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研究生:許程勛
研究生(外文):Hsu, Cheng-Hsun
論文名稱:以靈性領導、觀點採納與同理關懷、自我悲憫、感恩與怨懟效果研究台灣傳統產業員工對領導者的同理心:觀點採取
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Spiritual Leadership and Self-Compassion on Employees' Empathy toward Leaders in Taiwanese Traditional Industries: Perspective–Taking and Gratitude
指導教授:賴志超賴志超引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chih-Chao Lai
口試委員:焦錦濮劉文良
口試委員(外文):Chin-Pu ChiaoWen-Liang Liu
口試日期:2016-06-27
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立雲林科技大學
系所名稱:應用外語系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:英文
論文頁數:92
中文關鍵詞:靈性領導同理心自我悲憫感恩與怨懟
外文關鍵詞:Spiritual LeadershipSelf-CompassionInterpersonal Reactivity IndexGratitude and Resentment
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本研究旨在探討台灣傳統產業中,員工對靈性領導,預測員工的同理心、正負向自我悲憫,進而提升感恩,消除怨懟。本研究收集了200份來自台灣傳統產業員工與主管的問卷,並藉由結構方程模組探討變異數間的因果關係。研究結果顯示,靈性領導能夠成功預測員工職場同理心與正向自我悲憫,進而提升感恩,消除怨懟,其關鍵在於員工自我悲憫與其對領導人同理心的養成,但負向自我悲憫(自我嚴苛),沒有任何變異數能夠預測,但能預測職場怨懟感,原因可能為華人儒家文化重視自我嚴苛與自我謙卑,提升自己。華人強調要求自己、改善自己需要藉由對自我的嚴苛與內斂,容易導致孤獨感與過度認同,因此未來研究可朝預測華人自我嚴苛的方向進行,研究建議與啟發也在文末提示。
This research presents the crucial discovery of employees’ resentment and empathy toward leaders. A worldwide issue about workplace spirituality and spiritual leadership in business management has been pinpointed to improve the overall quality of work tightly bonded with life for the advance of technology. In Taiwanese traditional industries, employees or workers’ resentment toward leaders has been a controversy. The researcher examined the influence among spiritual leadership, self-compassion, interpersonal reactivity index (perspective taking and empathic concerns), and gratitude and resentment through structural equation modeling (SEM). A total of 200 questionnaires were examined to reveal the potential factors resulting in empathic triggers. Consequently, spiritual leadership led to employees’ perspective taking and empathic concerns, and self-compassion, two of which positively impacted the employees’ attitude toward leaders, namely, gratitude or resentment. Self-harshness was invalidly predicted by any latent variables in this study but it predicted the resentment. The result has shed a light on leadership and management. The key to enhanced gratitude and reduced resentment is the cultivation of self-compassion and empathy through spiritual leadership. Implications and suggestions for further research are discussed in the study.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
摘要 i
ABSTRACT ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iii
LIST OF TABLES vii
LIST OF FIGURES viii
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Background 1
1.2 Purpose of the Study 5
1.3 Research Questions 6
1.4 Significance of the Study 6
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 7
2.1 The Development of Spiritual Leadership 7
2.1.1 The Extrinsic Motivation versus the Intrinsic 7
2.1.2 Workplace Spirituality and Leadership 9
2.1.3 Spiritual Leadership 11
2.1.3.1 Vision 12
2.1.3.2 Altruistic Love 12
2.1.3.3 Hope/ Faith 13
2.1.3.4 Inner Life 14
2.2 Perspective Taking and Empathic Concerns of Interpersonal Reactiviy Index 15
2.2.1 From Active Perspective Taking to Effective Perspective Taking 15
2.2.2 From Fundamental Effects to Complex Effects 17
2.3 Self-compassion 20
2.3.1 Self-kindness and Self-judgment(criticism) 20
2.3.2 Common Humanity and Isolation 21
2.3.3 Mindfulness and Overidentification 22
2.4 Gratitude and Resentment 23
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODS 26
3.1 Research Design 26
3.2 Participants 27
3.3 Instruments 27
3.3.1 Fry Spiritual Leadership Assessment (SLA) 28
3.3.2 Perspective-Taking (PT) and Empathic Concerns (EC) of Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) 28
3.3.3 Self-Compassion Scale (SC) and Self-Harshness (SH) 29
3.3.4 Gratitude Resentment and Appreciation Test (GRAT) 29
3.4 Data Collection Procedure 31
3.5 Data Analysis 31
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS 32
4.1 Demographic Information 32
4.2 Control Variable Differences in Major Constructs of this Study 34
4.2.2 Job Position Differences in Major Construct of this Study 35
4.3 Construct validity 35
4.3.1 Convergent validity and discriminant validity 38
4.4 Structural Equation Modeling 39
4.4.1 Measurement Model Evaluation 39
4.4.2 Structural Equation Model Evaluation 42
CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION 46
5.1 Discussion for the Major Findings 46
5.1.1 Research Question 1 46
5.1.2 Research Question 2 47
5.1.3 Research Question 3 50
5.1.4 Other Major Findings 52
5.2 Implications and suggestions for the future research 54
REFERENCES 57
APPENDIX A: The questionnaire for the study 70
APPENDIX B: The results of EFA 75































