(3.235.139.152) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/05/11 06:02
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

: 
twitterline
研究生:張鼎杰
研究生(外文):CHANG, TING-CHIEH
論文名稱:探討國外贊助品牌結合本土球團對贊助品牌權益之影響
論文名稱(外文):Exploring The Linkage Between Foreign Sponsor Brand and Local Sports Team on Sponsor’s Brand Equity
指導教授:王智弘王智弘引用關係陳建文陳建文引用關係
指導教授(外文):WANG, CHIH-HUNGCHEN, CHIEN-WEN
口試委員:王智弘陳建文張秀樺王郁玫
口試委員(外文):WANG, CHIH-HUNGCHEN, CHIEN-WENCHANG, HSIU-HUAWANG, YU-MEI
口試日期:2017-05-26
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:逢甲大學
系所名稱:企業管理學系
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:英文
論文頁數:81
中文關鍵詞:運動贊助知覺贊助商外國化知覺球團在地化贊助商品牌權益
外文關鍵詞:Sports SponsorshipSponsor ForeignnessSports Team LocalnessSponsor Brand Equity
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
  • 點閱點閱:136
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:8
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
贊助的總類主要分成運動贊助、娛樂贊助、善因贊助、藝術贊助、節慶和年度盛事贊助、協會和會員組織贊助等。2016年全球贊助支出達610億美元,預計2017年將達到628億美元。其中,運動贊助最為盛行。回顧以往運動和非運動贊助文獻,儘管這些研究發現對贊助商品牌權益的形成起了關鍵作用,但他們的研究結果還未有一套完整的結論,這些研究只關注當地市場的「本地」贊助商,而非「外國」贊助商。由於現在是全球化的世界,全球品牌可以直接贊助當地運動隊伍,因此在目前贊助的文獻中,缺乏外國贊助商與當地被贊助方之間的相互影響進而影響贊助商的品牌權益。本研究調查378位CPBL球迷和179位SBL球迷。研究結果顯示,外國品牌可以透過贊助當地球團來提升品牌權益。更具體地說,知覺贊助商外國化和知覺一致性對贊助商可信度有正向的影響,進而影響贊助商品牌權益。知覺贊助商外國化和自我一致性對當地球隊依附有正向影響,進而影響贊助商的品牌權益。希望在全球實行贊助策略的外國贊助商,可以根據本研究的發現,進行全球贊助策略的布局。
There are several types of sponsorship campaigns, which includes sports, entertainment, causes, arts, festivals, fairs and annual events, associations and membership organizations. In 2016, global sponsorship spending amounted to 60.1 billion U.S. dollars, and is projected to achieved 62.8 billion U.S. dollars in 2017. Among these categories, sports sponsorship is especially notable. Reviewing previous sports and non-sport sponsorship literature, despite these findings have shed little light on how sponsor brand equity is formed, however, their findings are inconclusive and only focused on “local” rather “foreign” sponsor that enter into the local market. Since global brands directly sponsor the local team, so far lack of sponsorship literature concerned about the interaction between foreign sponsors and local sponsee influence sposnor’s brand equity. Survey data was collected from 378 fans of CPBL and 179 fans of SBL. The result revealed that foreign brand can enhance brand equity by sponsoring local sports team. More specifically, sponsor foreignness and perceived congruence have positive influence on sponsor credibility, which in turn benefit sponsor's brand equity. Sponsor foreignness and self-congruity have positive influence on local sports team attachment, which in turn influence sponsor brand equity. Finding in this study provide implications for foreign sponsor managers who would like to implement sponsor strategy in the global context, especially in Asia.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
誌謝------------------------------------------------------------------------i
中文摘要---------------------------------------------------------------------ii
ABSTRACT--------------------------------------------------------------------iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS-----------------------------------------------------------iv
LIST OF FIGURES-------------------------------------------------------------vi
LIST OF TABLES--------------------------------------------------------------vii
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION------------------------------------------------------1
1.1 Research Background-----------------------------------------------------1
1.2 Research Motivation-----------------------------------------------------4
1.3 Research Purpose--------------------------------------------------------5
1.4 Outline for This Research-----------------------------------------------6
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW AND HYPOTHESES DEVELOPMENT----------------------8
2.1 Review of Sponsorship and Brand Equity Literature-----------------------8
2.1.1 Definition of Sponsorships and Sports Sponsorship---------------------8
2.1.2 Brand Equity in the Sponsorship Literature----------------------------9
2.2 Globalness Literature---------------------------------------------------14
2.2.1 Definition of Perceived Brand Globalness------------------------------14
2.2.2 Perceived Brand Globalness related studies----------------------------15
2.3 Congruence effects in the Sponsorship Context---------------------------19
2.3.1 Perceived Congruence and Self-Congruity-------------------------------19
2.4 Research Framework and Hypotheses Development---------------------------20
2.4.1 The relationship between Sponsor Foreignness and Sponsor Credibility ----------------------------------------------------------------------------21
