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研究生:李雅君
研究生(外文):Ya-Chun Li
論文名稱:大學生口語溝通策略使用之研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study of EFL College Students’ Use of Oral Communication Strategies
指導教授:陳淑珠陳淑珠引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shu-Chu Chen
口試委員:魏式琦王清煌
口試委員(外文):Shyh-Chyi WeyChing-Huang Wang
口試日期:2016-06-22
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立雲林科技大學
系所名稱:應用外語系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:英文
論文頁數:106
中文關鍵詞:溝通策略英語能力口語焦慮口說動機
外文關鍵詞:communication strategiesEnglish proficiencyspeaking anxietyspeaking motivation
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本研究旨在探討科技大學學生口語溝通策略及性別、英語能力、口語焦慮、口說動機等變項對策略之影響。200位科技大學學生參與此研究。研究工具有口語溝通問卷(取自Nakatani, 2006),外語口語焦慮量表(取自Huang, 2005)和英語口說動機量表(取自Kim, 2014)。所收集的資料使用SPSS統計軟體進行描述性統計、獨立樣本T檢定、和逐步多元回歸分析。研究結果顯示,性別與程度對學習者口語溝通策略的使用有顯著影響,特別是女性和英語程度較佳的學習者會使用較多的溝通策略。而高低不同程度的口語焦慮、口說動機並未有對學習者口語溝通策略使用有顯著效果。在這些變項中(性別、英文程度、口語焦慮、口說動機),動機及性別最能預測學習者口語溝通策略的使用。因此,動機在口語溝通策略以及溝通能力有其重要性,文末提供相關教學建議供教師及未來研究者參考。
This study investigated EFL college students’ use of Oral Communication Strategy and explored the factors of their gender, English proficiency, speaking anxiety and speaking motivation on their strategy use. Two hundred students from a technological university participated in the study. The instruments included Nakatani’s Oral Communication Strategy Inventory (OCSI) (2006), Huang’s Foreign Language Speaking Anxiety Scale (FLSAS) (2005), and Kim’s English Speaking Motivation Scale (2014). Descriptive statistics, independent sample t-tests, and multiple regressions using SPSS were applied to analyze the data. Results showed that learners’ gender and their English proficiency had significant impact on their oral communication strategy use, with female students and more proficient learners using more strategies than their counterparts. However, different levels of speaking anxiety and speaking motivation did not have any effect on their use of oral communication strategies. Among these variables (i.e., gender, English proficiency, speaking anxiety, speaking motivation), speaking motivation and learners’ gender were the two powerful predictors of EFL college students’ use of oral communication strategies. Thus, the inquiry highlights the importance of motivation in the development of learners’ oral communication strategies and their communicative competence. Pedagogical implications and suggestions for future studies were presented.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
摘要…………….……………………………….…………………...………………..i
ABSTRACT………….……………………………………………...……………...ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT.....................................................................................iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS…………………………………………….....................v
LIST OF TABLES…………………………………………...……..………...…..vii
LIST OF FIGURES……………………………………………….………………ix
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION………………………………………...1
1.1 Background and Motivation..………………………………………………...1
1.2 Statement of Problems…………………………………………………….….2
1.3 Purpose of the Study and Research Questions…………………..…………...3
1.4 Significance of the Study…………………………………………………….4
1.5 Definition of Terms…………………………………………………………..5
1.6 The Organization of the Thesis………………………………………………7
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW………………………………8
2.1 Communicative Competence………………………………………………...8
2.1.1 Strategic competence………………………………………………...10
2.1.2 Definition of communication strategies……………………………..12
2.1.3 Taxonomies of communication strategies…………………………...14
2.2 Factors Affecting the Use of Communication Strategies…………………...21
2.2.1 Gender……………………………………………………………….22
2.2.2 Language proficiency………………………………………………..23
2.2.3 Speaking anxiety…………………………………………………….25
2.2.4 Speaking motivation…………………………………………………28
2.3 Studies Related to Communication Strategies………………..…………….29
2.4 Summary……………………………………………………………………31
CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY……………….…………………33
3.1 Participants………………………………………………………………….33
3.2 Instruments………………………………………………………………….34
3.2.1 TOEIC……………………………………………………………….34
3.2.2 Background information…………………………………………….35
3.2.3 Oral Communication Strategy Inventory (OCSI)…………………...35
3.2.4 Speaking anxiety scale………………………………………………38
3.2.5 Speaking motivation scale…………………………………………...40
3.3 Pilot Study…………………………………………………………………..41
3.4 Data Collection……………………………………………………………...42
3.5 Data Analysis………………………………………………………………..43

CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS………………………………………………..45
4.1 Participants’ Background Information……………………………………...45
4.2 Results for Research Question 1……………………………………………46
4.3 Results for Research Question 2……………………………………………48
4.4 Results for Research Question 3……………………………………………51
4.5 Results for Research Question 4……………………………………………66
4.6 Summary…………………………………………………………………... 67
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION…………………………………………..68
5.1 Discussion of the Study……………………………………………………..68
5.2 Implications…………………………………………………………………73
5.3 Limitations of the Study…………………………………………………….76
5.4 Suggestions for the Future Research………………………………………..77
REFERENCES………………………………………………………………...…78
APPENDIXES…………………………………………………………………....92
Appendix A (Chinese version of Background Information)…………………....92
Appendix B(Chinese version of Oral Communication Inventory )…………….93
Appendix C ( Chinese version of English Anxiety Scale and Speaking Motivation Scale )…………………………….………………...………………95
Appendix D ( English version of Questionnaires )………………………...…...97
Appendix E ( Informed Consent Statements for the Participants )………...….102
Appendix F ( The descriptive Statistics of Different Gender on the Oral Communication Strategies )……………………………………..…………….103
Appendix G( The descriptive Statistics of Different Levels of English Proficiency on the Oral Communication Strategies )…………………………105


LIST OF TABLES
Table 2.1 Taxonomy of Communication Strategies from an Interactional Perspective……………………………………………………………...15
Table 2.2 Taxonomy of Communication Strategies from a Psycholinguistic Perspective……………………………………………………………...16
Table 2.3 Rababah’s Notion of Communication Strategies…………………………..18
Table 2.4 Nakatani’s Taxonomy of OCS Applied by Participants in the Training Group……………………………………………………………………18
Table 2.5 Nakatani’s Taxonomy of the OCSI………………………………………...20
Table 2.6 Comparison of the Findings between Learners’ Gender and Communication Strategies…………………………………………………………………..23
Table 2.7 Categories and Items of Kim’s English Speaking…………………………29
Table 2.8 Summary of Studies on Communication Strategies……………………….31
Table 3.1 Information of the Participants…………………………………………….34
Table 3.2 Eight Categories in OCSI Questionnaire………………………………….36
Table 3.3 Internal Consistency Reliability of OCSI Questionnaire………………….37
Table 3.4 The Items of Three Categories in Speaking Anxiety Questionnaire………38
Table 3.5 Internal Consistency Reliability of Speaking Anxiety Questionnaire……..39
Table 3.6 Three Constructs in Speaking Motivation Scale Questionnaire…………...40
Table 3.7 The Categories and Results of the Reliability Analysis of Instruments in the Study……………………………………………………………………….41
Table 3.8 The Deleted Items in Speaking Motivation Scale…………………………42
Table 3.9 Research Instrument and Data Analyses Corresponding to Research Question…………………………………………………………………...44
Table 4.1 Description Statistics for the Participants’ Strategy Use in Coping with Speaking Problems………………………………………………………...47
Table 4.2 The Correlation Analysis between Learners Gender and the Use of Oral Communicative strategies…………………………………………………48
Table 4.3 Descriptive Statistics of Different Gender on the Oral Communication Strategies…………………………………………………………………..49
Table 4.4 Independent-Samples T-Test for Gender Difference in OCSI……..……...50
Table 4.5 The Correlation Analysis between Learners English Proficiency and the Use of Oral Communicative strategies…………………………………………52
Table 4.6 Descriptive Statistics of Different Levels of English Proficiency on the Oral Communication Strategies………………………………………………...53
Table 4.7 Independent-Samples T-Test for Different English Proficiency on OCS...54

Table 4.8 The Correlation Analysis between Learners’ English Speaking Anxiety and the Use of Oral Communicative strategies………………………………...56
Table 4.9 Description Statistics of Different Levels of English Speaking Anxiety on Oral Communication Strategies…………………………………………...57
Table 4.10 Independent-Samples T-Test for Different Levels of Speaking Anxiety on the OCS……………………………………………………………………58
Table 4.11 The Correlation Analysis between Learners’ English Speaking Motivation and the Use of Oral Communicative strategies………………...………….61
Table 4.12 Description Statistics of Different Levels of English Speaking Motivation on Oral Communication Strategies………………………………………..62
Table 4.13 Independent-Samples T-Test for different Levels of Speaking Motivation on OCS…………………………...………………………………………..63
Table 4.14 The Correlation Analysis between Learner Variables and the Use of Oral Communication Strategies……………………………………………...…64
Table 4.15 The Independent-Samples T-test of Learner Variables and the Use of Oral Communication Strategies……………………………………..………….65
Table 4.16 Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis to Predict Oral Communication Strategy Use……………………………………………………………….66


LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2.1 Components of Canale and Swain’s Communicative Competence……….9
Figure 2.2 Components of Language Competence………………………...………...10
Figure 2.3 Components of Communicative Language Ability………………...……..11
Figure 2.4 The Continuum of Learners’ Autonomy in Learning Activities………….28
Figure 4.1 Summary of the Findings…………….…………………..……………….67

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