LIST OF TABLES
Table 1.1: The Classification of Traditional and Non-Traditional Industries 3
Table 3.1: Major Constructs of Reliability 30
Table 3.2 Means, Standard Deviations, Intercorrelations, and Coefficient Alpha Estimates for the Variables of the Study 30
Table 4.1 : Summary of demographic data 33
Table 4.2 : Gender differences in major constructs of this study 34
Table 4.3: Job Position differences in major construct of this study 35
Table 4.4: Results of KMO and Bartlett's Test of Sphericity for each scale 37
Table 4.5: Confirmatory factor analysis of constructs 37
Table 4.6: CFA Results and Decision Matrix for constructs 37
Table 4.7: Results of CFA of subscales 39
Table 4.8: Model fit indices for the original research model 43
Table 4.8.1 : The Result of the Original Structural Equation Model 43
Table 4.9: Model fit indices for the revised research model 45
Table 4.9.1 : The Result of the Revised Structural Equation Model 45


LIST OF FIGURES
TABLE OF CONTENTS
摘要 i
ABSTRACT ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iii
LIST OF TABLES vii
LIST OF FIGURES viii
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Background 1
1.2 Purpose of the Study 5
1.3 Research Questions 6
1.4 Significance of the Study 6
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 7
2.1 The Development of Spiritual Leadership 7
2.1.1 The Extrinsic Motivation versus the Intrinsic 7
2.1.2 Workplace Spirituality and Leadership 9
2.1.3 Spiritual Leadership 11
2.1.3.1 Vision 12
2.1.3.2 Altruistic Love 12
2.1.3.3 Hope/ Faith 13
2.1.3.4 Inner Life 14
2.2 Perspective Taking and Empathic Concerns of Interpersonal Reactiviy Index 15
2.2.1 From Active Perspective Taking to Effective Perspective Taking 15
2.2.2 From Fundamental Effects to Complex Effects 17
2.3 Self-compassion 20
2.3.1 Self-kindness and Self-judgment(criticism) 20
2.3.2 Common Humanity and Isolation 21
2.3.3 Mindfulness and Overidentification 22
2.4 Gratitude and Resentment 23
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODS 26
3.1 Research Design 26
3.2 Participants 27
3.3 Instruments 27
3.3.1 Fry Spiritual Leadership Assessment (SLA) 28
3.3.2 Perspective-Taking (PT) and Empathic Concerns (EC) of Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) 28
3.3.3 Self-Compassion Scale (SC) and Self-Harshness (SH) 29
3.3.4 Gratitude Resentment and Appreciation Test (GRAT) 29
3.4 Data Collection Procedure 31
3.5 Data Analysis 31
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS 32
4.1 Demographic Information 32
4.2 Control Variable Differences in Major Constructs of this Study 34
4.2.2 Job Position Differences in Major Construct of this Study 35
4.3 Construct validity 35
4.3.1 Convergent validity and discriminant validity 38
4.4 Structural Equation Modeling 39
4.4.1 Measurement Model Evaluation 39
4.4.2 Structural Equation Model Evaluation-Revised Model 42
CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION 46
5.1 Discussion for the Major Findings 46
5.1.1 Research Question 1 46
5.1.2 Research Question 2 47
5.1.3 Research Question 3 50
5.1.4 Other Major Findings 52
5.2 Implications and suggestions for the future research 54
REFERENCES 57
APPENDIX A: The questionnaire for the study 70
APPENDIX B: The results of EFA 75































LIST OF TABLES
Table 1.1: The Classification of Traditional and Non-Traditional Industries 3
Table 3.1: Major Constructs of Reliability 30
Table 3.2 Means, Standard Deviations, Intercorrelations, and Coefficient Alpha Estimates for the Variables of the Study 30
Table 4.1 : Summary of demographic data 33
Table 4.2 : Gender differences in major constructs of this study 34
Table 4.3: Job Position differences in major construct of this study 35
Table 4.4: Results of KMO and Bartlett's Test of Sphericity for each scale 37
Table 4.5: Confirmatory factor analysis of constructs 37
Table 4.6: CFA Results and Decision Matrix for constructs 37
Table 4.7: Results of CFA of subscales 39
Table 4.8: Model fit indices for the original research model 43
Table 4.8.1 : The Result of the Original Structural Equation Model 43
Table 4.9: Model fit indices for the revised research model 45
Table 4.9.1 : The Result of the Revised Structural Equation Model 45


LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2.1: Casual Model of SL (Fry, 2003, 2005) 15
Figure 3.1: Research Model 27
Figure 4.1: The Original SEM 44

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