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研究生:釋明圓
研究生(外文):REV. HINGULWALA PUNNAJI THERO
論文名稱:佛教禪學中「隨念」修行之研究 ~ 巴利經典為主
論文名稱(外文):A Study of the Practice of Recollections (Anussati) in Buddhist Meditation
指導教授:釋仁朗 / 莊國彬
指導教授(外文):Shi Jen-Lang / Chuang Kuo-pin
口試委員:高柏園 / 林崇安 / 黃柏棋 / 陳敏齡 / 釋仁朗
口試委員(外文):Kao Po-yuan / Lin Chung An / Huang, Po-chi / Chen Miin Ling / Shi Jen-Lang
口試日期:2016-11-15
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:華梵大學
系所名稱:東方人文思想研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:區域研究學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:英文
論文頁數:235
中文關鍵詞:佛教禪學
外文關鍵詞:Buddhist Meditation
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佛教禪學中「隨念」修行之研究以巴利經典為主軸,標題主要帶出所研究之題材即是以巴利經典中「隨念」的佛教禪學來探究。在巴利經典中,早期已經有了「隨念」的記載,隨著文典記載,在現今修行法門中,「隨念」的修行方法,往往較不受到重視。禪修本來是一體的,後來開始分類,因此有了「戒」、「定」、「慧」的各種廣大修行路線,然而每個系統都有自己重視的修行法門。因此很可能在修行方法上,只專注修行法門的差異性,而影響到後來的「隨念」修行法門,所以在禪修法門中,上座部的禪門詮釋與學術界中的探討,都有出現「隨念」法門被忽略狀態。甚至在近代,有些上座部的禪門中,變成「隨念」法門是多餘的修行,或是堪稱為不需要的一個法門。如此的狀況下,對於「隨念」出現了重要的一個疑問,就是假若「隨念」是多餘的或是不需要修行,那麼在經文中,佛陀為什麼提出「隨念」修行呢?佛陀提到的修行,通常是跟解脫道會有明確的關係,因此「隨念」跟解脫道有怎樣的關係呢?我們認為這是值得研究的一個主題。另外,以筆者的觀察,目前在學術界,沒有找到確切相關研究的主題,因此發現以「隨念」為研究主題是有意義的。所以筆者想要研究此主題成為論述的主軸。因此如以上所述標題,是本文研究核心與目標,即以巴利經典中的「隨念」佛教禪學為主要研究。
Though recollection (Anussati) meditation practice is included under Buddhist meditation in Nikayas, but we cannot see that it has a proper place within the latter stages, whether in the academic circles or practical aspects.
Most constituency of the Theravada Buddhist tradition had accepted Visuddhimagga as a proper and necessary meditation guide book, for meditation practitioners. All ten Anussatis are elaborately discoursed in the Visuddhimagga among the list of forty objects of mindfulness meditation or Vipassanā. ‘Anussati’ do not strictly come under the category of ‘Vipassanā-meditation’ for the practice does not involve any kind of investigating or inquiry related to highest wisdom. The initial purpose was to generate confidence, faith, and even to stabilize a shaky mind. So, according to the Visuddhimagga, these are not for the purpose of developing deep concentration, and hence, it's primary and wider usage, do not lead to complete attainment of one-pointedness of the mind. Hence, according to such define, it has given just a very limited value for the Anussati as a meditation method.
At present, some meditation masters and followers, such as Mahasi etc. traditions, unanimously agreed that Vipassāna meditation technique is the only way to enlightenment. Further, they highlight Samatha meditation as a unnecessary practice and is seen as a waste of time for the practitioners. Because Anussati belongs to Samatha practice, thus Anussati also voluntarily become unnecessary or a useless practice. With this situation, it appears a very important question that, if Anussati is an unnecessary practice, why did the Buddha discoursed Anussati as a meditation method? Because most of the Buddha's teachings has a clear relationship with liberation path. Then Anussati also should have particular relation with the path. So in this dissertation, we examine the real value of the Anussati through the Pāli Suttas, whether it is a meaningless practice or not; whether it has any relation or support to the path of enlightenment; and this meditation mothered is suitable for what type of persons usage.

