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研究生:梁廷安
研究生(外文):Ling, Ting-An
論文名稱:長照機構背景氣味對訪視者環境與時間知覺影響之研究
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Background Odor on Visitors’ Perception of Environment and Time at Long-term Care Facilities
指導教授:黃榮華黃榮華引用關係李禮孟李禮孟引用關係
指導教授(外文):Huang, Rong-HwaLee, Lee-Men
口試委員:余舜基萬天龍李禮孟黃榮華
口試委員(外文):Yu, Shun-ChiWan,Tien-LungLee, Lee-MenHuang, Rong-Hwa
口試日期:2017-07-21
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:輔仁大學
系所名稱:企業管理學系管理學碩士班
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:中文
論文頁數:50
中文關鍵詞:長照機構背景氣味環境知覺時間知覺
外文關鍵詞:Long-term Care FacilityBackground OdorEnvironment PerceptionTime Perception
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台灣已符合世界衛生組織的高齡社會定義,老人人口佔總人口數的12%,國人平均壽命延長,長照機構家數年年增加,預計2025年台灣將進入超高齡社會,老人人口將占總人口數20%。長照產業是政府極度重視的產業議題。隨著社會發展與變遷,長照服務不同於傳統醫療的服務模式逐漸被國人所接受。然而過去對長照機構的研究通常關注於機構中長者的居住品質、機構人員的工作意願與職涯規劃、社工或政府該如何輔導機構經營……等。甚少有對機構訪視者和機構環境設計的研究。
環境感知中的背景氣味,透過人體鼻子受器感知,過去的研究已經證實嗅覺是人體五感器官中感知最大的器官;另有過去的研究也發現在醫療院所中,令人感到不舒適的氣味是最需被改善的指標。長照機構中不僅有著醫療院所的氣味,也混和著老人的加齡臭,影響訪視者到機構訪視意願,使人不願多作停留。這樣的環境狀況給訪視者不好的感受,也直接減少了陪伴長者的時間,間接影響機構營運的績效。
本研究為跨領域的研究,結合長照機構研究領域與環境心理學研究領域。將探討長照機構中背景氣味對訪視者的環境與時間知覺影響,透過三向度情緒模式理論製成的心理量表來衡量訪視者在不同背景氣味情況下的環境知覺,並以問卷填答的方式來計算訪視者在不同背景氣味情況下的時間知覺。
本研究結果發現,在不同的背景氣味下時,訪視者的環境知覺有顯著影響;在不同的背景氣味下時,訪視者的時間知覺有顯著影響,而且在置放備長炭與釋放香氣時,訪視者平均停留時間有顯著增加,更可以推測出時間知覺的長短代表訪視意願的高低。研究結果顯示背景氣味在訪視者的訪視意願與停留時間是有重大影響。在長照機構設施佈置上,經營者可參考本研究結果,對機構環境管理決策時有方案可使用。

Taiwan has reached the standard of “aging society”, with around 12% of aged population, defined by World Health Organization (WHO). The number of long-term care facilities is increasing due to the extension of average life expectancy in Taiwan. It is expected that by 2015, Taiwan will become a hyper-aged society and the aged population will be 20%. With developments of the society, Taiwanese citizens gradually accept the service pattern of long-term facilities, which is different from the traditional services in the health care system. However, few researches addressed the issue regarding the environment of long-term care facilities, workers’ willingness of working and their career plans, and how volunteers or the government can help and guide operating the facilities. Even fewer researches focus on visitors in the long-term care facilities and on the environment of facilities.
Background odor of the environment can be sensed by the nose receptor of human body. There are researches done in the past has proved that olfaction is the biggest organ in human’s five sensory systems. There are also other studies pointed out that uncomfortable odor should be improved on the top priority. The background odor in a long-term facility is mixed with the ambient odor of facilities and the aging odor that can influence visitors’ willingness of visiting facilities. This environmental circumstance leaves visitors bad impressions, directly decreasing visitors’ staying time with the elders in the facilities and indirectly further affecting the operating performance.
This is an interdisciplinary study, combing researches in the fileds of long-term care and environmental psychology. The study will discusses the effect of background odor in visitor’s cognitions of environment and time at long-term care facilities through the measurement based on Psychological scale in PAD (Pleasure–Arousal–Dominance) emotion theory to evaluate visitors’ environmental cognitions under different background odors, and using questionnaire to measure visitors’ time cognitions respectively.
The result of the study uncovers that while visitors being in different background odors, their cognitions of environment are significantly affected; while visitors being in different background odors, their cognitions of time are significantly affected as well. Moreover, when facilities put bincho charcol which emits scents, there is a significant increment in visitors’ cognitions of time on average. Visitors’ cognitions of time correspond to the extent of their willingness to visit. The study indicates that background odor is a meaningful influence in visitors’ time of visiting and their willingness to visit long-term care facilities. In terms of the installations of equipment in the long-term care facilities, operators can refer to the result of this study while making decisions related to environmental management.

