體受到感染會對胎兒腦部發育造成影響,進而導致子代罹患精神障礙性疾病的機率增加。妊娠期間的感染十分常見,當母體受到感染時會引起細胞激素 (cytokine) 濃度增加,使胎兒處於高濃度細胞激素的環境,進而影響神經發育,本實驗是探討在懷孕早期注射脂多醣 (lipopolysaccharide, LPS, 66μg/kg) 來模擬母體受到輕微細菌性感染,對子代多巴胺 (dopamine, DA) 和血清素 (serotonin, 5-HT) 神經元與神經新生 (neurogenesis) 的影響,以及子代再次感染時的反應,並探討使用右旋美沙芬 (dextromethorpnan, DM, 30mg/kg) 抑制發炎反應是否會減少神經損傷。我們使用Sprague-Dawley (SD) 懷孕母鼠,在E10.5天時腹腔注射LPS,待子代出生後第七天 (P7) 腹腔注射LPS或PBS,並於注射後2、4、6、12小時犧牲,另一組懷孕母鼠在E10.5天腹腔注射LPS後1小時與24小時再腹腔注右旋美沙芬,一部分子代於P7天腹腔注射LPS或PBS後2小時犧牲,一部分子代於P30天犧牲,最後一部分子代於P60天注射bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU, 200 mg/kg) 並於24小時後犧牲。實驗結果發現P7天LPS rat再次注射LPS時IL-6和TNF-α濃度較高、DA和5HT神經元數量也有顯著減少;LPS+DM組結果顯示DM能降低再次注射LPS時引起的較高濃度IL-6和TNF-α;LPS+DM組P30天子代與LPS+Vehicle組相比DA神經元的減少有回復效果,5HT神經元則無差異;LPS+Vehicle組P60天子代的neurogenesis減少且給予DM的LPS+DM組沒有回復的效果。我們推論產前LPS注射後DM的抗發炎活性能夠減緩母體發炎反應,對於子代DA神經元具有保護作用,且能降低再次感染時細胞激素較高的發炎反應。
Recently many studies have shown that maternal infection during pregnancy will affect neural development of fetal brain, and increase the risks of offspring suffering from mental disorders. Infection during pregnancy is very common, which could increase maternal cytokine in serum and expose the embryo to high cytokine environment therefore affecting their neural development. In the present studies, we used lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection in the early stage of pregnancy to simulate mild bacterial infection, and investigate offspring dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) neurons, neurogenesis, as well as the responses to secondary LPS exposure. We also investigated whether dextromethorphan (DM), an anti-inflammatory drug, could inhibit the inflammation and reduce the neural damage. Experiments used pregnant Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Pregnant rats were given LPS (66μg/kg) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) injections on E10.5 day. The P7 offspring were sacrificed 2, 4, 6 and 12 hours after secondary LPS or PBS injection to measure serum cytokine levels and DA, 5-HT cell numbers in the brain. In another group of pregnant rats we injected LPS, and 1h and 24h later injected DM (30mg/kg) or vehicle (ddH2O). Part of the offspring from this group were sacrificed 2 hours after secondary LPS or PBS injection on P7 to measure serum cytokine levels, and part of the offspring were sacrificed on P30 to measure DA and 5-HT cell numbers in the brain. We also used P60 offspring from this group to study adult neurogenesis by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU, 200 mg/kg) injection. We found that prenatal LPS exposure increased serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) concentrations; and decreased DA cells in substantia nigra and 5-HT cells in dorsal raphe of P7 rat which were given secondary LPS injections. The P30 rats of LPS+DM group showed that DM could reverse the DA cells reduction caused by prenatal LPS exposure, but not the reduction of 5-HT cells. The P60 rats of LPS+Vehicle group showed reduction in neurogenesis in subventricular zone (SVZ) and proliferation in hippocampal dentate gyrus. However, DM treatment could not reverse the reduction in neurogenesis and proliferation. We conclude that anti-inflammatory activity of DM could reduce LPS-induced maternal immune response and show protective effects for DA neurons in offspring. Furthermore, our results provide evidences that DM might moderate the impact of combined prenatal and postnatal LPS injections, based on the reduction in basal levels of cytokines and the reduction in enhanced cytokine production following secondary LPS injection in offspring.
致謝……………………………………………………………………………….. i
中文摘要………………………………………………………………………….. ii
英文摘要………………………………………………………………………….. iii
目錄……………………………………………………………………………….. iv
圖目錄……………………………………………………………………...…..…. vi
縮寫表…………………………………………………………………...….…..… vii
第一章 緒論…………………………………………………………………….… 1
1.1 妊娠感染………………………………………………………………... 1
1.2 脂多醣………………………………………………………………....... 2
1.3 細胞激素………………………………………………………………... 3
1.4 多巴胺………………………………………………………………....... 4
1.5 血清素………………………………………………………………....... 6
1.6 憂鬱症………………………………………………………………....... 7
1.6.1 憂鬱症病因及症狀………………………………………………. 8
1.6.2 憂鬱症假說………………………………………………………. 9
1.7 神經新生……………………………………………………………….. 12
1.8 右旋美沙芬…………………………………………………………..… 13
1.9 研究動機……………………………………………………………….. 15
1.10 研究目的………………………………………………………...……. 16
第二章 實驗材料與方法………………………………………………………… 17
第三章 實驗結果……………………………………………………………….... 28
3.1探討在懷孕母鼠 (E10.5天) 腹腔注射LPS對子代的影響…………. 28
3.1.1 懷孕期間暴露於LPS對出生後子代體重的影響……………… 28
3.1.2 懷孕期間暴露於LPS對子代再次注射LPS後細胞激素的變化 28
3.1.3 懷孕期間暴露於LPS對子代再次注射LPS後神經元的影響… 29
3.2 探討在懷孕母鼠腹腔注射LPS及給予DM對子代的影響………….. 30
3.2.1懷孕期間暴露於LPS及給予DM對出生後子代體重的影響… 30
3.2.2 懷孕期間暴露於LPS及給予DM對子代再次注射LPS後細胞激素的變化……………………….……………………………....... 32
3.2.3 懷孕期間暴露於LPS及給予DM對子代神經元的影響……… 33
3.3 探討產前注射LPS後給予DM對子代成年神經新生的影響……….. 35
第四章 討論………………………………………………………………............ 37
第五章 結論………………………………………………………………............ 46
第六章 參考文獻……………………………………………………………….... 47
第七章 附錄………………………………………………………………............ 88