2.4.2 The relationship between Sponsor Foreignness and Sport Team Brand Attachment------------------------------------------------------------------22
2.4.3 The relationship between Perceived Congruence and Sponsor Credibility ----------------------------------------------------------------------------22
2.4.4 The relationship between Self-Congruity and Team Attachment-----------23
2.4.5 The relationship between Sponsor Credibility and Sponsor Brand Equity ----------------------------------------------------------------------------24
2.4.6 The relationship between Sport Team Brand Attachment and Brand Equity ----------------------------------------------------------------------------25
CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY----------------------------------------------28
3.1 Research Instruments----------------------------------------------------28
3.2 Data Collection---------------------------------------------------------32
3.3 Respondents' profiles in two league-------------------------------------33
CHAPTER 4 DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS-----------------------------------------37
4.1 Data Analysis Method----------------------------------------------------37
4.1.1 Analytical Techniques (PLS-SEM)---------------------------------------37
4.1.2 Reliability and Validity Test-----------------------------------------37
4.2 Hypotheses Test---------------------------------------------------------46
4.2.1 Test of Direct Effect-------------------------------------------------46
4.2.2 Mediation Test--------------------------------------------------------48
CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS---------------------------------------51
5.1 Research Discussion-----------------------------------------------------51
5.2 Theoretical Contribution------------------------------------------------53
5.3 Management Implications-------------------------------------------------54
5.4 Limitations and Suggestions for Future Research-------------------------56
References------------------------------------------------------------------57
Appendix 1. Measurement of the constructs-----------------------------------67
Appendix 2. Questionnaire (For SBL)-----------------------------------------69
Appendix 3. Questionnaire (For CPBL Chinatrust Brother)---------------------74
Appendix 4. Questionnaire (For CPBL Lamigo Monkey)--------------------------78

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1-1 Total Volume of Sponsorship Spending Worldwide by Region from 2009 to 2017------------------------------------------------------------------------2
Figure 1-2. Outline for this Research---------------------------------------7
Figure 2-1 Conceptual Framework of This Study-------------------------------27


LIST OF TABLES
Table 1-1 Global Sponsorship Spending by Property Type----------------------2
Table 1-2 North American Spending on Sports Sponsorship---------------------3
Table 2-1 Review of the Related Sponsorship Literature----------------------11
Table 2-2 Review of the PBG Literature--------------------------------------17
Table 3-1 Measurement Item of Sponsor Foreignness.--------------------------28
Table 3-2 Measurement Item of Sponsor Credibility.--------------------------29
Table 3-3 Measurement Item of Sports Team Attachment.-----------------------29
Table 3-4 Measurement Item of Perceived Congruence.-------------------------30
Table 3-5 Measurement Item of Self-congruity.-------------------------------30
Table 3-6 Measurement Item of Sponsor Brand Equity.-------------------------31
Table 3-7 Measurement Item of Brand Familiarity.----------------------------31
Table 3-8 Selected Respondent's Profiles (CPBL)-----------------------------34
Table 3-9 Selected Respondent's Profiles (SBL)------------------------------35
Table 4-1 Original Measurement Accuracy Analysis Statistics (CPBL)----------39
Table 4-2 Original Measurement Accuracy Analysis Statistics (SBL)-----------40
Table 4-3 Final Measurement Accuracy Analysis Statistics (CPBL)-------------41
Table 4-4 Final Measurement Accuracy Analysis Statistics (SBL)--------------42
Table 4-5 Final Mean, Standard Deviation and Correlation Matrix (CPBL)------43
Table 4-6 Final Mean, Standard Deviation and Correlation Matrix (SBL)-------43
Table 4-7 Final Cross Loading Matrix (CPBL)---------------------------------44
Table 4-8 Final Cross Loading Matrix (SBL)----------------------------------45
Table 4-11 Mediation Testing (CPBL)-----------------------------------------50
Table 4-12 Mediation Testing (SBL)------------------------------------------50


References
Aaker, D. A., & Joachimsthaler, E. (2000). The brand relationship spectrum: The key to the brand architecture challenge. California Management review, 42(4), 8-23.