目 錄

第壹章 緒論 1
第一節 問題背景與研究動機 1
第二節 研究目的 2
第三節 研究範圍與限制 3
第四節 研究流程 4
第貳章 文獻探討 5
第一節 長照機構 5
第二節 環境知覺 6
第三節 時間知覺 8
第四節 背景氣味 9
第參章 研究方法 14
第一節 研究架構 14
第二節 定義變數與衡量方式 14
第三節 研究假設 15
第四節 研究對象 16
第五節 研究工具 16
第六節 實驗設計與流程 18
第肆章 實驗結果與資料分析 20
第一節 實驗樣本敘述性統計 20
第三節 背景氣味對訪視者環境知覺分析之結果 24
第四節 背景氣味對訪視者時間知覺分析之結果 26
第五節 背景氣味對訪視者實際停留時間分析之結果 29
第六節 背景氣味對訪視者時間知覺與實際停留時間分析之結果 31
第七節 背景氣味對訪視者訪視與停留意願分析之結果 32
第伍章 結論與建議 34
第一節 結論 34
第三節 後續研究建議 35
參考文獻 37
附錄一 研究問卷 48

表 目 錄
表3-6-1實驗流程表 19
表4-1-1基本資料敘述性統計表 20
表4-2-1假設一檢定表 21
表4-2-2假設二檢定表 22
表4-2-3假設三檢定表 22
表4-2-4假設四檢定表 23
表4-2-5假設五檢定表 23
表4-3-1情境一的樣本資料對比 24
表4-3-2情境一的獨立樣本t檢定 24
表4-3-3情境二的樣本資料對比 25
表4-3-4情境二的獨立樣本t檢定 25
表4-3-5情境三的樣本資料對比 26
表4-3-6情境三的獨立樣本t檢定 26
表4-4-1情境一的樣本對比 27
表4-4-2情境一的獨立樣本t檢定 27
表4-4-3情境二的樣本對比 28
表4-4-4情境二的獨立樣本t檢定 28
表4-4-5情境三的樣本對比 28
表4-4-6情境三的獨立樣本t檢定 28
表4-5-1情境一的樣本對比 29
表4-5-2情境一的獨立樣本t檢定 29
表4-5-3情境二的樣本對比 29
表4-5-4情境二的獨立樣本t檢定 30
表4-5-5情境三的樣本對比 30
表4-5-6情境三的獨立樣本t檢定 30
表4-6-1情境一的成對樣本t檢定 31
表4-6-2情境二的成對樣本t檢定 31
表4-6-3情境三的成對樣本t檢定 32
表5-2-1假說檢定結果表 35

圖 目 錄
圖1-4-1研究流程圖 4
圖3-3-1研究架構圖 14
圖3-5-1研究工具配置圖 17
圖4-4-1實際時間與時間知覺分析圖 27
圖4-7-1長照機構背景氣味影響訪視意願程度分布圖 32
圖4-7-2長照機構背景氣味影響停留時間程度分布圖 33






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