圖目錄
圖一、實驗設計與時間流程…………………………………………………….... 61
圖二、懷孕期間注射 LPS 的母鼠體重和出生後子代的體重…………………... 62
圖三、懷孕期間注射 LPS 的子代出生後再次注射 LPS 對 IL-6 的影響………. 63
圖四、懷孕期間注射 LPS 的子代出生後再次注射 LPS 對 TNF-α 的影響……… 65
圖五、懷孕期間注射 LPS 的子代出生後再次注射 LPS 對多巴胺神經元的影響 67
圖六、懷孕期間注射 LPS 的子代出生後再次注射 LPS 對血清素神經元的影響 69
圖七、成年母鼠注射 LPS 後給予 DM 對其血清中細胞激素的變化…………... 71
圖八、懷孕期間注射 LPS 與 DM 的母鼠體重和出生後子代的體重………….. 72
圖九、懷孕期間注射 LPS 與 DM 的子代出生後再次注射 LPS 對 IL-6 的影響.. 74
圖十、懷孕期間注射 LPS 與 DM 的子代出生後再次注射 LPS 對 TNF-α 的影響 76
圖十一、懷孕期間注射 LPS 與 DM 對一個月大子代多巴胺神經元的影響…... 78
圖十二、懷孕期間注射 LPS 與 DM 對一個月大子代血清素神經元的影響…... 82
圖十三、懷孕期間注射 LPS 與 DM 對子代公鼠的成年神經新生影響……….. 85
Alexander JM, Gilstrap LC 3rd, Cox SM, Ramin SM (1997) The relationship of infection to method of delivery in twin pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 177(5):1063-6

Anisman H, Kokkinidis L, Merali Z (2002) Further evidence for the depressive effects of cytokines: anhedonia and neurochemical changes. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 16(5):544-556

Arango V, Underwood MD, Boldrini M, Tamir H, Kassir SA, Hsiung S, Chen JJ, Mann JJ (2001) Serotonin 1A receptors, serotonin transporter binding and serotonin transporter mRNA expression in the brainstem of depressed suicide victims. Neuropsychopharmacology 25(6):892-903

Asberg M, Bertilsson L, Mårtensson B, Scalia-Tomba GP, Thorén P, Träskman-Bendz L (1984) CSF monoamine metabolites in melancholia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 69(3):201-219

