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研究生:黃玉書
研究生(外文):Yu-Shu Huang
論文名稱:殼蛋鹽漬期間鹹蛋黃之品質分析及短期鹽漬-低溫平衡試驗
論文名稱(外文):The study on quality evaluate of salted egg yolk in shell egg during brining and the experiment of shell egg salted in short period - equilibration on low temperature.
指導教授:賴坤明賴坤明引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中山醫學大學
系所名稱:健康餐飲暨產業管理學系碩士班
學門:民生學門
學類:餐旅服務學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:中文
論文頁數:73
中文關鍵詞:鹹蛋沙質比固化率軟凝膠
外文關鍵詞:salted duck eggsandiness rationsolidify ratiosoft gelation
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本研究以鹹蛋黃品質分析、開發沙質比與固化率之試驗方法、開發鹹蛋新的加工製程,以降低鹽含量為研究目的。(一)鹹蛋黃品質分析分為三個部分,(1)不同蛋基礎數據建立;(2)建立鹽漬過程中鹹蛋黃之沙質比與固化率之基礎數據;(3)分析鹹蛋黃不同結構之特性。(二)鹹蛋新的加工製程,以飽和食鹽水進行短期鹽漬 (5天、10天、15天) 新鮮鴨蛋後取出,置於低溫 (7℃) 下進行鹽度平衡。鹽漬期間,食鹽經由外部蛋殼、蛋白至蛋黃的順序逐漸滲入。研究中雖因鹽漬期間較短,蛋白鹽含量低,但仍然高於中間的蛋黃。平衡期間,預期鹽分會從外部的蛋白延續滲透至內部的蛋黃,使蛋白鹽含量降低,期此蛋白的低鹽特性能較傳統鹹蛋蛋白具有更多的再利用性。
結果顯示(1)熟鹹蛋黃的沙質感試驗方法,乃運用離心技術,將熟鹹蛋黃中不同質地的顆粒予以適當分離,經量化後換算成沙質比,藉以數據化產品之沙質性狀。而生鹹蛋黃固化率之測定方法,則以離心方式分離掉尚未固化的液態部分,經秤量後換算得新的固化率(Solidify ratio),以更穩定的分析方法,將鹹蛋黃的固化程度以更科學化的數據呈現。(2)分析鹹蛋黃不同結構之結果發現,適當鹽漬後的沙質結構其水分含量較低,顯示鹽漬過程中蛋黃有脫水現象;而過度鹽漬的軟凝膠結構水分含量較高,證實其軟凝膠形成之原因,與蛋黃膜脆弱化蛋黃充水相符合。出油率在四種結構中,以沙質為最高,證明鹹蛋黃之特性沙質感與出油性狀同在此結構出現。(3) 短期鹽漬低溫平衡之結果顯示10+14及10+21 (鹽漬天數+平衡天數)之鹹蛋,具有相當於一般鹹蛋之出油率,可用於製作較低鹽度之鹹蛋產品。目前國內法規對於標示低鹽產品,需產品鈉含量120 mg/100 g以下且鈉含量少於市面上產品120 mg/100 g,故本產品鈉含量雖較市售產品低(鹹蛋黃1.63%降至1.0%,約減1/3鈉含量),但仍不適合標示為低鹽鹹蛋。
The main objective of this study was to reduce NaCl content in salted duck eggs by performing the salted egg yolk quality analysis, developing test methods for sandiness ration and solidify ratio, respectively, and proposing a new production process of the salted duck eggs. First, the salted egg yolk quality analysis includes three parts: creating a database on the basic properties of different eggs, collecting data on sandiness ration and solidify ratio of salted egg yolks in salting process, and analyzing the characteristics of the different salted egg yolk structures. In the proposed production process of the salted duck eggs, the fresh duck eggs were salted by saturated salt water in a short period (5 days, 10 days and 15 days), then taken out and placed at low temperature (7°C) for salinity balance. During salting, the salt gradually penetrates the duck egg from outer shell, egg white to egg yolk. Although the salting period is short, NaCl content of the egg white is low but still higher than the egg yolk. During the salinity balance period, it is expected that the salt continues penetrating from the egg white into the egg yolk, and NaCl content of the egg white would decrease. Thus, the low salt characteristic of the egg white will have more reusability than the traditional salted egg white.
The results showed that the sandiness texture test method of the cooked salted egg yolk was used to separate the different texture particles in the cooked salted egg yolk by the centrifugal technique. After quantification, it was converted into sandiness ration, and the sandiness characters of the data were obtained. For the determination method of the solidify ratio in the raw salted egg yolk, the unsolidified liquid part was separated by centrifugation, and the rest part was weighted to calculate a new solidify ratio. In this way, the solidified degree of the salted egg yolk is more reliable. From the results of analyzing different salted egg yolk structures, it could be found that the moisture content of appropriate salted sandiness structure is lower, indicating that the salted egg yolk was dehydrated during salting. In addition, the higher moisture content of the excessive salted soft gel structure confirms that the cause for the soft gelation’s formation consists with the egg yolk membrane fragmentation and egg yolk filled with water. The sandiness has the highest oil-off ratio in the four structures, and this proves that the sandiness texture and oil-off characteristics of the salted egg yolk are coupled. The results of eggs with salted in short period and equilibration on low temperature showed that 10 + 14 and 10 + 21 (salted days + balance days) of the salted eggs have the similar oil-off rate as the general salted eggs, and could be used to produce low salt products of the salted eggs. At present, the requirements for labeling as “low salt products” based on the domestic regulations are sodium content of the product less than 120 mg/100 g and sodium content of the product less than the regular product at least 120 mg/100 g. The sodium content of salted eggs using the proposed production process in this study is only 2/3 of the regular salted eggs, however, it is still not satisfied the requirements for labeling as the low salt salted eggs.
目錄
摘要 III
Abstract V
第一章 前言 1
第二章 文獻回顧 2
第一節、蛋的構造與組成 2
第二節、蛋黃形態學結構 8
第四節、鹽漬殼蛋之製法 13
第五節、鹹蛋之特性 14
第六節、鹹蛋之相關應用 16
第七節、減鈉鹽食品之開發 18
第三章 研究目的 19
第一節、研究構想 19
第二節、研究目的 20
第五章 材料與方法 22
第一節、實驗材料 22
第二節、鹽漬方法 22
第三節、烹煮方法 23
第四節、分析方法 24
第五節、統計分析 27
第六章 結果與討論 29
第一節、基礎數據建立 29
第二節、鹽漬期間鹹蛋黃固化率與沙質比之數據建立 33
第三節、鹹蛋黃四種結構特性 42
第四節、殼蛋常溫短期鹽漬-低溫平衡 45
第七章 結論 63
第八章 參考文獻 65


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