Aaker, D.A. (1991), Managing Brand Equity, The Free Press, New York, NY.
Aaker, J. L. (1997). Dimensions of brand personality. Journal of Marketing Research, 347-356.
Alden, D. L., Steenkamp, J. B. E., & Batra, R. (2006). Consumer attitudes toward marketplace globalization: Structure, antecedents and consequences. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 23(3), 227-239.
Alexandris, K., Tsiotsou, R. H., & James, J. D. (2012). Testing a hierarchy of effects model of sponsorship effectiveness. Journal of Sport Management, 26(5), 363-378.
Anridho, N., & Liao, Y. K. (2013). The Mediation Roles of Brand Credibility and Attitude on the Performance of Cause-Related Marketing. International Journal Of Social Sciences & Education, 4(1), 226-276.
Batra, R., Ramaswamy, V., Alden, D. L., Steenkamp, J. B. E., & Ramachander, S. (2000). Effects of brand local and non-local origin on consumer attitudes in developing countries. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 9(2), 83-95.
Becker-Olsen, K. L., & Hill, R. P. (2006). The Impact of Sponsor Fit on Brand Equity The Case of Nonprofit Service Providers. Journal of Service Research, 9(1), 73-83.
Bidmon, S. (2017). How does attachment style influence the brand attachment–brand trust and brand loyalty chain in adolescents? International Journal of Advertising, 36(1), 164-189.
Biel, A. L. (1997). Discovering brand magic: the hardness of the softer side of branding. International Journal of Advertising, 16(3), 199-210.
Chavanat, N., Martinent, G., & Ferrand, A. (2009). Sponsor and sponsees interactions: Effects on consumers’ perceptions of brand image, brand attachment, and purchasing intention. Journal of Sport Management, 23(5), 644-670.
Chin, W. W. (1998). The partial least squares approach to structural equation modeling. Modern Methods for Business Research, 295(2), 295-336.
Cornwell, T. B., & Maignan, I. (1998). An international review of sponsorship research. Journal of Advertising, 27(1), 1-21.
Cornwell, T. B., Roy, D. P., & Steinard, E. A. (2001). Exploring managers' perceptions of the impact of sponsorship on brand equity. Journal of Advertising, 30(2), 41-51.
Cornwell, T. B., Weeks, C. S., & Roy, D. P. (2005). Sponsorship-linked marketing: Opening the black box. Journal of Advertising, 34(2), 21-42.
Davies, F., Veloutsou, C., & Costa, A. (2006). Investigating the influence of a joint sponsorship of rival teams on supporter attitudes and brand preferences. Journal of Marketing Communications, 12(1), 31-48.
Demir, R., & Söderman, S. (2015). Strategic sponsoring in professional sport: a review and conceptualization. European Sport Management Quarterly, 15(3), 271-300.
Do, H., Ko, E., & Woodside, A. G. (2015). Tiger Woods, Nike, and I are (not) best friends: how brand's sports sponsorship in social-media impacts brand consumer's congruity and relationship quality. International Journal of Advertising, 34(4), 658-677.
Erdem, T., & Swait, J. (1998). Brand equity as a signaling phenomenon. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 7(2), 131-157.
Erdem, T., & Swait, J. (2004). Brand credibility, brand consideration, and choice. Journal of Consumer Research, 31(1), 191-198.
Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(3), 39–50.
Frederick, H., & Patil, S. (2010). The dynamics of brand equity, co-branding and sponsorship in professional sports. International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing, 7(1-2), 44-57.
Grohs, R. (2016). Drivers of brand image improvement in sports-event sponsorship. International Journal of Advertising, 35(3), 391-420.
Gwinner, K., & Swanson, S. R. (2003). A model of fan identification: Antecedents and sponsorship outcomes. Journal of Services Marketing, 17(3), 275-294.