Atladóttir HÓ, Henriksen TB, Schendel DE, Parner ET (2012) Autism after infection, febrile episodes, and antibiotic use during pregnancy: an exploratory study. Pediatrics 130(6):e1447-1454

Azmitia EC, Segal M (1978) An autoradiographic analysis of the differential ascending projections of the dorsal and median raphe nuclei in the rat. Journal of Comparative Neurology 179(3):641-67

Babulas V, Factor-Litvak P, Goetz R, Schaefer CA, Brown AS (2006) Prenatal exposure to maternal genital and reproductive infections and adult schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 163:927–929

Baldessarini RJ (1975) The basis for amine hypotheses in affective disorders. A critical evaluation. Archives of General Psychiatry 32(9):1087-1093

Banasr M, Soumier A, Hery M, Mocaër E, Daszuta A (2006) Agomelatine, a new antidepressant, induces regional changes in hippocampal neurogenesis. Biological Psychiatry 59(11):1087-1096

Banks WA, Kastin AJ, Gutierrez EG (1994) Penetration of interleukin-6 across the murine blood-brain barrier. Neuroscience letters 179:53-56

Barbeau A (1970) Dopamine and disease. Canadian Medical Association journal 103:824-832

Berger M, Gray JA, Roth BL (2009) The expanded biology of serotonin. Annual Review of Medicine 60:355-66

Beaulieu J. M., Gainetdinov R. R. (2011). The physiology, signaling, and pharmacology of dopamine receptors. Pharmacological Reviews 63(1):182–217

Blazer DG, Kessler RC, McGonagle KA, Swartz MS (1994) The prevalence and distribution of major depression in a national community sample: the National Comorbidity Survey. The American journal of psychiatry 151:979-986

Bransfield RC, Wulfman JS, Harvey WT, Usman AI. (2008) The association between tick-borne infections, Lyme borreliosis and autism spectrum disorders. Medical Hypotheses 70(5):967-74

Brasic JR, Barnett JY, Aisemberg P, Ahn SC, Nadrich RH, Kaplan D, Ahmad R, Mendonca Mde F (1997) Dyskinesias subside off all medication in a boy with autistic disorder and severe mental retardation. Psychological Reports 81:755-767

Bremner JD, Narayan M, Anderson ER, Staib LH, Miller HL, Charney DS (2000) Hippocampal volume reduction in major depression. American Journal of Psychiatry 157(1):115-118

Britton P, Lu XC, Laskosky MS, Tortella FC (1997) Dextromethorphan protects against cerebral injury following transient, but not permanent, focal ischemia in rats. Life Sciences 60:1729–1740

Brown AS, Susser ES (2002) In utero infection and adult schizophrenia. Mental Retardation And Developmental DisabilitiesRresearch Reviews 8:51-57

Brown AS, Begg MD, Gravenstein S, Schaefer CA, Wyatt RJ, Bresnahan M, Babulas VP, Susser ES (2004) Serologic evidence of prenatal influenza in the etiology of schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 61:774–780

Brown AS, Derkits EJ (2010) Prenatal infection and schizophrenia: a review of epidemiologic and translational studies. American Journal of Psychiatry 167(3):261-280

Bruce ML, Leaf PJ, Rozal GP, Florio L, Hoff RA (1994) Psychiatric status and 9-year mortality data in the New Haven Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study. The American journal of psychiatry 151:716-721

Cameron CM, Wightman RM, Carelli RM (2014) Dynamics of rapid dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens during goal-directed behaviors for cocaine versus natural rewards. Neuropharmacology 86:319-28

Canetta SE, Bao Y, Co MD, Ennis FA, Cruz J, Terajima M, Shen L, Kellendonk C, Schaefer CA, Brown AS (2014) Serological documentation of maternal influenza exposure and bipolar disorder in adult offspring. American Journal of Psychiatry 171(5):557-63

Canli T, Lesch KP (2007) Long story short: the serotonin transporter in emotion regulation and social cognition. Nature Neuroscience 10(9):1103-9

Cannon JG, Dinarello CA (1985) Increased plasma interleukin-1 activity in women after ovulation. Science 227(4691):1247-9

Carvey PM, Chang Q, Lipton JW, Ling Z (2003) Prenatal exposure to the bacteriotoxin lipopolysaccharide leads to long-term losses of dopamine neurons in offspring: a potential, new model of Parkinson's disease. Frontiers in Bioscience : a journal and virtual library 8: s826-837