Content
Acknowledgements ………………………..…....…………………….. ………..............i
Abstract ………………………..……………....…...……….. ………............................ii
論文主旨…………………………………………….....………………………...….......v
Content ……………………………………………………………..….......................xvii
Tables and carts …………………………………………………………..….............xxiv
Abbreviations……………………………………………………………….................xxv

Chapter 1
Introduction
1. 1. Preliminary Observation…………………………………........…....…………1
1. 2. Scope of the Study……………………………………………….......…......…2
1. 3. Research Problem………………………………………………….......……...2
1. 4. Statement of Justification………………………………………………..........4
1. 5. Methodology………………………………………………………….......…...5
1. 6. Literature Review…………………………………………………......………5
1. 6. 1. Primary sources…………………………………………….…………5
1. 6. 2. Secondary Sources …………………………………………....………8
1. 7. Aims and Objectives……………………………………………………....…13
1. 8. The Structure of This Dissertation ……………………….……………….…13

Chapter 2
The Role and Place of Anussati in The Theravāda Meditation Practice
2. 1. Preliminary observations ………………………………………...….………16
2. 2. Samatha Vipassanā dichotomy …………………………………...…………16
2. 3. Anussati in the Nikāyas ……………………………………………..………20
2. 3. 1. Dīghanikāya …………………………………………………..……..20
2. 3. 2. Aṅguttaranikāya………………………………………………..…….22
2. 3. 2. 1. Ekaka-nipāta……………………………………………..…..22
2. 3. 2. 2. Cakka-nipāta……………………………………………..…..29
i. Anussatiṭṭāna Sutta, ……………………………………………….29
ii. Mahānāma Sutta (Buddhānussati, Dhammānussati, Saṅghānussati, Sīlānussati, Cāgānussati, Devatānussati ), ……………………....30
iii. Anussatiṭṭāna sutta in Aṅuttariyāyavagga………………………..41
iv. Mahākaccāyana sutta……………………………………………..42
v. Udāyi Sutta………………………………………………………...44
vi. Rāgādipeyyāla sutta……………………………………………....47
2. 3. 2. 3. Dasakanipāta ………………………………………………...48
2. 3. 2. 4. Ekādasanipāta ……………………………………………….49
i. Paṭama Mahānāma sutta…………………………………………...49
ii. Dutiya Mahānāma Sutta…………………………………………..51
iii. Nandiya sutta……………………………………………………..52
iv. A summary for Anussati in the Nikāyas ………………………….55
2. 3. 3. The Anussatis in Visuddhimagga ……………………………....58
2. 4. Summary for Chapter two……………………………………………...65

Chapter 3
The Development of Anussati
3. 1. Introduction ……………………………………………………….......…….67
3. 2. Development of the Concept and Practice …………………………..….......68
3. 3. First Three Anussatis …………………………………………………..........68
3. 3. 1. Taking Refuge ………………………………………………….........68
3. 3. 2. Sraddhā Between in Tisarana and Anussati ……………………........71
3. 4. The Fourth Anussati ……………………………………………….......…….74
3. 4. 1. Sīlanussati in Sources ………………………………………….........75
3. 4. 2. Sīlā Practice ………………………………………………….......….75
3. 4. 3. Sīlā as a Meditative Object …………………………………….........77
3. 4. 4. Differences and Similarities of Sīlanussati with the First Three Anussatis ……………………………………………………….........78
i. Similarity ………………………………………………………….........79
ii. Differences …………………………………………………….......…..79
3. 4. 5. Sīlānussati and Jhānas ……………………………………….......….80
3. 5. The fifth Anussati ……………………………………………………….......83
3. 5. 1. Cāgānussati in Sources ………………………………………......….83
3. 5. 2. From Dāna to Cāga …………………………………………….........84
3. 5. 3. Cāga as a Meditative Object …………………………………….......86
3. 5. 4. Similarities and Differences Between the Cāgānussati and Other Objects of Six Anussatis ……………………………………........….88
i. Similarity ………………………………………………………..….......88
ii. Differences …………………………………………………...….....….90
3. 5. 5. Cāgānussati and Jhānas ………………………………………......…91
3. 5. 6. Cāgānussati and Pāramī ……..……………………………...…........93
3. 6. The Sixth Anussati ……………………………………………….……........ 94
3. 6. 1. Sources …………………………………………………………....... 94
3. 6. 2. Buddhist Teaching and Gods ……………………………….........….96
3. 6. 3. Heavenly Birth as a Goal ………………………………….…….......97
3. 6. 4. Devatānussati as a Meditative Object ……………………...….......99
3. 6. 5. Question Similarity and Differences ……………………………....100
i. Similarity ………………………………………………………….......100
ii. Differences (The Saṃsaric Existence, Lay Followers Concern, Transformation from God-Belief Concept to Spiritual Practice) ……………………………………………………………... 102
3. 7. The Identity of the Anussati Practitioner …………………............………. 105
3. 7. 1. Introductory Remarks …………………………………………. 105
3. 7. 2. As a Practice for Laity……………………………………...……. 106
3. 7. 3. As a Practice for Monks…………………………………………. 107
3. 7. 4. As a Practice for Noble Disciples…………………………..……. 108
3. 7. 5. A Common Feature of The Identity…………………………..…. 109
3. 7. Summary for Chapter Three……………………………………..…. 110