H. Tsiotsou, R. (2013). Sport team loyalty: integrating relationship marketing and a hierarchy of effects. Journal of Services Marketing, 27(6), 458-471.
Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C., & Sarstedt, M. (2014). A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). Los Angeles: SAGE.
Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2013). Editorial-partial least squares structural equation modeling: Rigorous applications, better results and higher acceptance. Long Range Planning, 46(1-2), 1-12.
Henseler, J., Wilson, B., Götz, O., & Hautvast, C. (2007). Investigating the moderating role of fit on sports sponsorship and brand equity. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, 8(4), 34-42.
H'ng, Y. V., & Yazdanifard, R. (2014). How Does Sponsorship Marketing in Korean Dramas Bring in Lucrative Business?. International Business Research, 8(1), 183.
Hur, W. M., Kim, H., & Woo, J. (2014). How CSR leads to corporate brand equity: Mediating mechanisms of corporate brand credibility and reputation. Journal of Business Ethics, 125(1), 75-86.
IEG (2000). Year One of IRL Title Builds Traffic, Awareness for Northern Light. IEG Sponsorship Report, 19 (23), 1–3.
Japutra, A., Ekinci, Y., & Simkin, L. (2014). Exploring brand attachment, its determinants and outcomes. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 22(7), 616-630.
Johar, G.V. & Pham, M.T. (1999) Relatedness, prominence, and constructive sponsor identification. Journal of Marketing Research, 36(3), 299-312.
Kapferer, J. N. (2005). The post-global brand. Journal of Brand Management, 12(5), 319-324.
Keller, K. L. (1993). Conceptualizing, measuring, and managing customer-based brand equity. Journal of Marketing, 57(1), 1-22.
Keller, K. L. (2003). Brand synthesis: The multidimensionality of brand knowledge. Journal of Consumer Research, 29(4), 595-600.
Kressmann, F., Sirgy, M. J., Herrmann, A., Huber, F., Huber, S., & Lee, D. J. (2006). Direct and indirect effects of self-image congruence on brand loyalty. Journal of Business Research, 59(9), 955-964.
Levin, A. M., Joiner, C., & Cameron, G. (2001). The impact of sports sponsorship on consumers' brand attitudes and recall: The case of NASCAR fans. Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising, 23(2), 23-31.
Love, E., Staton, M., & Rotman, J. D. (2016). Loyalty as a matter of principle: the influence of standards of judgment on customer loyalty. Marketing Letters, 27(4), 661-674.
Madrigal, R. (2001). Social identity effects in a belief–attitude–intentions hierarchy: Implications for corporate sponsorship. Psychology & Marketing, 18(2), 145-165.
Malhotra, N. K. (1981). A scale to measure self-concepts, person concepts, and product concepts. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(4), 456-464.
Malhotra, N. K. (1988). Self concept and product choice: An integrated perspective. Journal of Economic Psychology, 9(1), 1-28.
Mazodier, M., & Merunka, D. (2012). Achieving brand loyalty through sponsorship: the role of fit and self-congruity. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 40(6), 807-820.
Meenaghan, T. (2001). Understanding sponsorship effects. Psychology & Marketing, 18(2), 95-122.
Meng-Lewis, Y., Thwaites, D., & Pillai, K. G. (2014). Effectiveness of Olympic sponsorship by foreign and domestic companies: the influential role of consumer ethnocentrism. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, 15(2), 30-46.
Nam, J., Ekinci, Y., & Whyatt, G. (2011). Brand equity, brand loyalty and consumer satisfaction. Annals of Tourism Research, 38(3), 1009-1030.
Olson, E. L. (2010). Does sponsorship work in the same way in different sponsorship contexts? European Journal of Marketing, 44(1/2), 180-199.
Özsomer, A. (2012). The interplay between global and local brands: A closer look at perceived brand globalness and local iconness. Journal of International Marketing, 20(2), 72-95.
Özsomer, A., & Altaras, S. (2008). Global brand purchase likelihood: A critical synthesis and an integrated conceptual framework. Journal of International Marketing, 16(4), 1-28.
Park, C.W., MacInnis, D.J. & Priester, J. (2006). Brand attachment: construct, consequences, and causes. Foundation and Trends in Marketing, 1(3), 191-230.