Chen H, Pandey GN, Dwivedi Y (2006) Hippocampal cell proliferation regulation by repeated stress and antidepressants. Neuroreport 17(9):863-867

Curfs JH, Meis JF, Hoogkamp-Korstanje JA (1997) A primer on cytokines: sources, receptors, effects, and inducers. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 10:742-780

Czéh B, Lucassen PJ (2007) What causes the hippocampal volume decrease in depression? Are neurogenesis, glial changes and apoptosis implicated? European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 257(5):250-260

Dammann O, Leviton A (1997) Maternal intrauterine infection, cytokines, and brain damage in the preterm newborn. Pediatric research 42:1-8

Dammann O, Leviton A (1998) Infection remote from the brain, neonatal white matter damage, and cerebral palsy in the preterm infant. Seminars in Pediatric Neurology 5(3):190-201.

De Kloet ER, Rosenfeld P, Van Eekelen JA, Sutanto W, Levine S (1988) Stress, g
lucocorticoids and development. Progress in Brain Research 73:101-120

Doetsch F, Hen R (2005) Young and excitable: the function of new neurons in the adult mammalian brain. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 15(1):121-128

Dowlati Y, Herrmann N, Swardfager W, Liu H, Sham L, Reim EK, Lanctôt KL (2010) A meta-analysis of cytokines in major depression. Biological Psychiatry 67(5):446-457

Dranovsky A, Hen R (2006) Hippocampal neurogenesis: regulation by stress and antidepressants. Biological Psychiatry 59(12):1136-1143

Enwere E, Shingo T, Gregg C, Fujikawa H, Ohta S, Weiss S (2004) Aging results in reduced epidermal growth factor receptor signaling, diminished olfactory neurogenesis, and deficits in fine olfactory discrimination. Journal of Neuroscience 24(38):8354-8365

Faro S, Fenner DE (1998) Urinary tract infections. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology 41(3):744-54.

Fava M, Kendler KS (2000) Major depressive disorder. Neuron 28(2):335-341

Francis DD, Meaney MJ (1999) Maternal care and the development of stress responses. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 9(1):128-134

Fuchs E, Gould E (2000) Mini-review: in vivo neurogenesis in the adult brain: regulation and functional implications. European Journal of Neuroscience 12(7):2211-2214

Gauldie J1, Richards C, Northemann W, Fey G, Baumann H (1989) IFN beta 2/BSF2/IL-6 is th
e monocyte-derived HSF that regulates receptor-specific acute phase gene regulation in hepatocytes. Annals of The New York Academy of Sciences 557:46-58

Genro JP, Kieling C, Rohde LA, Hutz MH (2010) Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and the dopaminergic hypotheses. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics 10(4):587-601

George CP, Goldberg MP, Choi DW, Steinberg GK (1988) Dextromethorphan reduces neocortical ischemic neuronal damage in vivo. Brain Research 440:375–379

Gilmore JH, Jarskog LF (1997) Exposure to infection and brain development: cytokines in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 24(3):365-7

Gilmore JH, Fredrik Jarskog L, Vadlamudi S, Lauder JM (2004) Prenatal infection and risk for schizophrenia: IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNFalpha inhibit cortical neuron dendrite development. Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 29:1221-1229

Gilstrap LC 3rd, Ramin SM (2001) Urinary tract infections during pregnancy. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America 28(3):581-91

Glasper ER, Llorens-Martin MV, Leuner B, Gould E, Trejo JL (2010) Blockade of insulin-like growth factor-I has complex effects on structural plasticity in the hippocampus. Hippocampus 20(6):706-712

Golan HM, Lev V, Hallak M, Sorokin Y, Huleihel M (2005) Specific neurodevelopmental damage in mice offspring following maternal inflammation during pregnancy. Neuropharmacology 48:903-917

Griffiths J, Ravindran AV, Merali Z, Anisman H (2000) Dysthymia: a review of pharmacological and behavioral factors. Molecular Psychiatry 5(3):242-261

Gutierrez EG, Banks WA, Kastin AJ (1993) Murine tumor necrosis factor alpha is transported from blood to brain in the mouse. Journal of neuroimmunology 47: 169-176

Hajós M, Richards CD, Székely AD, Sharp T (1998) An electrophysiological and neuroanatomical study of the medial prefrontal cortical projection to the midbrain raphe nuclei in the rat. Neuroscience 87(1):95-108