Chapter 4
The Relationship of the Anussati Practice between Dhammānusārī and Saddhānusārī
4. 1. Introduction ………………………………………………………….....…. 112
4. 2. Sources ……………………………………………………………….….... 113
4. 3. The Characteristic of The Dhammānusarī and Saddhānusarī ……………..117
4. 3. 1. The Characteristic of The Dhammānusarī …………………..……..117
4. 3. 2. The Practice of The Dhammānusārī ……………………………….118
4. 3. 3. The Practice of The Saddhānusārī ……………………………...….120
4. 4. Differences of The Two Anusārīn ………………………………………….121
4. 4. 1. The Major Differences ……………………………………………..121
4. 4. 2. The Differences of Carittas as a Special Characteristic ………...…124
4. 4. 3. Different Meditation Methods for Dhammasārī and Saddhanisārī. 127
4. 5. Another Aspect of Practice of Saddhānusārī …………………………..…..130
4. 6. The Directions of Liberation of the Two Anusārin. …….…………....…….135
4. 7. The Relation between Saddhānusāri and Anussati ………………….…….138
4. 8. Conclusion …………………………………………………………...…….141

Chapter 5
The Last Four Objects in Ten Anussati and Sati as Meditation Technique
5. 1. Introduction …………………………………………………………....…..143
5. 2. The Function of Sati in Buddhist Meditation ………………………….......144
5. 2. 1. Definition of Sati …………………………………………………....144
5. 2. 2. The Initial State of Sati …………………………………………...…..144
5. 2. 3. Sati as a Special Development Condition Towards The Path to Liberation………………………………………………………….......145
5. 3. The Function of Anussati in Buddhist Meditation ……………………….148
5. 3. 1. Definition of Anussati ………………………………………………...148
5. 3. 2. The Function of Anussati ………………………………………..........149
5. 3. 3. The Differences between Sati and Anussati…………………………..151
5. 4. The Methods of the Last Four Meditation Objects in the Ten Anussati…....153
5. 4. 1. Confusion on the Additional Last Four Objects in the Ten Anussati …………………………………………………................153
5. 4. 2. The Confidence and Last Four Objects in Ten Anussati …………..155
5. 4. 2. 1. Recollection Regarding Death (Maraṇānussati) …………….…...156
5. 4. 2. 2. Recollection Regarding the Body (Kāyagatāsati) ……………......160
5. 4. 2. 3. The Different Practicing Distinctions of Recollection Regarding Breathing (Ānāpānasati) ……………………………………………………………...164
5. 4. 2. 4. The Recollection of Pacification (Upasamānussati) …………………………………………………………….............166
5. 4. Summary for Chapter Five ……………………………………….........…..170

Chapter 6
Multiple Significance of the Practice of Anussati
6. 1. Introduction …………………………………………………………..……171
6. 2. Buddhānussati………………………………………………………….…..174
6. 3. Sīlānussati and Cāgānussati ……………………………………………..…177
6. 4. Devatānussati ………………………………………………………..……..181
6. 5. The Subsequent Four Additions to Anussati ………………………….…....182
6. 6. Samatha and Anussati ………………………………………………….......185
6. 7. Practice of Anussati and Realization of Nibbāna ………………….......…..187
6. 8. Summary for Chapter Six …………………………………………….........143

Chapter 7
Conclusion
7. 1. The Common Position of Anussati in Present Study………………….........194
7. 2. The Main Achievement of This Paper ……………………………………..195
7. 3. Some Related Issues of Anussati in This Dissertation ……………………..196
7. 3. 1. Practice for Lay followers ………………………………………........196
7. 3. 2. An Applicable Aspect of Devatānussati in a Modern Social Problem ……………………………………………………………....196
7. 3. 3. An Examination of the Difference between Anussati and Sati ……….197
7. 3. 4. Different Explanation on the Utilization of Anussati between Suttapiṭaka and Visuddhimagga ………………………………….......……………198
7. 3. 5. The Three Types of Practitioners …………………………………......199
7. 4. Limitation of This Dissertation ………………………………………….....199
7. 5. Future Notes…………………………………………………….……........ 200