Petrovici, D., Shan, Y., Gorton, M., & Ford, J. (2015). Patriot games? Determinants of responses to Chinese and foreign sponsors of the Beijing Olympics. Journal of Business Research, 68(6), 1324-1331.
Rifon, N. J., Choi, S. M., Trimble, C. S., & Li, H. (2004). Congruence effects in sponsorship: The mediating role of sponsor credibility and consumer attributions of sponsor motive. Journal of Advertising, 33(1), 30-42.
Rifon, N. J., Choi, S. M., Trimble, C. S., & Li, H. (2004). Congruence effects in sponsorship: The mediating role of sponsor credibility and consumer attributions of sponsor motive. Journal of Advertising, 33(1), 30-42.
Roy, D. P., & Bettina Cornwell, T. (2003). Brand equity's influence on responses to event sponsorships. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 12(6), 377-393.
Ruth, J. A., & Simonin, B. L. (2003). Brought to you by Brand A and Brand B: Investigating multiple sponsors’ influence on consumers’ attitudes toward sponsored events. Journal of Advertising, 32(3), 19-30.
Schuiling, I., & Kapferer, J. N. (2004). Executive insights: real differences between local and international brands: strategic implications for international marketers. Journal of International Marketing, 12(4), 97-112.
Sichtmann, C., & Diamantopoulos, A. (2013). The impact of perceived brand globalness, brand origin image, and brand origin–extension fit on brand extension success. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 41(5), 567-585.
Sirgy, J. M. (1986). Self-congruity: Toward a theory of personality and cybernetics. New York, NY: Preager.
Sirgy, M. J. (1982). Self-concept in consumer behavior: A critical review. Journal of Consumer Research, 9(3), 287-300.
Sirgy, M. J., Grewal, D., Mangleburg, T. F., Park, J. O., Chon, K. S., Claiborne, C. B., ... & Berkman, H. (1997). Assessing the predictive validity of two methods of measuring self-image congruence. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 25(3), 229-241.
Sirgy, M. J., Lee, D. J., Johar, J. S., & Tidwell, J. (2008). Effect of self-congruity with sponsorship on brand loyalty. Journal of Business Research, 61(10), 1091-1097.
Speed, R., & Thompson, P. (2000). Determinants of sports sponsorship response. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28(2), 226-238.
Steenkamp, J. B. E., Batra, R., & Alden, D. L. (2003). How perceived brand globalness creates brand value. Journal of International Business Studies, 34(1), 53-65.
Swoboda, B., Pennemann, K., & Taube, M. (2012). The effects of perceived brand globalness and perceived brand localness in China: Empirical evidence on western, Asian, and domestic retailers. Journal of International Marketing, 20(4), 72-95.
Tsai, S. P. (2011). Fostering international brand loyalty through committed and attached relationships. International Business Review, 20(5), 521-534.
Tsiotsou, R. H., Alexandris, K., & Bettina Cornwell, T. (2014). Using evaluative conditioning to explain corporate co-branding in the context of sport sponsorship. International Journal of Advertising, 33(2), 295-327.
Tsiotsou, R., & Alexandris, K. (2009). Delineating the outcomes of sponsorship: sponsor image, word of mouth, and purchase intentions. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 37(4), 358-369.
Tsiotsou, R.H., Alexandris, J., & Cornwell, T.B. (2014) Using evaluative conditioning to explain corporate co-branding in the context of sport sponsorship, International Journal of Advertising, 33(2), 295-327
Wang, M. C. H., & Wang, M. C. H. (2017). Investigating the different congruence effects on sports sponsor brand equity. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, 18(2), 196-211.
Wang, M. C. H., Cheng, J. M. S., Purwanto, B. A., & Erimurti, K. (2011). The determinants of the sports team sponsor’s brand equity. International Journal of Market Research, 53(6), 811-829.
Wear, H., Heere, B., & Clopton, A. (2016). Are They Wearing Their Pride on Their Sleeve? Examining the Impact of Team and University Identification upon Brand Equity. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 25(2), 79.
Westberg, K., & Pope, N. (2014). Building brand equity with cause-related marketing: A comparison with sponsorship and sales promotion. Journal of Marketing Communications, 20(6), 419-437.
Whan Park, C., MacInnis, D. J., Priester, J., Eisingerich, A. B., & Iacobucci, D. (2010). Brand attachment and brand attitude strength: Conceptual and empirical differentiation of two critical brand equity drivers. Journal of Marketing, 74(6), 1-17.