Harvey L, Boksa P (2012) Prenatal and postnatal animal models of immune activation: relevance to a range of neurodevelopmental disorders. Developmental Neurobiology 72(10):1335-1348

Hashimoto K, Shimizu E, Iyo M (2004) Critical role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in mood disorders. Brain Research Reviews 45(2):104-114

Hasler WL (2009) Serotonin and the GI tract. Current Opinion in Gastroenterology 11(5):383-91

Hodyl NA, Krivanek KM, Lawrence E, Clifton VL, Hodgson DM (2007) Prenatal exposure to a pro-inflammatory stimulus causes delays in the development of the innate immune response to LPS in the offspring. Journal of Neuroimmunology 190(1-2):61-71

Hornykiewicz O. (1966). Dopamine (3-hydroxytyramine) and brain function. Pharmacological Reviews 18: 925–964

Imayoshi I, Sakamoto M, Ohtsuka T, Takao K, Miyakawa T, Yamaguchi M, Mori K, Ikeda T, Itohara S, Kageyama R (2008) Roles of continuous neurogenesis in the structural and functional integrity of the adult forebrain. Nature Neuroscience 11(10):1153-1161

Kendler KS, Gatz M, Gardner CO, Pedersen NL (2006) A Swedish national twin study of lifetime major depression. American Journal of Psychiatry 163(1):109-114

Kessler RC, Berglund P, Demler O, Jin R, Merikangas KR, Walters EE (2005) Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry 62(6):593-602

Kiuchi T, Lee H, Mikami T (2012) Regular exercise cures depression-like behavior via VEGF-Flk-1 signaling in chronically stressed mice. Neuroscience 207:208-217

Korte M, Staiger V, Griesbeck O, Thoenen H, Bonhoeffer T (1996) The involvement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in hippocampal long-term potentiation revealed by gene targeting experiments. Journal of Physiology-Paris 90(3-4):157-164

Kriete T, Noelle DC (2015) Dopamine and the development of executive dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders. PLoS One 10:e0121605

Labouesse MA1, Langhans W2, Meyer U (2015) Long-term pathological consequences of prenatal infection: beyond brain disorders. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 309(1):R1-R12

Leggio GM, Salomone S, Bucolo C, Platania C, Micale V, Caraci F, Drago F (2013) Dopamine D(3) receptor as a new pharmacological target for the treatment of depression. European journal of pharmacology 719:25-33

Li G, Cui G, Tzeng NS, Wei SJ, Wang T, Block ML, Hong JS (2005a) Femtomolar concentrations of dextromethorphan protect mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons from inflammatory damage. The FASEB Journal 19(6):489-496

Li G, Liu Y, Tzeng NS, Cui G, Block ML, Wilson B, Qin L, Wang T, Liu B, Liu J, Hong JS (2005b) Protective effect of dextromethorphan against endotoxic shock in mice. Biochemical Pharmacology 69(2):233-240

Lin YL, Lin SY, Wang S (2012) Prenatal lipopolysaccharide exposure increases anxiety-like behaviors and enhances stress-induced corticosterone responses in adult rats. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 26(3):459-468

Lin YL, Wang S (2014) Prenatal lipopolysaccharide exposure increases depression-like behaviors and reduces hippocampal neurogenesis in adult rats. Behavioural Brain Research 259:24-34

Ling Z, Gayle DA, Ma SY, Lipton JW, Tong CW, Hong JS, Carvey PM (2002) In utero bacterial endotoxin exposure causes loss of tyrosine hydroxylase neurons in the postnatal rat midbrain. Movement Disorders 17:116-124

Ling Z, Chang QA, Tong CW, Leurgans SE, Lipton JW, Carvey PM (2004a) Rotenone potentiates dopamine neuron loss in animals exposed to lipopolysaccharide prenatally. Experimental Neurology 190(2):373-383

Ling Z, Zhu Y, Tong CW, Snyder JA, Lipton JW, Carvey PM (2006) Progressive dopamine neuron loss following supra-nigral lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion into rats exposed to LPS prenatally. Experimental Neurology 199(2):499-512

Ling Z, Zhu Y, Tong CW, Snyder JA, Lipton JW, Carvey PM (2009) Prenatal lipopolysaccharide does not accelerate progressive dopamine neuron loss in the rat as a result of normal aging. Experimental Neurology 216: 312-320

Ling ZD, Potter ED, Lipton JW, Carvey PM (1998) Differentiation of mesencephalic progenitor cells into dopaminergic neurons by cytokines. Experimental Neurology 149:411-423