Bibliography……………………………………….…………………………………202
TC-16 Anussati Context in Different Suttas ...……………………………….……….211
Glossary…………………………………………………………………………….…220


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釋印海譯倬著,《止觀方法及其實踐之研究》,中華彩色印刷,台北,2005年。
釋寶靜《摩訶止觀述記》,止觀弘法印經處,美國,1995年。
《摩訶止觀》,佛光,高雄,1997年。
《摩訶止觀》,湛然寺,台南,民84年。
《大乘止觀釋要》,湛然寺,台南,民83年。
釋智者《摩訶止觀輔行傳弘決》,湛然寺,台南,民82年。
《四念處小止觀》,湛然寺,台南,1995年。
《阿含經止觀》,圓明出版,1995年。
釋智顗《修習止觀坐禪法要講述》,圓明出版,86年。

Journals and Magazine
Bhikkhu Bodhi, ‘What Does Mindfulness Really Mean? A canonical perspective’, Contemporary Buddhism: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 12:01, 2011(pp19-39).
Ethan Mills, Cultivation of Moral Concern in Theravāda Buddhism: Toward a Theory of the Relation Between Tranquility and Insight, Journal of Buddhist Ethics, Vol. 11, 2004, (pp. 20-45).
Griffiths, Paul, “Concentration or Insight: The Problematic of Theravada Buddhist Meditation-Theory”, Journal of the American Academy of Religion Vol. 49, No. 1, 1981.
Griffiths Paul J. (Frank Hoffman), On Being Mindless: Buddhist Meditation and the Mind-Body Problem, Journal of The International Association of Buddhist Studies, Vol. 11, Number 2, USA, 1988.
Kuo-pin Chuang, On the Perfection of Giving According to the Cariyāpiṭaka, 圓光佛學學報 第十六期, p. 54-82.
Tsai - Yao Ming (蔡耀明),“A Reflection on Buddhist Approaches to the Mind-Body Relationship,” presented at the International Workshop on the Research of Chinese Philosophy in Japan and Taiwan: With Critical Retrospections and Future Prospects, in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, held by Harvard-Yenching Institute, Harvard University, March 20, 2010-2009 (p. 22) .
Tsai - Yao Ming (蔡耀明),<《大般若經》的佛隨念>,《第二屆兩岸禪學研討會論文集》,台中:慈光禪學研就所,1999年10月。(pp. 275-310)
Tsai - Yao Ming (蔡耀明),《阿含經》的禪修在解脫道的多重功能:附記「色界四禪」的述句與禪定支>,《正觀》第20期,2002年3月。(pp. 83-140)
Tsai - Yao Ming (蔡耀明),《大般若經.第十五會.靜慮波羅蜜多分》的禪修教授,Chung-Hwa Buddhist Journal, No. 17, Taipei: The Chung-Hwa Institute of Buddhist Studies, 2004.
Tsai - Yao Ming (蔡耀明),《阿含經》的禪修在解脫道的多重功能:附記「色界四禪」的述句與禪定支〉與〈「佛教禪定學」課程設計〉,《東海哲學研究集刊》第17輯,2012年7月 。(pp 3-33)
Tsai - Yao Ming (蔡耀明),<《首楞嚴三昧經》的禪定設計>,《法鼓人文學報》第3期,2006年12月。(pp. 135-162)
Song Tian Shen松田慎也, 「關於隨念論的發展」『印度學佛教學研教究』(The Indian Buddhist Studies) 54, 1979/03/31
釋果暉〈從隨念anussati到三昧定samadhi的展開〉《護僧雜誌》,高雄,第28期,2002.07.15。

Websites
“The way of Silent Mind-Open Heart” http://www.silentmindopenheart.org/Talks/2013-05-05%20Mindfulness.pdf (Retrieved on 2013/10/12)

“Urban Dharma ___Buddhism in America” http://www.urbandharma.org/pdf/mills0301med.pdf" (Retrieved on 2013/10/20)

“Wikipedia”, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahasi_Sayadaw (Retrieved on 2013/10/22)
http://cbssa.myweb.hinet.net/htm/articles/28-1.htm


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