Xie, Y., Batra, R., & Peng, S. (2015). An extended model of preference formation between global and local brands: The roles of identity expressiveness, trust, and affect. Journal of International Marketing, 23(1), 50-71.
Yoo, B., & Donthu, N. (2001). Developing and validating a multidimensional consumer-based brand equity scale. Journal of Business Research, 52(1), 1-14.
Zhou, L., Yang, Z., & Hui, M. K. (2010). Non-local or local brands? A multi-level investigation into confidence in brand origin identification and its strategic implications. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 38(2), 202-218.

Web Site
IEG (2016a). What sponsors want and where dollars will go in 2016. IEG Sponsorship Report, http://www.sponsorship.com/Resources/What-Sponsors-Want-and-Where-Dollars-Will-Go-in-20.aspx (Accessed 2016/11/18)
IEG (2016b). Worldwide spending on golf to total $1.82 billion in 2016. IEG Sponsorship Report, http://www.sponsorship.com/Latest-Thinking/Sponsorship-Infographics/Worldwide-Spending-On-Golf-To-Total-$1-82-Billion.aspx (Accessed 2016/11/18)
IEG (2016c). Sponsorship spending on the NFL grows 4.4 percent in 2015. IEG Sponsorship Report, http://www.sponsorship.com/Latest-Thinking/Sponsorship-Infographics/Sponsorship-Spending-on-the-NFL-Grows-4-4-Percent.aspx (Accessed 2016/11/18)
IEG (2016d). Global spending on tennis to grow 4.2 percent in 2016. IEG Sponsorship Report, http://www.sponsorship.com/Latest-Thinking/Sponsorship-Infographics/Global-Spending-On-Tennis-To-Grow-4-2-Percent-In-2.aspx (Accessed 2016/11/18)
IEG (2016e). Sponsorship spending on the NBA totals $799 million in 2015-2016 season, IEG Sponsorship Report, http://www.sponsorship.com/Latest-Thinking/Sponsorship-Infographics/Sponsorship-Spending-On-The-NBA-Totals-$799-Millio.aspx (Accessed 2016/11/18)
IEG (2016f). NHL sponsorship revenue totals $477 million in 2015-2016 season. IEG Sponsorship Report, http://www.sponsorship.com/Latest-Thinking/Sponsorship-Infographics/NHL-Sponsorship-Revenue-Totals-$477-Million-In-201.aspx (Accessed 2016/11/18)
IEG (2016g). Sponsorship spending on North American soccer to grow 9.2 percent in 2016. IEG Sponsorship Report, http://www.sponsorship.com/Latest-Thinking/Sponsorship-Infographics/Sponsorship-Spending-On-North-American-Soccer-To-G.aspx (Accessed 2016/11/18)
IEG (2016h). Sponsorship spending on endurance sports to total $125 million in 2016. IEG Sponsorship Report, http://www.sponsorship.com/Latest-Thinking/Sponsorship-Infographics/Sponsorship-Spending-on-Endurance-Sports-to-Total.aspx (Accessed 2016/11/18)
IEG (2017a). Sponsorship Spending Forecast: Continued Growth Around The World. IEG Sponsorship Report, http://www.sponsorship.com/iegsr/2017/01/04/Sponsorship-Spending-Forecast--Continued-Growth-Ar.aspx (Accessed 2017/03/27)
IEG (2017b). In Partnership With Oberto Brands, 7-Eleven To Sponsor Jim Dunn Racing In 2017. IEG Sponsorship Report, http://www.sponsorship.com/News---Information/News/2017/01-January/In-Partnership-With-Oberto-Brands,-7-Eleven-To-Spo.aspx (Accessed 2017/03/27)
IEG (2017c). New Balance Becomes Official Sponsor Of The Virgin Money London Marathon. IEG Sponsorship Report. http://www.sponsorship.com/News---Information/News/2017/05/New-Balance-Becomes-Official-Sponsor-Of-The-Virgin.aspx (Accessed 2017/03/27)
Statista (2017). Global sponsorship spending by region from 2009 to 2017 (in billion U.S. dollars), https://www.statista.com/statistics/196898/global-sponsorship-spending-by-region-since-2009/ (Accessed 2017/03/27)

QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