Ling ZD, Chang Q, Lipton JW, Tong CW, Landers TM, Carvey PM (2004b) Combined toxicity of prenatal bacterial endotoxin exposure and postnatal 6-hydroxydopamine in the adult rat midbrain. Neuroscience 124(3):619-628

Liu Y, Qin L, Li G, Zhang W, An L, Liu B, Hong JS (2003) Dextromethorphan protects dopaminergic neurons against inflammation-mediated degeneration through inhibition of microglial activation. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 305(1):212-218

Lloyd SA, Faherty CJ, Smeyne RJ (2006) Adult and in utero exposure to cocaine alters sensitivity to the Parkinsonian toxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. Neuroscience 137(3):905-913

Lois C, Alvarez-Buylla A (1994) Long-distance neuronal migration in the adult mammalian brain. Science 264(5162):1145-1148

Maes M (2008) The cytokine hypothesis of depression: inflammation, oxidative & nitrosative stress (IO&NS) and leaky gut as new targets for adjunctive treatments in depression. Neuroendocrinology Letters 29(3):287-291

Mathison JC, Wolfson E, Ulevitch RJ (1988) Participation of tumor necrosis factor in the mediation of gram negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide-induced injury in rabbits. Journal of Clinical Investigation 81(6):1925-37

Medzhitov R, Preston-Hurlburt P, Janeway CA, Jr. (1997) A human homologue of the Drosophila Toll protein signals activation of adaptive immunity. Nature 388:394-397

Mehler MF, Rozental R, Dougherty M, Spray DC, Kessler JA (1993) Cytokine regulation of neuronal differentiation of hippocampal progenitor cells. Nature 362:62-65

Mereu G, Lilliu V, Vargiu P, Muntoni AL, Diana M, Gessa GL (1995) Depolarization inactivation of dopamine neurons: an artifact? Journal of Neuroscience 15(2):1144-9

Merrill JE (1992) Tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 1 and related cytokines in brain development: normal and pathological. Developmental Neuroscience 14:1-10

Meshi D, Drew MR, Saxe M, Ansorge MS, David D, Santarelli L, Malapani C, Moore H, Hen R (2006) Hippocampal neurogenesis is not required for behavioral effects of environmental enrichment. Nature Neuroscience 9(6):729-731

Meyer U, Feldon J, Schedlowski M, Yee BK (2005) Towards an immuno-precipitated neurodevelopmental animal model of schizophrenia. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 29(6):913-47

Meyer U, Engler A, Weber L, Schedlowski M, Feldon J (2008a) Preliminary evidence for a modulation of fetal dopaminergic development by maternal immune activation during pregnancy. Neuroscience 154:701-709

Meyer U (2014) Prenatal poly(i:C) exposure and other developmental immune activation models in rodent systems. Biological Psychiatry 75(4):307-315

Miller BJ, Culpepper N, Rapaport MH, Buckley P (2013) Prenatal inflammation and neurodevelopment in schizophrenia: a review of human studies. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry 42:92-100

Ming GL, Song H (2005) Adult neurogenesis in the mammalian central nervous system. Annual Review of Neuroscience 28:223-250

Ming GL, Song H (2011) Adult neurogenesis in the mammalian brain: significant answers and significant questions. Neuron 70(4):687-702

Monyer H, Choi DW (1988) Morphinans attenuate cortical neuronal injury induced by glucose deprivation in vitro. Brain Research 446:144–148

Murray CJ, Lopez AD (1996) Evidence-based health policy--lessons from the Global Burden of Disease Study. Science 274(5288):740-3

Nakano T, Kotani T, Mano Y, Tsuda H, Imai K, Ushida T, Li H, Miki R, Sumigama S1, Sato Y, Iwase A, Hirakawa A, Asai M, Toyokuni S, Kikkawa F (2015) Maternal molecular hydrogen administration on lipopolysaccharide-induced mouse fetal brain injury. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition 57(3):178-182

Nestler EJ, Carlezon WA Jr (2006) The mesolimbic dopamine reward circuit in depression. Biological Psychiatry 59(12):1151-9

Nilsson C, Larsson BM, Jennische E, Eriksson E, Björntorp P, York DA, Holmäng A (2001) Maternal endotoxemia results in obesity and insulin resistance in adult male offspring. Endocrinology 142(6):2622-2630

Passamonti L, Crockett MJ, Apergis-Schoute AM, Clark L, Rowe JB, Calder AJ, Robbins TW (2012) Effects of acute tryptophan depletion on prefrontal-amygdala connectivity while viewing facial signals of aggression. Biological Psychiatry 71(1):36-43

Patterson SL, Abel T, Deuel TA, Martin KC, Rose JC, Kandel ER (1996) Recombinant BDNF rescues deficits in basal synaptic transmission and hippocampal LTP in BDNF knockout mice. Neuron 16(6):1137-1145

Perera TD, Coplan JD, Lisanby SH, Lipira CM, Arif M, Carpio C, Spitzer G, Santarelli L, Scharf B, Hen R, Rosoklija G, Sackeim HA, Dwork AJ (2007) Antidepressant-induced neurogenesis in the hippocampus of adult nonhuman primates. Journal of Neuroscience 27(18):4894-4901

Plotsky PM, Owens MJ, Nemeroff CB (1998) Psychoneuroendocrinology of depression. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Psychiatric Clinics of North America 21(2):293-307

Prince DA, Feeser HR (1988) Dextromethorphan protects against cerebral infarction in a rat model of hypoxia-ischemia. Neuroscience Letters 85:291–296

Pucadyil TJ, Kalipatnapu S, Chattopadhyay A (2005) The serotonin1A receptor: a representative member of the serotonin receptor family. Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology 25(3-4):553-80

Qin L, Wu X, Block ML, Liu Y, Breese GR, Hong JS, Knapp DJ, Crews FT (2007) Systemic LPS causes chronic neuroinflammation and progressive neurodegeneration. Glia 55:453-462

Ramadori G, Sipe JD, Dinarello CA, Mizel SB, Colten HR (1985) Pretranslational modulation of acute phase hepatic protein synthesis by murine recombinant interleukin 1 (IL-1) and purified human IL-1. Journal of Experimental Medicine 162(3):930-42

Ramadori G, Van Damme J, Rieder H, Meyer zum Büschenfelde KH (1988) Interleukin 6, the third mediator of acute-phase reaction, modulates hepatic protein synthesis in human and mouse. Comparison with interleukin 1 beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. European Journal of Immunology 18(8):1259-64

Reul JM, Stec I, Wiegers GJ, Labeur MS, Linthorst AC, Arzt E, Holsboer F (1994) Prenatal immune challenge alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis in adult rats. Journal of Clinical Investigation 93(6):2600-2607

Rochefort C, Gheusi G, Vincent JD, Lledo PM (2002) Enriched odor exposure increases the number of newborn neurons in the adult olfactory bulb and improves odor memory. Journal of Neuroscience 22(7):2679-2689

Romero R, Espinoza J, Gonçalves LF, Kusanovic JP, Friel L, Hassan S (2007) The role of inflammation and infection in preterm birth. Seminars in Reproductive Medicine 25(1):21-39

Sagheddu C, Muntoni AL, Pistis M, Melis M (2015) Endocannabinoid Signaling in Motivation, Reward, and Addiction: Influences on Mesocorticolimbic Dopamine Function. International Review of Neurobiology 125:257-302

Schletter J, Heine H, Ulmer AJ, Rietschel ET (1995) Molecular mechanisms of endotoxin activity. Archives of Microbiology 164:383-389

Sheline YI, Sanghavi M, Mintun MA, Gado MH (1999) Depression duration but not age predicts hippocampal volume loss in medically healthy women with recurrent major depression. Journal Of Neuroscience 19(12):5034-5043

Shi L, Fatemi SH, Sidwell RW, Patterson PH (2003) Maternal influenza infection causes marked behavioral and pharmacological changes in the offspring. Journal Of Neuroscience 23:297–302

Shors TJ, Miesegaes G, Beylin A, Zhao M, Rydel T, Gould E (2001) Neurogenesis in the adult is involved in the formation of trace memories. Nature 410(6826):372-376

Smith MA, Makino S, Kvetnansky R, Post RM (1995a) Stress and glucocorticoids affect the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 mRNAs in the hippocampus. Journal of Neuroscience 15(3 Pt 1):1768-1777

Sobel JD (2000) Bacterial vaginosis. Annual Review of Medicine 51:349-56

Spinillo A, Iacobone AD, Calvino IG, Alberi I, Gardella B (2014) The role of the placenta in feto-neonatal infections. Early Human Development 90 Suppl 1:S7-9

Steinberg GK, George CP, DeLaPaz R, Shibata DK, Gross T (1988) Dextromethorphan protects against cerebral injury following transient focal ischemia in rabbits. Stroke 19:1112–1118

Steketee JD, Kalivas PW (2011) Drug wanting: behavioral sensitization and relapse to drug-seeking behavior. Pharmacological Reviews 63(2):348-65

Stratmann M, Konrad C, Kugel H, Krug A, Schöning S, Ohrmann P, Uhlmann C, Postert C, Suslow T, Heindel W, Arolt V, Kircher T, Dannlowski U (2014) Insular and hippocampal gray matter volume reductions in patients with major depressive disorder. PLoS One 9(7):e102692

Wang S, Yan JY, Lo YK, Carvey PM, Ling Z (2009) Dopaminergic and serotoninergic deficiencies in young adult rats prenatally exposed to the bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Brain Research 1265:196-204

Tabor DR, Burchett SK, Jacobs RF (1988) Enhanced production of monokines by canine alveolar macrophages in response to endotoxin-induced shock. Proceedings of The Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 187(4):408-15

Tak PP, Firestein GS (2001) NF-kappaB: a key role in inflammatory diseases. The Journal of Clinical Investigation 107:7-11

Taliaz D, Stall N, Dar DE, Zangen A (2010) Knockdown of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in specific brain sites precipitates behaviors associated with depression and reduces neurogenesis. Molecular Psychiatry 15(1):80-92

Tortella FC, Britton P, Williams A, Lu XC, Newman AH (1999) Neuroprotection (focal ischemia) and neurotoxicity (electroencephalographic) studies in rats with AHN649, a 3-amino analog of dextromethorphan and low-affinity N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 291:399–408

Tripp G, Wickens JR (2009) Neurobiology of ADHD. Neuropharmacology 57(7-8):579-89

Tritsch N. X., Sabatini B. L. (2012). Dopaminergic modulation of synaptic transmission in cortex and striatum. Neuron 76(1):33–50

Ueyama E, Ukai S, Ogawa A, Yamamoto M, Kawaguchi S, Ishii R, Shinosaki K (2011) Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 65(1):77-81

Ustün TB, Ayuso-Mateos JL, Chatterji S, Mathers C, Murray CJ (2004) Global burden of depressive disorders in the year 2000. British Journal of Psychiatry 184:386-92

Vaidya VA, Marek GJ, Aghajanian GK, Duman RS (1997) 5-HT2A receptor-mediated regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA in the hippocampus and the neocortex. Journal of Neuroscience 17(8):2785-2795

Vertes RP, Linley SB (2008) Efferent and afferent connections of the dorsal and median raphe nuclei in the rat. B.L. Jacobs, D.J. Nutt, J.M. Monti (Eds.), Serotonin and Sleep: Molecular, Functional and Clinical Aspects, Birkhauser, Basel (2008), pp. 69–102

Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Newcorn J, Telang F, Solanto MV, Fowler JS, Logan J, Ma Y, Schulz K, Pradhan K, Wong C, Swanson JM (2007) Depressed dopamine activity in caudate and preliminary evidence of limbic involvement in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry 64(8):932-40

Weiss JM, Stout JC, Aaron MF, Quan N, Owens MJ, Butler PD, Nemeroff CB (1994) Depression and anxiety: role of the locus coeruleus and corticotropin-releasing factor. Brain Research Bulletin 35(5-6):561-572

Westphal O, Luderitz O, Galanos C, Mayer H, Rietschel ET (1985) The Story of Bacterial Endotoxin. Chedid L, Hadden JW, Spreafico F, Dukor P, and Willoughby D (ed.), Advances in Immunopharmacology: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Immunopharmacology, 1986, Pages 13–34

WHO: Mental Health, Depression. WHO, Geneva; 2012.

Young EA, Korszun A (2002) The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in mood disorders. Endocrinology Metabolism Clinics of North America 31(1):63-78

Zhang W, Qin L, Wang T, Wei SJ, Gao HM, Liu J, Wilson B, Liu B, Zhang W, Kim HC, Hong JS (2004) 3-hydroxymorphinan is neurotrophic to dopaminergic neurons and is also neuroprotective against LPS-induced neurotoxicity. The FASEB Journal 19(3):395-397

Zhu Y, Carvey PM, Ling Z (2007) Altered glutathione homeostasis in animals prenatally exposed to lipopolysaccharide. Neurochemistry International 50(4):671-80

連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